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WORTH CAROIMA STATE LIBRARY 
HALeOH 



^6' 



NORTH CAPiai3iA STAT2 UBRAR'*^ 



Colonels of the Sixth Regiment 





Charles F. Fisher 
Colonel 




W. D. Pender 

Colonel 




Isaac Erwin Avery 

Colonel 



R. F. Webb 

ColoTiel 



The Bloody Sixth 

The Sixth North Carolina Regiment 
Confederate States of America 



History by 
RICHARD W. lOBST 

Roster by 
LOUIS H. MANARIN 



AVith a Narrative on the Reactivated Regiment 
by ^Vade Lucas 



Copyright 1965 

North Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission 
Raleigh 

Librai7 of Congress Catalog Card No. 65-63474 



Printed in United States of America 
Cliristian Printing Company, Durham, N. C. 



THE BLOODY SIXTH 

Table of Contents 

THE SIXTH NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENT 

Histoiy 

Preface xi 

Acknowledgments xiii 

Prologue XV 

I. A Regiment Is Organized 3 

II. On to Manassas 15 

III. Manassas 20 

IV. A New Colonel Takes Command 28 

V. Camp Fisher 35 

Yl. A Regiment Leaves for Richmond 53 

VII. In the Peninsula 63 

MIL From Richmond to Fredericksbing 85 

IX. Into the Enemy's Coinitry 107 

X. Rappahannock Station: A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 142 

XI. Plymouth: A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 171 

XII. In the Field Against Sheridan 203 

XIII. Fort Stedman: One Last Try 240 

Epilogue 259 

Appendixes 263 

Bibliographical Essay 268 

THE SIXTH NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENT 

Roster 

Preface 277 

Introduction! 279 

Roster 283 

Index 451 

The Reactivated Sixth North Carolina Regiment, 
State Troops 

Illustrations 479 

The Reactivated Sixth North Carolina Regiment, State Troops .487 



The Sixth North Carolina Regiment 

History 



by 
Richard W. lobst 



To my wife, Mary 

and to Cliff and George 

who each contributed much 

to this book. 



Preface 

The Bloody Sixth is not a study in group dynamics, nor is it an 
attempt to tell the story of North Carolina's troops in the Civil War. 
Instead, it is the histoi-y of a single regiment, the Sixth North Caro- 
lina State Troops, from its conception at Company's Shops (modern 
Burlington), North Carolina on May 16, 1861 to its surrender at 
Appomattox Court House, Virginia on April 9, 1865. There are no 
footnotes included, due to lack of sufficient funds. Instead, the foot- 
notes will be available to any interested party upon request to the 
Division of Manuscripts, North Carolina Department of Archives and 
History, Raleigh, North Carolina. Copies of the footnotes will be 
filed with that division and ^\ill be a\ailable to interested researchers. 
.\ bibliographical essay is included at the end of the book. The three 
appendixes concern themselves with the flag of the Sixth Regiment 
and later infonnation uncovered about the early history of some of 
the companies which later composed the regiment, and early records 
of the regiment itself. 

It is intended that this book will be used as a source-book for 
those persons who are interested in learning of the organization and 
activities o£ one of North Carolina's most outstanding Civil \Var 
regiments. 

Richard \V. lobst 
Raleigh, North Carolina 
Mav, 1965 



XI 



Ackno^vledgments 

The writing of a detailed histoi7 of this type would be impossible 
without much assistance. Like most writers, I am indebted to many 
people. Their names are too numerous to mention in this place. 
However, the following persons contributed too much infoi-mation to 
ignore at least an honorable mention: Dr. Christopher Crittenden, 
Director of the North Carolina Department of Archives and History, 
Colonel W. Cliff Elder of the Reactivated Sixth North Carolina Regi- 
ment, Bin-lington, North Carolina, provided a great deal of much- 
graciously read the completed manuscript and offered many helpful 
suggestions; Mr. Norman C. Larson and Mr. Robert W. Jones of the 
North Carolina Confederate Centennial Commission assisted with 
the manuscript and were helpful in the publication of the book; 
needed inspiration and finnished much infomraticHi for the section 
on the Reacti\'ated Sixth North Carolina Regiment: Mr. Ray D. 
Smith, Chicago, Illinois, placed his valuable list of references from 
the Confederate Veteran Magazine at my disposal; Colonel Van White 
of Mebane, North Carolina, furnished valuable infonnation on the 
fight at Rappahannock Bridge; Mr. Herman M. Leonard, Greens- 
boro, North Carolina, was, helpful in detemiining the position and 
results of the charge upon Ricketts' and Griffin's Batteries at First 
Manassas; the staff of the Southern Historical Collection, University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, directed by Dr. James W. Patton, 
graciously permitted unlimited use of their excellent facilities; the 
staff of the Division of Manuscripts, Duke University, under the 
direction of Dr. Mattie Russell, did the same. Mr. H. G. Jones, State 
Archivist for the State of North Carolina, and Mrs. Mary Rogers, in 
charge of the Search Room at the State Department of Archives and 
Histon', permitted the author to use much-needed space in the stacks 
and therefore, save much time. 

The author is especially indebted to the following seven persons 
for valuable assistance, both material and moral: Mr. W. S. Tarlton, 
Superintendent of Historic Sites, North Carolina State Department 
of Archives and History: Mr. John R. Peacock, High Point, North 

xiii 



Carolina; Mr. Brooks Davis, Chicago, Illinois; Mr. Louis H. Manarin, 
Editor, the Roster of North Carolina Troops in the Civil War (to 
be published by the North Carolina Confederate Centennial Com- 
mission) , Arlington, Virginia; my wife, Mary P. lobst, who graciously 
permitted our home to be filled with research materials for such a 
long period; Dr. Hugh T. Lefler, Department of History, University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and to Mr. George D. Colclough, 
Burlington, North Carolina, whose contributions, both in a material 
and inspirational manner, are too numerous to list. I might add that 
this book would not have been possible in its present fomi without 
the able editorial skill of Mrs. Donna Stallings of the North Carolina 
Confederate Centennial Commission. 

Richard W. lobst 
Raleigh, North Carolina 
May, 1965 



XIV 



Prologue 



It all began when angi"\' guns barked over a tiny fort in Charleston 
Harbor. An anxious nation, poised at the brink, was plunged into 
the abyss of civil war. After forty years of bitter sectional crisis, the 
North and the South at last resorted to a test of amis. As soon as he 
received the news of Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln issued 
a call for seventy-five thousand volunteers "to suppress combinations 
too powerful for the militia to resist." North Carolina was asked 
to furnish two regiments of troops. This, Governor John W. Ellis 
refused to do. 

This is not the story of the Civil War. This is the story of a 
group of men, mostly farm boys and mechanics from the red hills of 
piedmont North Carolina, who marched aw'ay to war. They volun- 
teered for the duration of the ^\ar; they went away to fight and to die. 
This is their story — the history of the Sixth North Carolina State 
Troops. 



A Regiment Is Organized 



"The camp was in an old field along the Railroad, just east of the 
shops. It is noxLi a part of the town of Burlington." 

Neill W. Rav, Captain. Sixth North Carolina Regiment. 



On April 17, 1861, North Carolina Governor John W. Ellis is- 
sued a proclamation in reply to President Abraham Lincoln's call for 
75,000 troops. Ellis stated, in terse language, 

. . . this high-handed act of tyrannical outrage is not only 
in violation of all constitutional law, in utter disregard of every 
sentiment of humanity and Christian civilization . . . but is a 
direct step to^vards the subjugation of the whole South. . . .^2^ 

Ellis reminded the citizens of North Carolina that their first loyalty 
was to the state "which protects their homes and dearest interest.'C^) 
The people of North Carolina should defend their state and the 
rights of the whole SoutkiJt ^\as under this example, handed her by 
a secession-minded governor, that North Carolina gravitated toward a 
union with the fledgling Southern Confederacy and war. 

North Carolina already had a ^vej^rganized militia system which 
had been active since colonial days?^^ supplement to this system 
had recently been enacted by the General Assembly. This law estab- 
lished a "volunteer corps" of not more than 10,000 men \yho would 



be subject to the governor's call "in cases of emergency. '^=^he act 
provided for brigade, regimental, and company organization and 
laid the basis for the first ten regiments organized by the state in the 
spring of 1861 f^ 

No one read these acts and proclamations with more interest than 
Charles Frederick Fisher, President of the North Carolina Railroad 
Company and stominent resident of Salisbui^, the coimty seat of 
Rowan CountvwEisher, a tall, slender man ^\ith a scraggiy bronze^^, 
beard, had long been a controversial figure in state business circles, ^*^ 
and \\-as the onlv son of Charles Fisher and his wife, Christina 



4 The Bloody Sixth 

Beard. He had been born in Salisbury on December 26, 1816, in an 
atmosphere of comparative wealth. Young Fisher attended classical 
schools in Salisbury and entered Yale University in 1835, but left 
college in his freshman year for reasons which are not qiute clear. 
He later engaged in agriculture and mining and A\'as "for several 
years associated with Dr. Austin in the publication of the Western 
Carolinian in Salisbury." (g) 

In 1854, Fisher represented Rowan County as a Democrat in the 
North Carolina Senate. He was elected President of the North Caro- 
lina Railroad in 1855, succeeding ex-Governor John M. Morehead. <i2) 
While president of the railroad company, Fisher engaged in the de- 
velopment of the Western North Carolina Railroad, layiVig track to 
a point thirteen miles east of Morganton by August, 1860^^^is career 
as railroad president was a stomiy one. His election to the presidency 
was clouded with charges that the road was nin "in the interests of 
that party (the Democratic Party) and that there was gross mis- 
management. '@Jonathan Worth managed to secure the appointment 
of a committee to investigate these charges in 1858-59; but Fisher ■(vas 
never proved guilty.^!^his controversy did not prevent Fisher from 
being re-elected president of the railroad in July, 1859, "by almost a 
inianimous vote." (^ ^ 

Unfortimately, we know little of Fisher's private lifef^xcept the 
fact that he was happily married to Elizabeth R. Caldwell, a daugh- 
ter of David F. Caldwell. One daughter, Frances Christine, later a 
famous ^vriter under the name of Christian Reid, Avas bom to this 
union. @ 

Charles Fisher was convinced that some day there would be a 
rupture between the North and the South. From 1851 on "the 
thought was always present to him — guiding all his conduct, both in 
his private affairs and in his increasing labors to promote every ^^ 
effort toward the development of the energies of our State and people." (^3 
When the time came he was ready. By 1860 he had "virtually en- 
rolled" many young men from along the line of the North Carolina 
and Western North Carolina Railroads into a volunteer corps which 
he planned to call either the "Piedmont Legion," or the "Piedmont 
Rangers. "(SHe urged Major Daniel Harvey Hill, Superintendent of 
the Charlotte Military Academy, to take command of this unit and 
jjrepare it for possible field service. Hill's appointment as Colonel 
of the First North Cap«lina Regiment when war broke out left 
Fisher's idea unrealized^lFrances Fisher, in describing Hill's promise 
to her father, Avrote: 

When offered this command he (Hill) had hesitated, on ac- 
count of his promise . . . but my father released him at once 
from the engagement ^vith himself, and urged him to accept the 
appointment. 



A Regiment Is Organized 5 

Fisher then decided to assume command of the proposed regiment 
himself and ^vorked toward that purpose. 

The military fever was strong in piedmont North Carolina dur- 
ing the turbulent spring of 1861. The Hillsborough Recorder ex- 
claimed: 

The "military' fever" prevails to a remarkable degree in this 
region — every thing partakes of the general excitement. qA 

Many companies of militia^vere drilling. Officers were offering their 
units to an anxious state.«^isher realized this and planned accord- 
ingly. He promptly went to Charlotte and began to raise a regiment 
of "smiths, carpenters, masons, engineers, etc."*^ closer look at some 
of these men is necessary in order to understand the performance 
of the Sixth North Carolina Regiment in its subsequent career. 
There iva^James A. Craige, to be a captain in the regiment, who ^vas 
twenty years old. Craige was a native of Salisbuiy and a caciet at the 
North Carolina Military Institute at Charlotte. Another potential 
officer, Lewis Rothrick, also came from Rowan County. He was 
twenty-one and a farmer by occupation; Richard Graham, also of 
Rowan, was nineteen and also a fanner; Washington E. Corriher 
was another Rowan County farmer — only eighteen years old. Daniel 
M. Basiner and Theodoric L. Edwards were both mechanics. Moses 
J. Eagle was a nineteen-year-old caipenter. Peter Redwine was an 
eighteen-year-old blacksmith. The list included-farmers, carpenters, 
blacksmiths, mechanics, even a teacher or twor^he average man in 
Fisher's group had blue eyes, white hair, fair complexion, and ^vas 
about 5 feet 8 inches tall. His average age was twenty-one years. Most 
of the men were farmers by profession, a natiual occupation in an 
area which was as yet largely imtouched by the Industrial Revolution. 
A close study of signatures on the enlistment record reveals that most 
of the men were illiterate. Many well-known names in piedmont 
North Carolina were included — names like White, Watson, Durham, 
Bason, Thompson, Teer, Faucette, Tate, Pace, Fowler, Ray, Mebane, 
Minnis, Pender, Albright, and Dixon. Taken as a group they might 
be considered representative of their era and their section of the state. *< 
A close study of the records reve:ij*. that few of the men were large 
landowners or owned any slaves. '^?4.1though it is almost impossible 
to detemiine their individual motives for volunteerinar to fioht in 
Fisher's regiment, it is obvious that the men loved their state and 
meant to support her in the course she had taken. A good example 
of the patriotic fervor which was found in piedmont North Carolina 
during these early months was furnished by F. A. Campbell of Alex- 
ander County. He gave his consent in ^vriting to Colonel Fisher for 
the enlistment of his son, AV'illiam Montraville Campbell, "a minor 
under the age of t-\\enty-one years" for the Avar "unless sooner dis- 



6 ■ The Bloody Sixth 

charged. '^Campbell's attitude was not unique. In Orange County 
two companies were rapidly organized and enrolled at Hillsboro as 
soon as the news of Lincoln's call for troops reached that area. They 
were the Flat River Guards, under Captain Robert K-Webb, and the 
Orange Grays, under Captain William G. FreelandgSColonel W. H. 
Jordan, commanding the Twenty-seventh Regiment of North Carolina 
Militia, certified that the Flat River Guards numbered "fifty, rank 
and file, ... its members have unifomied themselves and the com- 
pany has been duly organized by the election of . . . officers." @ 

Men gave various motives to Colonel Fisher for joining his new 
regiment. A. K. Sinunton, writing to Fisher from Fort Caswell, 
requested: 

... a captain's commission in your regiment and commis- 
sions for my Lieutenants. I think I can muster my company into 
the regulars. Some of the men I would be ^villing to discharge; 
and I can fill their places in a few days after we return to Char- 
lotte. Inform me by return mail with a copy of the rules etc. 
They are anxious to get into the field. They will not remain in 
the Fort. They are a good looking set of men and tolerably 
well drilled. §0) 



There is no record of Fisher's answer to this letter. 

As men began to arrive in Charlotte in response to Fisher's efforts, 
the question of supplying them with food, unifoxms, and weapons 
became more important. Fisher, like many other prominent men 
of his day, paid for most of the early expenses of his regiment out 
of his own pocket. On May 1, 1861, the fima of Brown, Coffin & 
Mock of Salisbury billed Fisher for 67 pairs of blankets. The sum 
expended was §146.50. The bill specifically stated thaLthe articles 
were "for the 6th Regt. North Carolina State Troops. "®Samuel Mc- 
Dowell Tate, a business friend of Fisher and later an officer in the 
regiment, acted as the fliUne colonel's agent in this case as he did 
on many other occasions^^n May 8, 1861, Fisher bought 227 yards 
of osnaburg for the sum of $28.20. The goods were brought from E. M. 
Holt of Graham, Alamance Count)^3<'ifty-five pairs of blankets were 
bought/ii-om Oates & Williams on May 18. The sum expended was 
$105.0(}^n May 22, Fisher bought $917.14 worth of unifomi material 
from Meredith Spencer & Company of Richmond, Virginia. The 
goods included^uch imifomi material as "Grey Tweed, Corset, and 
Muslin toleed.Ai^isher bought $280.32 ivorth of uniform material, 
osnaburgs, plaids, etc. from Holt's Store at Haw River in the period 
from May 25 to June 21, 1861. Several thousand yards of material were 
piuchased from Hoh.Qb) 

Men had to eat as ^vell as be clothed. Much meat and flour was ac- 
cordingly purchased. On May 9, 1861, Fisher's agent, Robert C. 



A Regiment Is Organized 7 

Pearson, bought S304.42 ^vorth of shoulders, hams, and midlings frora^-, 
Blackwele &; Walker. This purchase inchided 2,255 pounds ot meat.^^ 
\V. H. Alexander sold 1,700 pounds of bacon, 38 sacks of flour, and 
.15 bushels of meal to Fisher in the period from April 23 to June 3, 
1861. The total cost of this material was $409.8 l.®it was well that 
I'isher was a man of \\-ealth, for the cost of raising and equipping a 
legiment -ivas high. A typical letter received by Fisher during this 
period was sent to him by Meredith Spencer 8; Company of Rich- 
mond. It advised: 

Enclosed we hand bill of goods for military, bot by Mr. 
Jas. C. Turner (Fisher's agent) for your apr. amot bill including 
cash and freight S917.14. Goods have been shipped to you to 
Salisbury. We have drawn on you at five days as authorized by 
Mr. Turner. We have also said to Mr. Turner that if he could 
send us gold for amot bill we would take off a disct. of 8%. 
Shoidd you determine to send gold advise us by telegraph and 
we -svill ^vithdraAV the disct. We shall be glad to fill your further 
orders here. . . . @ 

Colonel Fisher attempted to obtain remuneration from the state 
for at least a part of his expenditures. He -^vrote Ouartemiaster Gen- 
eral Lawrence O'B. Branch at Raleigh to this end. Branch acknowl- 
edged receipt of Fisher's letter and then politely stated that "This de- 
partment is not authorized to furnish siujplies to any troops until 
they have been mustered into sei-vice.'li^ranch assured Fisher that 
his troops Avould be furnished Avith all the supplies "coming under 
the cognizance of this Department" inunediatelv after the regiment 
^vas mustered into state service. ^ 

The problem of troop pay was an interesting one, and one diffi- 
cult of solution. On July 3, Quartennaster General Branch ivrote 
A. C. Myers, Quartermaster Geneial of the Confederate States, to ask 
about the pay of volunteers and State Troops. Branch's inquiry also 
co\ered the supply of troops, the biu'den which Fisher had been 
paying out of his own pocketCI^[vers ansv\'ered on Jidy 5 that 
"volunteers are paid by the Confederate States from the date of their 
muster into State service cjn the transfer of the muster rolls to the 
Confederate service, and when they have not been mustered into 
the state service, they are paid from the date of the order directing 
them to proceed to any destination by the War Department." ^^ 

North Carolina Adjutant General [ohn F. Hoke was dra\\n into 
the controversy. He bluntly stated that the Confederate government 
had to pay North Carolina troops -(vhen they ^vere received into Con- 
federate service. The Confederate go\ernment must also "issue all 
necessary supplies on proper Muster Rolls, Requisitions and returns." 
Hoke concluded his letter by revealing the basic ^veakness of the 
Confederacy. 



8 The Bloody Sixth 

No officer is allowed to make any expenditures on account 
of the State for troops in the service of the Confederate States, 
or to issue to them any supplies belonging to the State, without 
authority from this office.^ 

The North Carolina adjutant general had a great deal of control 
over the pay and supply of State Troops and volunteers, and even 
decided who would bear the expense of maintaining the troops. 
Amidst all this controversy Fisher was not forgotten. On July 10, 
Branch, under orders from Governor Heniy T. Clark, paid him the 
sum of S5,000 as reimbursement for the raising and equipping of 
the Sixth Regimen t.csTh is relie\ed the strain on Fisher's personal 
finances. 

On June 1, 1861, the regiment, still in the process of organization, 
was moved from Charlotte to Company Shops (modern Burlington) 
on die North Carolina Railroad. Neill W. Ray, later a captain in the 
regiment, said. 

The camp was in an old field along the Railroad, just east 
of the shops. It is now a part of the town of Burlington. W?) 

The men drilled in the fields along the railroad tracks throughout 
the month of June. As they drilled they often saw train loads of 
troops passing from states farther south. The passing troops cheered 
with cries of "on to Virginia" ^vhich were answered with "hearty 
responses" by the men of the Sixth. ^ 

Much had to be done before the regiment was ready for the field. 
Officers had to be appointed and military equipment had to be 
issued to the men. Furthermore, the men needed a great deal of 
drilling to prepare them for the battlefield. 

The appointments of officers for the first ten regiments of North 
Carolina State Troops were made after lengthy consultation between 
Governor Ellis and a special militai-y board, which had been created 
for this purpose by an act of the North Carolina General Assembly. 
This board consisted of three men, "one of whom at least shall be 
skilled in military affairs. '@rhe members of the board were appointed 
by the governor and would continue in office for the duration of his 
term "or until removed by him." It was the duty of the Military 
Board "to advise with the Governor relative to the appointment of 
all military and Naval Officers, or such other matters respecting naval 
or military affairs as the General Assembly shall assign to said Board." ^ 
The board was directed to keep accurate records and accounts of its 
activities. The first officer of the board was established as an ex- 
officio aid to the governor "with the rank and pay of a Colonel in 
the Army of the Confederate States of America." Other provisions 
of the act which created the board concerned the salary of the chief 
officer of the board, the right of the governor to "convene said Board 



A RFoniFNT Is Organized 9 

from time to time, and whenever he may deem proper," the filling 
of vacancies in the board, and the salaries of members of the board 
besides the principal officer, ^\ho "shall receive three dollars per day 
for each dav thev are actuallv ensraaed in the senice of the State, and 
the same-^mileage as is no-^v allowed members of the General As- 
sembly. '^The act was ratified by the General Assembly on May 10 
and signed by Governor Ellis on the following da)K5rhe board, which 
consisted of ex-Governor Warren Winslow as president, Major James 
A. J. Bradford, and Haywood AV. Guion, met at the Executive Man- 
sion in Raleigh "and proceeded to business." @ 

On May 23 the board appointed Charles F. Fisher as Colonel 
of the Sixth Regiment. "William T. Dortch, Speaker of the North 
Carolina House of Commons, ■ivas appointed lieutenant colonel, 
Robert M. McKinney, James "W. "Wilson, Jimiii^_I.. Hill, A. K. Simon- 
ton, and P. A. Yorke ivere appointed captainsS^Dr. A. M. Xesbitt of 
Salisbury •i\-as appointed s' rgeon^^olonel Fisher's rank dated from 
]\Iay 16; the cajjtains' date of rank began on Mav 15. (^ 

During the last days of May the Militar)' Board completed the 
appointments for the regiment. Dozens of men ^vere appointed to 
the ranks of captain, first lieutenant, second lieutenant, and third 
lieutenant. ^Ipg^ of these men recei\'ed their rank and seniority from 
May 16, 186ll2AVhen the organization of the regiment was completed 
the roster included. 

Colonel, Charles F. Fisher: Lieut. Colonel "W. T. Dortch, 
Major Charles E. Lightfoot: Adjutant H. B. Loi\rie; A. M. Nes- 
bitt. Surgeon: J. A. Caldwell and C. A. Henderson Assistant Sur- 
geons: N. E. Scales, A. Q. M. (Assistant Ouartennaster) and 
W. H. Alexander, A. C. S. (Assistant Commissary Sergeant) . 

Co. A: Robert McKinney, Capt. S. S. Kirkland, 1 Lieut. J. 
Calder Turner, 2 Lt. A. M. Kirkland, }r. 2 Lietit. 

Co. B: Robert F. Webb, Capt. \V.K. Parrish, 1 Lieut. \\K E. 
McMannon 2 Lieut. "W. P. Manginn, Jr., 2 Lieut. 

Co. C: ^V. J. Freeland, Capt. "W. ]'. Durhams, 1 Lieut. "W. G. 
Guess, 2 Lieut. E. Ttnner, Jr. 2 Lieut. 

Co. D: S. McD. Tate, Capt., D. C. Pearson, 1 Lieut. N. W. 
Ray 2 Lieut. John Carson, Jr. 2 Lieut. 

Co. E: Isaac E. Avery, Capt. .\. C. Aveiy, I Lieut., J. H. Burns 
2 Lieut., J. A. McPherson, Jr. 2 Lieut. 

Co. F: James W. Wilson, Capt., R. F. Carter, 1 Lieut.. B. F. 
White, 2 Lieut., H. C. Dixon, Jr. 2 Lieut. 

Co. G: James A. Craig Capt., B. R. Smith, 1 Lieut., J. T. 
Roseboro, 2 Lieut. 

Co. H: A. A. Mitchell, Capt., L. H. "Walker, 1 Lieut., J. A. 
Lea, 2 Lieut., J. T. Anderson, Jr. 2 Lieut. 

Co. I: R. ^V. York Capt., m'. "W. Page 1 Lieut., "W. B. Allen 2 
Lieut., M. B. Barbee, Jr. 2 Lieut. 



10 The Bloody Sixth 

Co. K: J. W. Lea, Capt., J. S. Vincent, 1 Lieut., Samuel Craw- 
ford 2 Lieut., Samuel Roney, Jr. 2 Lieut. iKi) 

Before it went to the field each North Carolina regiment needed 
a colonel, a lieutenant colonel, a major, an adjutant, one surgeon and 
two assistant surgeons, one assistant quartennaster, an assistant com- 
missary sergeant, and ten companies of troops. Each company had 
a captain, one first lieiuenant, two second lieutenants, and, on the 
average, from fifty to eighty men. Each regiment was also equipped 
with a chaplain, appointed by the Military Board in the case of the 
first ten regiments of State Troops. ^ 

The Sixth Regiment drilled at Company Shops throughout the 
month of June, 1861. Much preparation was necessary before the 
men could take the field. Many problems had to be faced before the 
regiment could function as an efficient fighting unit. Fisher was 
still raising troops for his regiment. One company, the Cedar Fork 
Rifles, came in from Wake Coiuity.lS^nother, the Chatham Rifles, 
came from Chatham County.^iOn May 21 Fisher wrote Richard 
Watt York, Captain of the Cedar Fork Rifles: 

I beg yoti to excuse me to your company for not going up 
to day. I have been absolutely and unavoidably detained here 
to day on official duties, which you know cannot be neglected, 
& quite unable to get away I am obliged to go West tonight on 
the same matters. I am called upon to present the names of 
Captain & officers for appointment. I believe no more short temi 
volunteers will be received, so the Governor says — until the State 
Troops are filled up, so your question ^\ould be as bet^\'een my- 
self &: some other chief. I -ivill come do\\-n on an engine Thinsday 
so as to be sure to see you & the company. 

If you are yet detemiined, send me your names of officers 
by morning train to report for appointment at once, or wait to 
see me — as you please. O) 

Wyatt B. Allen wrote Colonel Fisher on May 28 that the 
Chatham Rifles "will be here Thursday (at Morrisville, Wake 
County) ." The rifles were the only organized militia unit in 
Chatham County, although another was being raised "and will be 
organized in a few davs and it will be known as the 'Mount Pleasant 
Riflemen.' " Allen wrote Fisher: 

If yoti have reed a request from any of our company to make 
some preparation to take the Ladies of the Cedar Fork Sewing 
Society to Cai7 next Wednesday you will please not do so on 
that day, but any preparation or accommodation shown them 
on next Friday to ivhich day the party has been postponed ivill 
I assue you be duly appreciated. (C|) 



A Regiment Is Organized 11 

The sponsoring of social affairs was important to the raising- of Con- 
federate troops. It reflected the social temper of the times. 

Fisher had a problem with ^Villiam T. Dortch, his lieutenant 
colonel. Although he ^vas motivated by patriotic fervor, Dortch ex- 
pressed some unwillingness to retain his position with the regiment. 
On June 1, he jyrote Fisher saying that his retpiest for transfer 
had been deniedP?)ortch admitted that "matters must remain as they 
are ... I was willing to yield my position, -(and am no\\) , if your 
engagements could have been carried out."«2)ortch remained with 
the regiment for the moment^nd even had himself fitted for a uni- 
fomi towards the end of June.^saThe question of Dortch's position with 
the regiment would remain temporarily unresolved. 

As the month of June progressed Fisher continued to face the 
problem of supplying the regiment with medicines, food, and uni- 
forms. Doctor Nesbitt and his assistants needed many medical sup- 
plies to cure the diseases common to rural boys camped together for 
the first time. From May 15 to June 1 Fisher purchased many 
medicines from the North Carolina firm of E. W. Hutchison and 
Company. Among these articles were "1 vial Sol Iodic! Potash, 1 
Bot. Ointment for Recruit, 1 box pills, 5 bot (s) Salts, 8 oz. Lauda- 
num, 1 Bot. C (odliver) Oil, 1 tress, 1 vial medicine for Reoniit, 2 
bot (s) aiTow Root, 3 Prescriptions for Pills for Recruit, etc."*ESome 
paragoric, some quinine, and another prescription completed the 
list which must have been as distasteful as it was irecessan' for the 
men. Fisher expended the sum of §12.80 for this medicine. (fe|) 

More unifonn material had to be procured to clothe the growing 
number of recruits at Camp Alamance. On June 3 Colonel Fisher 
paid SI 1.80 for 294 yards of jeans materi^ This material -was pur- 
chased from F. H. Fries, a local merchantSStlany merchants, realizing 
that Colonel Fisher's regiment was a possible "gold mine," solicited 
the Colonel's business. G. Rosenthal wrote Colonel Fisher from Yan- 
ceyville on June 18: 

Captain A. Mitchell told me last week that you wanted to 
buy flanell undershirts &: drawers. I have a lot of vei-y good ones, 
such as our volunteers here (in Caswell County) received, con- 
sisting of about 70 shirts and 50 pr. drawers, on hand and offer 
you tire same at 75 cts and $1.00 a piece. 

The quality is as good as can be expected for the price and 
a good many of the shirts sell at SI. 25 and S1.50.('^^ 



Other merchants plagued Colonel Fisher with requests for payment. 
Kahm\-eiler 8: Bros., a Charlotte clothing finn, -ivrote the colonel on 
June 26 requesting payment for "50 pr gray blankets" purcliased 
on April 30. The bill in\olved amounted to $100. (2j) 

While lavishing thousands of dollars worth of equipment on his 
men, Fisher did not neglect his personal needs. Retaining his highly- 



12 The Bloody Sixth 

paid posjlion ^vith the Nortli Carolina Railroad until he left for 
Virginiai^isher was able to go off to war like a wealthy gentleman. 
On June 4 he piuxhased a large wall tent for himself and paid 
the sum of $50.00 in cash for it.C*Ie engaged O. S. Baldwin of 38 
Market Street in Wilmington to make a tmifonn for him, i^esplend- 
ent even to special eagle shoulder straps.Ciorisher pinchased six sets 
of knives and-forks and four sets of spoons for himself and his staff 
on June 26sl2the colonel, used to luxury in civilian life, was de- 
termined to go to Virginia in style. On July 1, he wrote the fol- 
lo^^•ing note to James C. Smyth: 

I promise to pay Jas. C. Smyth on order One Hundred & 
Twenty five dollars for the hire of Randal, who goes with me 
as a servant into the Campaign in Virginia. I shall clothe & take 
all care of him imder the circumstances — as to health & gen- 
eral safety. (7^ 

During the month of June Fisher continued to supply food for 
his men. Early in the nionth R. \V. Griffith ^\•as paid S300 for 
2,400 potmds of baconi^ZH. Weatherspoon, Fisher's agent at Cedar 
Fork, Wake County, -svrote, 

... I have purchased some 300 lbs. Bacon., and as I shall 
be ready to move any time next iveek, you will please let me 
kno-(\-, when you will take iis on, and where, the company (Co. I., 
"Cedar Fork Rifles," Capt. R. W. York, comdg.) will expect their 
bounty. 



North Carolina troops, including the Sixth Regiment, had a more 
varied diet in the early days of the Civil 'W^ir than is generally sup- 
posed. Articles at the Wilmington Railroad Depot, awaiting ship- 
ment to troops in Virginia in the spring of 1861, included bacon, 
flour, hard bread, beans, rice, coffee, sugar, vinegar, candles, soap, 
salt, molasses, fish, pickles, dried fruit, corn, cattle, lard, and meal. 
This list shows that the_average Confederate soldier ate vei7 well, at 
least in the beginning.fw) 

The most important equipment problem faced by the Sixth Regi- 
ment was the matter of weapons and military hardware. The equip- 
ping of the first ten regiments of State Troops was under th&-control 



of the colonel of ordnance for the state of North Carolina^'Begin 
ning on May 29 this official issued militaiy eqiupment to the 
regiment. On that date Captain Craige of Company G was issued 
one pair of bullet moulds, one screw dwver (for extracting unfired 
cartridges from muskets), and one claspSiOn June 17 the Ordnance 
Department shipped Fisher 200 rifled muskets, 600 pattern 1822 
muskets, 800 barrel wipers, 800 screw drivers, 800 spare cones, 80 
spring vises, 80 ball screws, 40 arm chests, 800 cartridges boxes with 



RALEIGH. NORT;; C^R'JLINA 
SEARCH ROOM 

A Regiment Is Organized 13 

belts, 800 cap pouches, and 800 bayonet scabbardfPOn June 28 
Fisher received 200 rifled muskets, 200 wipers, 800 screw drivers, 200 
spare cones, 20 spring inses, 20 ball screws, and 10 arms chests (for 
transporting muskets')<SOn June 17, Fisher j«is furnished with 82 
altered muskets which cost the state $600iScompany G received 
64 blankets, 20 knapsacks, 83 haver sacks, 83 canteens, 84 cartridge 
boxes, 84 cartridge box belts, 84^elt plates, and 84 bayonet scab- 
bards during the month of June(iMnother company which might be 
considered representative of the rest of the regiment was Captain 
Richard Watt York's Company I. These men received 81 cartridge 
boxes, cap boxes, bayonet scabbards, and belts; 81 shirts; 61 coats; 12 
pairs of pants; 12 pairs of shoes; 4 camp kettles; 81 knapsacks; and 81 
haver sacks during the month of JuneSivhile the regiment was at 
Raleigh, immediately before departing for Virginia, the men received 
20,000 rifle musket cartridges (with caps) , 7,550 musket cartridges, 
and "12,000 cartridges with caps, Rec'd. from Capt. W. \V. Pierce." @ 

In early JungJ"isher's sister, Christine, presented a fine silken flag 
to the regimen®rhis Hag, beautifully made of blue silk, carried the 
state seal, which represented two women standing by a horn of plenty 
with the words "to be rather than to seem" written below. This was 
a significant motto for the regiment to uphold. (^ 

For most of the men in the Sixth Regiment life went on at Com- 
pany Shops, set to the tune of driun beats: the "Troops," for assembling 
the men in the morning; "Peas-in-a-Trencher," the beat for breakfast; 
"Roast Beef," the signal for dinner; the "Surgeon's Call," beat for the 
men who were sick; the "Assembly," the beat to fomi by company; the 
"Color," the signal for fomiation by battalion; the "Long Roll," the 
signal for falling in ujider arms; the "Retreat," to be beat in the eve- 
ning — for the p^trpose of reading the orders of the day; the "Tattoo," 
the signal for -'lights out" m the evening{Sbne of the men in the 
Sixth wrote to hig family in CTiatham County in early July. Flis letter, 
typical of the soldier's life at Company Shops, canies the homesick 
protest of the Coiifederate soldier, away from home and friends for 

the first time: 
U 

Deav Brother Intake this privilege of writing you a few lines 
to let you no tha^I am well and hoping when these few lines 
come ta.hand they^may find you and sister and all the rest well. 
I should like vei7 iltttch to see you all and to talk with you but 
I don't no when I shall get the chance for we are not low'd to go 
to the S^ops without a permit and we are not lo^\'d to miss a 
drill witlK)ut a furlo sickness or permit. 'We are under tite rules 
you dont no how tite they are (.) I wish I coul see you and then 
I could tell you what I thought of campt life it is vei7 tite rules 
and confinen (.) (VV^.e have got our gims we have returned our 
muskets and gof rifl^ muskets they look much better but I 
havent tride thehi we havent got airy close (clothes) since we 



14 The Bloody Sixth 

have bin up here (:) some of us have got shoes we havent got 
but fifteen dollars apeace since we volunteered. Tom is well 
except his arm \vhere he was vactinnated. Ive bin vactionnated 
twice and now my ann is very sore we have meat and bread and 
coffey and sometimes molasses and sometimes other things when 
we pay for them our selves (.) (T) here are severl here to day 
from Cedarfork . . . there is a rite smart of sickness in this 
campt. (W) e are crowded in our tent there is six of us and our 
guns and bedding and cloathing satchels etc. (^ 

The letter reflects the age-old need for the company of women: ". . . 
I wish I could see the girls about home if I could come to old 
Chatham I would hug them as hard as ever I did (,) for ivhen I was 
down there before I huehed them and they hughed so good I want 
to hug them again (.) "^^This soldier's company was "the skirmish 
company," forcing him to stand guard evei^ day; "it takes six fiom 
our company every day." The letter closes with the sad wish that 
"if we meet no more on earth I hope to meet in heaven where 
parting -(vill be no more. . . ." ^3) 

Many ladies' aid societies throughout central North Carolina 
assisted the regiment by making much-needed clothing for the men. 
Fisher expressed his appreciation "to the Ladies of Hillsborough" 
for "their valuable services" in a letter to the HiUsborough Re- 
corderW^e was lavish in his praise, stating that the ladies "are 
rendering to the State a service only second to that of the soldier in 
the field, and deserve consideration accordingly. "gj* 

The end of June sa^\' many more appointments in the Sixth 
Regiment, .\lfred A. Mitchell Avas appointed Captain of Company K 
on June l/vaLevi H. 'Walker was appointed a first lieutenant, while 
Quentin T. Anderson aad Jeri^ A. Lea -were appointed second lieu- 
tenants on the same day>^Villiam Preston Mangum, son of ex-LTnited 
States Senator Willie P. Mangum. was appointed a second lieuten- 
ant in Company B on June 27.'lS'amuel S-Jvirkland was appointed 
Captain of Company K on the same da)'^\ll these appointments 
were made by the Military Board at Raleigh in accordance with the 
established policy of naming officers for State TroopsS-^he Military 
Board issued another order in connection with the Sixth Regiment. 
On June 28 it directed that, 

. . . the O. ^L & P. M. General be infomied that the 2d., 
3d., 4th., 5th., & 6th. Regiments of the State Troops will rendez- 
vous immediately at Gai^sburg and that he be requested to fit 
them out as expeditiously as possible.(2oi) 

These wert ominous words; the great adventure was ready to begin. 



II 



On to Manassas 



". . . / am trying to do my duty — ir be sine that I understand it 
too well ever to make an unnecessary . . . risk of the life which be- 
longs to 7ny family as well as myself." 

Charles F. Fisher to his sister, Jllv 17, 1S6I. 



On July 3, 1861, the regimenUTvas officially transfeired to the 
service of the Confederate States(->^This probably meant an early 
transfer to the seat of war in Virginia. Nevertheless, more personal 
matters continued to press upon the officers and men. On July 4 
Major Lightfoot was forced to go to Hillsijoro to ivait upon his 
sick wife. He did not neglect his duties in spite of family problems; 
"I have myself notified every captain as to what you wish done to- 
morroiv. Have made them take notes of the order, so that there may 
be no misunderstandino'. I shall leave the order \vith Col. Dortch 

o 

^vho \vill, I know, see that your -wishes are carried out. I ha\e said 
nothing to any one about the time of our leaving."@ 

The nren entrained ■(vithout incident on Jidy 8 for Raleigh, 
passing through Hillsboro to the cheers of "A large portion of the 
ladies and citizens of the town, and many from thej:ountry around," 
who had assembled at the depot to see them pass.®Upon arrival at 
Raleigh the men received sad ne^vs. Governor Ellis had. died "on the 
7th inst, at the Red Sidphur Springs Va.'^^isher was directed to, 

. . . detail t\\o companies of yoiu" Regt under Major Light- 
foot, for the purpose of proceeding to Petersburg to escort the 
body to this place. .-.(£) 

The remainder of the regiment ^\as ordered to remain in Raleigh 
to be held "in readiness" to form the funeral escort .C&These were saci 
beginnings for an illustrious career. Lieutenant Colonel Dortch-^^^•as 
ordered to go to Tarboro to "accompany Mr. Clark here.''2T"he 
last honors to North Carolina's deceased governor had to be carried 

15 



16 The Bloody Sixth 

out even though Confederate President Davis had been infomied that 
the regiment ivould be at Richmond "ten days ago."(3Heni-y T. Clark, 
North Carolina's new governor, assured Confederate Seaetai-y of 
War Leroy P. Walker that the legiment "will leave tomon■o^\' and 
will be subject to your orders and is now fomially tendered. "(7/ 

At 9:30 A.M. on July 10 the remains of JGovernor Ellis, escorted 
by Companies B and C of the Sixth RegimenP^rrived at the depot of 
the North Carolina Railroad in Raleigh. The governor's body was 
"removed from the cars and escorted to the Capitol biL the military 
guard," where the state flag was placed over the coffinC^he Raleigh 
Register described the funeral procession: 

At 10 o'clock the procession moved from the south gate of 
the Capitol down Fayetteville Street to the Executive Mansion, in 
the following order: Brigadier General Gwynn, State Troops 
commanding, aided by Captain A. D. Moore. 1st. Music, 2nd. 
Sixth Regiment of Infanti-y, Col. Fisher, 3rd. Ellis Light Artil- 
lery, Maj. Ramseur., 4th, Hearse with the body-, 5th. Pall Bearers., 
6th Reverend Clergy., 7th. Surgeon General and Medical Staff., 
8th. Family and relations of deceased., 9th. Governor of State., 
10th. Speaker of House oL Commons., 11th. Officers of the Execti- 
tive Departments. . . . (f^ 

The procession moved from the capitol, marched down Fayetteville 
Street, "at a quick march," and arrived at the Executive Mansion. 
Here the remains were removed from the hearse, and, "after appropri- 
ate religious services conductecLby the Rev. Dr. Mason," Tvere left 
in the care of an honor guard.^^On the morning of the 11th "about 
8 o'clock" the coffin was escorted from the mansion to the North 
Carolina Railroad by a military detachment which included part of 
the Sixth Regiment. This procession was "accompanied by an ex- 
cellent band of music, marched with slow measured steps to the 
funeral dirge which was so well discoursed by the band. . . ."iffjChe 
coffin was deposited on the train, and sent to the Ellis family bvuying 
ground near Holtsburg, Davidson County. The delegation from the 
Sixth Regiment accompanied the remains to their final resting place. ^ 
While these obsequies were in progress, the business places in Raleigh 
were closed and private homes were draped in moiuning. The public 
buildings in Raleigh "and the statue of Washington on the Capitol 
Square" were also draped. All flags were lowered to half-mast, bells 
tolled, and "half-hour guns fired during the day by a detachment of 
the Wilmington Light Artillery." @ 

Governor Ellis' death caused an important change in Fisher's staff. 
Lieutenant Colonel Dortch resigned his commisspn to become 
Speaker of the North Carolina House of CommonsM^Warren Win- 
slow, President of the Military Board, filled the regimental vacancy: 



On to Manassas 17 

Major Chas. E. Lightfoot of the 6th Regt. State Troo])s has 
Ijeen promoted to the rank of Lt. Colonel. Capt. Robt. F. Webb 
to the rank of Major 1st Lt. Wm. R. Parish to the rank of Cap- 
tain. 2nd Lt. W'ni. E. McMannen to the rank of 1st Lieutenant. (^ 

The futme staff arrangements of the regiment were beginning to 
sliape up." 

■\\'hile the regiment -ivas at Raleigh one of the men voiced an atti- 
tude ^vhich ^\as prevalent in the ranks: 

. . . we had a very good breakfast this morning. Oin fair 
^vill be beter here after, a ^vhile anv ho^w ... I ^vant to qq an 
kill Old Abe an come back home. . . . /7?) 

Although the regiment ivas ready for combat, Fisher found he 
had many purchases to make and numerous accounts to settle. 
One of these was for the sum of S6.00 "for 3 days board for 2 
horses." This covered the animals of Fisher_and Lieutenant Colonel 
Dortch ^\h>ift the regiment ^vas in Raleigh. (£>lnother bill^as for "a 
small ham'^nd still another, for S71.22, for gray flannel— fisher was 
forced to pay some of the bounty money for his men out of his own 
pocket. Captain^\lfred A. Mitchell's Company H received S880 
in this mannerW-<rhe colonel even went so far as to advance the 
salaries of manv of his officers out of his own pocket, "to be-xefunded 
from the first pay roll of the Confederate Government. '^iiSome of 
the officers involved and the amounts they received were "Charles E. 
Lightfoot Maj. pd. 220., W. H. Alexander Commissai^ 120., Rich. 
\V. York 150., M. W. Page 75^V. B. Alex (ande) r 50., W. B. Le^vis 
75., A. M. Kirkland 100. . . .'@3^he total sum expended by Fisher in 
this manner amounted to Sl,470!(^) 

The total sum expended by Fisher in paying bills "for material 
and making clotheing of 6th Infantry" ^vas $2,128.49rs This did 
not include $410 paid to Miss Sallie Pool "for caps.'viM ivas pos- 
sibly a good thing, at least for Fisher's Docketbook, that the regiment 
left Raleigh for Virginia on July ll-x#^ 

The men moved through Weldorfj^eaching PetersJjurg that night. 
After breakfast the regiment left for RichmondS-l.ieutenant Ray 
described the regiment's stay in Richmond: 

We stopped there for a day, awaiting transportation, camp- 
ing at the old Fair Ground. President Davis reviewed the regi- 
ment, making a short speech to us. ^7) 

The troops left Richmond late in the evening of July 12, trav- 
elled by train all night, "and passed Manassas Junction where 
General Beauregard ij_encamped and strongly fortified Sunday about 
ele\en o'clock. . . .'(^he men stayed at Manassas Junction imtil 



18 The Bloody Sixth 

early on the morning of July 14. They then embarked on the 
cars and proceeded to Stra^burg in the Shenandoah Valley via 
' the Manassas Gap Railroad\?Spending the night of the 14th at Stras- 
burg, they were force-marched to Winchester, a distance of eighteen 
miles up the Valley Turnpike, on the morning of July ISS^yLieti- 
tenant Willie P. Mangum of Company B described this march: 

We all suffered much from fatigue and want of food and 
the bad weather. But soldiers must become accustomed to pri- 
vations. ^^ 

It took the regiment six hoius to reach Winchester, excellent time 
for troops unaccustomed to the rigors of war.@) 

The Sixth Regiment anived in an anxious Winchester. The ap- 
proach of Union forces to the north, in Maryland, was expected al- 
most momentarily !>lZ6outheniforces at Winchester, commanded by 
General Joseph E. Johnston~25[vere determined to resist the Union 
advance. Peter W. Harrston of North Carolina Avrote: 

We have 4,000 mililia throwing up breast works. They are 
getting tolerably well drilled, & behind those breastworks will 
fight well. (^ 

The regiment marched into this situation, and was placed in line 
of battle near the Confedetate front line in a wheat field "where the 
grain had just been cut.'uJ^The men were tired and hungry from the 
long march, but were forced to sleep in the wheat stubble, tearing 
down wheat shocks, and "spreading our blankets over us." To^dd to 
the men's discomfort, a heavy rain fell throughout the nightCi^arly 
in the morning Fisher arose to help prepare breakfast for his men. 
Captain York praised Fisher for this action, saying, 

... a great deal of oiu- breakfast on the morning of the 17th 
was cooked by the hands of Charles F. Fisher. It is useless for me 
to say how otir Regiment loves him. ^) 

Many problems presented themselves to Fisher while the regiment 
was encamped in the vicinity of Winchester. Lists were prepared to 
show which officers owed money to the colonel, advanced to them 
for their first pay.viarhe band was paid $300 and sent home to Salis- 
bui7; even the small sums (12.00 each) , owed by the officers for 
their commissions, had to be properly accounted foiv*The colonel 
sent James C. Smythe*i20.00 as partial reimbursement for the hire 
of his valet, RandaltiSAll of these money matters were aggravated 
by the fact that much money was still owed to merchants in 
North Carolina who had supplied and equipped the regiment^^hese 
accounts could be neglected for the present, when there were other 



On to Manassas 19 

problems facing the regiment, including the dismissal of Dr. Nesbitt, 
the regimental surgeon. Nesbitt had been dismissed on July 15, _,^ 
but remained in sendee, eventually joining a Virginia regiment, c^' 
Amid all these problems Fisher held finnly to a serene state of mind. 
On July 17 he wrote, 

... I never fail in an emergency — & I Avill have all right 
soon today. . . . 

I write you freely the truth always — you comprehend clearly 
where &: how we are — & the hereafter, our trust is in the God 
of Battles k and of Mercy 8: of justice -ssho will always do ^^•hat 
is best for us. 

Keej) therefore yourself peaceful, trustfid & satsified — that 
I am tiding to do my duty — &: be sine that I understand it too 
A\ell ever to make an unnecessary or rash risk of the life which 
belongs to my family as well as myself. I will write you at the 
first hour of leisure about many things — meantime be hopeful 
& never anticipate evil tidings. The wonderful good fortune of 
my life will not desert me now. fi^ 

These words displayed a cheerful attitude, at least an attitude of 
manly resoliuion in the midst of an unpleasant situation. 

When the Sixth Regiment reached Winchester it Avas brigaded 
with troops of Brigadier General Bernard E. Bee in Johnston's Army 
of the ShenandoahtLtrhis was the Third Brigade, composed of the 

'Seventh and Eighth Georgia Volunteers . . . and two companies 
Eleventh Mississippi Vohmteers . . ." as well as the Sixth North 
Carolina. @' 

On the evening of July 18 Johnston drew his army up in line 

'as on dress parade." He read an order to his men which stated that 
General Beauregard was being attacked by large masses of Union 
infantiy at Manassas. It was necessary to reinforce Beaiuegard be- 
fore the Confederate cause was lost. The troups responded to this 
stirring information "with a cheer." The march to aid Beauregard 
was begun\2i/'\s the Sixth Regiment marched across the Blue Ridge 
Mountains to^vards Piedmont Station on the Manassas Gap Railroad, 
thirty miles away, the men had no idea that they were embarked on a 
long road to fame and heartache. On that long, hot July night the 
destiny of the regiment was unkno^vn, the end of that long road ^vas 
not in sight. ^) 



Ill 



Manassas 



"Again the shadoiv of a deep gloom has fallen upon our town. . . . 
". . . Charles F. Fisher is no more." 

Salisbltrv (N. C.) Carolina Watchman, July 25. 1861. 



The Third Brigade reached Piedmont Station on the Manassas 
Gap Raihoad on the evening of July 19. At 10 o'clock the Sixth 
Regiment marched into fields about the station, tired by the long 
march over Ashby's Gap.w Dining the march the Sixth had been 
separated from Bee's otfier troops. As the men lay in a field near 
the station it seemed that they would be the last troops to embark 
for the battlefield. However, fortune seemed to smile on the regi- 
ment that night. Fisher received news that a train had been derailed, 
"and a portion of it wrecked." If the train weren't put back on the 
rails in time the movements of the troops ^\'Ould be delayed. Fisher 
went to the officer in charge of the depot and told him that "he him- 
self was a railroad president and a railroad contractor, and had in 
his command civil engineers and enlisted men A\ho had been em- 
ployed in track-laying and section work.'^/fhe officer gave his permis- 
sion for Fisher's men to put the train back on the track. Huniedly 
Fisher assembled a crew of workmen and, after much efEort by the 
toiling, sweating men, the engine ivas finally heaved back on the 
track. Because of their efforts, the men "embarked on the next 
train that left for Manassas. '©The time -was 7 o'clock on the 
evening of July 20. As Captain Ray explained it, 

. . . we were counted into box-cars — so many on top and so 
many inside. There were ugly rumors as to obstructions placed 
on the track, evidently intended to impede oin- progress. 

With such rumors, with a train of box-cars fidl of sleepy- 
tired men, inside and on top, in the night, and through a moun- 
tainous coimtry, it was a dangerous ricle. (^ 

20 



Manassas 21 

Arriving a^ Manassas Junction "about eight o'clock" on Sunday 
morning, July 21, the men heard the opening fire of the Battle of 
Manassas while Fisher was calling at headquarters for orders.«^Fisher 
soon returned and ordered his men to move fonvard at a rapid pace. 
The ti^ps had been "\vithout rest, water or food for thirty-six 
hours. '(atven though the men \vere exhausted, the deafening artillei7 
fire "in the centre and on the right" strengthened nerves, brightened 
men's eyes, and cjuickened their steps. The dust rose in clouds about 
them as they marched. The men finally were ordered to file to the 
left to a spring. Here canteens ^vere filled with welcome fresh water. 
As each company filled its canteens it was marched into the shade, 
"and allo^vetl to lie down and rest."^ 

As soon as the men had filled their canteens, the regiment con- 
tinued its march. The men ^\ere finally halted behind a hill "in 
rear of one of our batteries." The order -^wis given to load and rest. 
Many men fell asleep in spite of the fact that a battle was raging 
about themia/\n officer desa-ibed the scene: 

. . . the Sim shone brightly, and cannonading became more 
intense, dense clouds of smoke rose from the opposite hills, the 
earth shook ^\ith the a^\ful thimder, and continued to wax hotter 
and hotter. . . . ffj 

The men were eager for combat. Someone cried out: "Colonel 
Fisher, -ive're ready." Fisher replied: "I know that. Attention!" The 
men sprang forivard to their places in the ranks, shouldered their 
muskets, and moved rapidly up the hill in front of them. A line of 
battle was formed behind a battery "where we could see distinctly 
the columns of smoke rising up from the enemy's batte-ries on the 
opposite hills ^vhile the balls ^vere whistling around us.'^^ut of the 
heat, dust, and confusion many conflicting reports were ^vritten to 
describe what happened next. The Union forces had seized the 
gently roUins-^jlateau upon ivhich the Henry and Robinson Houses 
are located. Q^IcDoi\ell, the Union commander, ordered Captain 
James B,-Ricketts' battery of six rifled guns, "the pride of the Fed- 
eralists,"^^ move fonvard anci take position in a field on the extreme 
right of the Union line. The battei7 began to fire at a Confederate 
battery "placed just beyond the crest of a hill on our left.'<2*:aptain 
Charles Griffin's Batten' D, Fifth Regiment of United States Artil 
len-, Avas also ordered fonvard to engage the Confederate batteries. (i. 
The t^vo Union batteries were relatively close together in a position 
slightly southwest of the Heni7 House, focal point of the battleC^s 
a result of the fire of the two strategically-placed batteries the forward 
jx)sitions of the Confederates ^vere greatly harassed. One regiment 
of Confederate infanti^ broke and retreated "in much confusion. "(^ 
If something ^vere not done soon the batteries of Ricketts and Griffin 



22 The Bloody Sixth 

would enfilade the whole Confederate line which was placed across 
the southern perimeter of the Henry House plateau. (TJ) 

The Sixth, still unaware of the devastation created by Union 
artillery fire, formed injine of battle on the edge of a road "on the 
margin of the woods. '®The men rested, while wounded from other 
commands passed their position with reports that the enemy was ad- 
vancing, and that Union artillery ^vas "playing sad havoc ivith our 
soldiers. '(Shells hissed through the hot, still air and passed tki-ough 
the ranks of the Sixth; one of them wounded Fisher's horse(~3lealiz- 
ing that his men couldn't stay where they were badly exposed to the 
Union fire, Fisher ordered the regiment to file to the left, through 
the "tangled undergrowth," until the protection of a little ravine 
was reached. The regiment remained here concealed by thick woods 
on the left, with an "old field" ou/^feje right. Shells from the Union 
batteries exploded over their heads>^he two flank companies, under 
Captains Freeland and York, were placed in position "within forty 
yards of the guns." It was^^served that a regiment of Union troops 
supported their batteries. ^^^'isher realized that the moment of de- 
cision had arrived. According to an observer. 

Col. Fisher then filed to the left around the corner of the 
woods, and the following companies in the order of the names — 
Capt. Freeland's, Capt. York's, Lieut. Carter's, Capt. Avery's, 
Capt. Craig's, Lieut. Parish's and Capt. Kirkland's — came into 
line, faced to the right and opened a fire upon the enemy. ^T) 

Because of the position of the Union forces, the heavy undergrowth, 
and Fisher's "manner of canning up the regiment into action by the 
right flank," the three rear companies were unable to get into position 
to fire on the batteries, although they were exposed to a heavy cross- 
fire of small armi^iwevertheless, the fire of the seven companies en- 
gaged was made with terrible effect. In Griffin's battery every can- 
noneer was shot down and maftv horses were killed, "leaving the 
battery . . . perfectly hel»iess."*^^nly three pieces were able to be 
withdrawn from the field)c3licketts' battery, grouped close to Grif- 
fin's unit, was disabled "almost immediately." Captain Ricketts was 
severely woiuided, while Lieutenant D. Ramsey, second in command, 
was killed. Eleven men were killed, and fourteen wounded. Somany 
of the horses were killed that the guns were left on the field. (S^ 

As the Sixth advanced in its brave charge. Union infanti^ began 
to fire upon it. A Michigan unit and a regiment of New York Fire 
Zouaves fired heavy volleys into the regiment from the front. Other 
units. Confederate troops, fired into tlie-^Sixth from the rear. The 
situation became one of utter confusion^2§\.s his men withdrew from 
their first movement against the two Union batteries, Fisher found 
himself standing next to a gun in one of the batteries, waving his 



Manassas 23 

sword in ihe aii\Obvioiisly the colonel was puzzled by the situation. 
His men were falling bacL^in confusion, while troops were firing 
upon them from every side@^\ mounted Confederate officer came up 
and ordered the men of the Sixth to "cease firing." Even as this con- 
fusing order was given the Union tPtraps in front of the regiment 
"kept pouring in a murderous fire.'^^aptain Isaac Avery of Com- 
pany E immediately ordered a second charge upon the batteries. 
The regiment again moved forward and drove the remaining k^on 
cannoneers from their guns and took possession of the battei-y&^in- 
ing the charge .A.very ^vas wounded in the leg, but never left the field. 
Young Lieutenant Willie P. Mangum stood by Major Robert F. 
Webb at a captured cannon. Both Mangum and Webb were exultant 
over the victoi7 of their regiment. .\t this moment young Mangiuii 
fell, badly wounded with a severe flesh wound under his left arm. 
Fortunately the musket ball had struck a Bible in Mangum's left 
coat pocket, diverting its direction and probably saving his life, (iw 

.\t this juncture the regiment was fired into again by other Con- 
federate units, notably the Fourth .\labama Regiment. The Sixth 
was ordered to begin a slow retreaL-Jeaving the batteries unoccupied 
in a position between the armies. ^2^ 

About sunset General Beauregard ordered a general advance of 
the entire Confederate Ai'my. As a member of the Sixth exclaimed, 

. . . the enemy . . . ran like tiukeys, pursued by our infanti-y, 
cavalry and artillery for several miles, until darkness stopped 
them. Our Regiment \\as in the charge, under Col. Lightfoot 
and Major AVebb. (jgj 

When darkness came the Sixth had lost sixteen killed, and sixty-four 
wounded — a sad baptism of blood for the previously-uninitiated unit. ( 
Among the officers, Colonel Fisher had been killed. Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Lightfoot ^vas slightly wounded (as was Captain .\vei-)') , Lieu- 
tenant Mangum was dangerously wounded, and Brigadier General 
Bee, commander of the Third Brigade, was killed. (^O) 

Archibald Henderson, eminent North Carolina historian, de- 
scribed the significance of the capture of Ricketts' and Griffin's bat- 
teries bv notinff. 

It is evident that the capture and silencing of the deadly 
massed batten' turned the tide of the battle and changed prob- 
able defeat into overwhelming victory. The captured battery, 
although later relinquished never fired another shot that day. ^ 

Ex-United States Senator Thomas L. Clinoman, an evewitness to 
the charge of the Sixth, stated. 

The service of Colonel Fisher and his regiment can not be 
over estimated on this occasion. . . . Neither then, nor at any 



24 The Bloody Sixth 

time since, have I doubted that this movement saved the day to 
the Confederacy. If the gallant and noble Fisher, by this dash, 
lost his life, who did more during the long and arduous Struggle? ^ 

After their return from the action at the Union batteries, the Sixth 
was ordered to support the Confederate flank movement which drove 
the Union forces from the field. The men slept on the field on the 
night of the 21st, ^\ith what memories no one can ever tell.^il) 

An officer of the Sixth went over the field shortly after the battle 
ended. His description is very vivid: 

... it was indeed a sickening, heart-rending sight. The 
enemy lay piled up in heaps, and horses strewii all along. 1 

coiuited forty horses in a distance of fifty yards \11 over 

the battle-field were strewed the dead and dying. Some had 
placed their arms under their heads as they went to their last 
sleep. Others folded their arms across their breasts, some with 
features distorted and fists clenched as they wrestled in the 
agonies of death; others wore the calm, placid smile which should 
grace the face of a soldier dying in a glorious cause. In the little 
clump of cedars, the wounded had crawled and died, and lay 
there in ghastly heaps. ^) 

Shortly after the Sixth had taken Ricketts' battery, Colonel Wil- 
liam Smith stimibled across the body of Fishei^^E^ater, other Con- 
federates, hurrying to the battlefield from Manassas Jiuiction, passed 
a lone rider on horseback carrying Fisher's body, "cold and stiff in 
death." The colonel's remains w^re carried in front of the saddle 
in the direction of the jinrctionVSCaptain York of Company I, Sixth 
Regiment, sent a telegram to Governor Clark on the 22nd: 

Col. Chas. F. Fisher was killgd in battle today. Send notice 
to family. His body on the way.^ 

The body reached Raleigh on the morning of July 2-1 on the mail 
train from PetersburgCi?An escort of the Twelfth Regiment North 
CarolinaTroops under Colonel James J. Pettigrew accompanied the 
remainssSrisher's death created a deep impression on the minds of 
the people of North Carolina. When the train caiTying the body 
reached Raleigh, crowds filed into the car which contained Fisher's 
coffin, on top of which were "placed the sword and hat of the deceased 
patriot." People saw that there were two bullet holes in the hat, 
revealing the fact that the fatal bullet had passed entirely through 
Fisher's head(2St"he train carrying the body was draped in moupfting, 
while the flag on the State Capitol was lowered to halt-mast.'«-^he 
Raleigh Register exclaimed: 



Manassas 25 

A braver man than Colonel Fisher never lived. He caiTied 
his life in his hand for the service of his country, and at the hour 
of need freely offered it upon its altar. (Q) 

On the afternoon of July 24 Fisher's body arrived at Salisbury, his 
home town. Almost the entire population of the town was at the 
station to meet the remains which were escorted by "Capt. Cole's 
Coni]3any of Guilford men." Eight pallbearers bore the coffin 
through the streets to the Episcopal Church followed by a "very 
long procession of citizens. . . ." The funeral services were very 
solemn. The Salisbury Brass Band played for the occasion with 
'measured miisk." It was evening when Fisher's body was lowered 
into the gra\e.'t^ccording to the Salisbiny Carolina Watchman. 

The exercises there were deeply solemn, though brief. It 
was indeed a touching moment. Afanly bosoms heaved with 
emotion . . . soon the moimd of yellow clay rose to mark the 
resting place of an intreped patriot of the revolution of 1861. . . . 
He is gone. Peace to his ashes, and forever green be the laurels 
of his memoi^. \^ 



As the thunderous crashes of tlie militai-)' salute echoed in the evening 
stillness all Salisbury wept. \^^ 

Manv tributes ^vere paid to Fisher. The officers of the Sixth Regi- 
ment, meeting on August 21 at Camp Jones, near Manassas, eulo- 
gized their dead commander: 

. . . A\-e ha^'e lost a commander at once bold, fearless and 
prudent — a friend just, kind and generous ... he was ever 
anxious to add to the comforts and happiness of his men. . . .^6) 

On August 26 a meeting was held in Charlotte to pay tribute 
to the fallen colonel. Resolutions were passed offering public con 
dolences to "the family and numerous friends and relatives. . . ■" (S^ 
Other tributes came from Theodore S. Garnett, a relative of the late 
General Robert S. Garnett, in Hanover Junction, Virginia and Oscar 
W. Blacknall, an officer in the Twenty-third North Carolina Regiment 
at Manassas. Garnett wanted to raise a regiment of volunteers "to 
avenge the death of Gen. Robei;4^S. Garnett and Col. Charles F. 



Fisher. All to serve Avithout pay."l<&ilacknall expressed a feeling held 
by many North Carolinians: "North Carolina ^vill cherish with pe- 
cidiar pride the name and the memon' of Charles F. Fisher. ..." I 
The regiment lost another important officer at First Manassas. 
He A\as Lieiuenant ^V^illie Person Mangum, ex-Senator Mangum's 
only son. Ymnig Mangum had suffered a severe flesh wound in the 
left breast.(&fce ^\as carefully removed from the battlefield to a 



26 The Bloody Sixth 

... M 

military hospital at Louisa Court House, "a little nearer horae.'^"he 
young officer wrote to his sister, Martha, to reassure her on July 25: 

... I have been well attended to and am much better. I 
saw Col. Leach (a family friend) at Manassas and he sent his 
surgeon to dress the wound. He said I could stay in his tent 
and be well cared for. . . . (fei) 

For a time it looked as if young Mangum would recover.^iowever, 
on July 30 he took a turn foi>4lie worse and died, reciting scriptures 
from the Bible to the end.'^SHclolphus W.^Iangum, a Methodist 
preacher and cousin to Lieutenant Mangum>=^vas with him when he 
died. He wrote to Mangiun's family: 

. . . You have the assurance that he acted nobly, — he was a 
true hero and patriot — he proved it in that bloody field — he told 
me that though he did not shoot, he rallied his men, taught them 
how to load, etc. He remarked that if ever he entered another 
field he would take a musket. (^ 

A note of dissension entered the letter with the words that young 
Mangum "criticized Col. Fisher's coinse on that day. . . ■" ^ 

Manfiwm's remains reached Petersburg, en route to Raleigh, on 
July SIvSsPaul C. Cameron, a friend of the Mangxun family, made 
arrangements for the body to be brought to Hillsboro from-Raleigh, 
and be met by "the Toivn Herse" at the Hillsboro Statioife<]ameron 
sent a servant to notify "you striken parents of the painful intelligence 
of the death of their only son. . . .'^2q"he feeling of Mangum's inany 
friends was expressed by Cameion: 

The sympathy of friends in a time like this can do but little 
to sustain you all in your affliction — I can only tell you that I 
do sorrow with you all most sincerely — and deeply deplore the 
death of your brother. . . . @ 

Mangum's body arrived at Raleigh on the morning of Augaist 1. 
An escort of citizens of Hillsboro was there to receive it. The 
mail train carrying the body anived at Hillsboro late that afternoon. 
Many of the citizens of the town were at the station to receive the 
body. Forming a funeral procession, they escorted the coffin through 
the streets in an occasion "solemnized by the tolling of the bells of 
all the churches and the Coiut House. . . .'^QJThe town Am: was dis- 
played at half-mast in token of respect for the deceasedGSThe body 
was carried to the Mangiun-Jiome near Red Mountain by some young 
"gentlemen" of Hillsboro!2iHere young Mangum was buried in his 
family's hilltop cemetery behind his father's home. @ 

The Flat River Guards, Company A, Sixth Regiment, met on 
July 31 at Camp Bee near Manassas to express their esteem of 
Mangum and their sorrow over his death.CjyThe meeting resolved 



Manassas 27 

"That the loss of so noble and estimable a gentleman is keenly felt 
and sincerely regretted by us all, for his generous bearin^and noble 
conduct has endeared him to each and every one of us.'^2^esolutions 
were passed sympathizing with young Mangum's family, and re- 
solving that the company should go to the spot where Mangum 
received his wounds, and fire a military salute. It was agreed that the 
company should wear a badge of mourning for thirty days in memory 
of Mangum. @ 

On the day after the battle of Manassas the sky ^vas dark and for- 
bidding. Rain had fallen in torrents throughout the night "and na- 
ture seemed sad and mournful. '^^he countryside about the battle- 
field -(vas covered with troops, many looking for lost friends, some 
looking for their regiments, ivhile others were conveying dead and 
wounded from the battlefield. The ground was littered with dead 
and wounded men, dead horses, wagons, tents, baggage "all mixed 
in the most inextricable confusion. '(|/£verything was lying about in 
the mud and incessant rain without any protection. (S^ 

The Sixth Regiment remained on the battlefield until July 24 
when it -was marched to Camp Bee, named in honor of General 
Bernard E. Bee, near Manassas Junction^\Vhile the men were sta- 
tioned here great anxiety was shown among their kinfolk in North 
Carolina concerning their losses in the battle. Friends and relatives 
of the troops wrote phrases such as, "With the intelligence of our 
great xieipry — comes . . . the rumor that our Company is ciU to 
pieces.' vyThe knowledge that sickness was present in-, the regiment 



did not help alleviate fears for the safety of the men(£-An immediate 
appeal was made for medicines to help the^ck. Blackberry wine 
and cholera medicines were especially needecr^^. Mebanesville physi- 
cian, anxious for the safety of his three brothers on duty with the 
regiment, offered Governor Clark his services free of charge, pro- 
vided he could get "a free pass" to Manassas'^ome efforts were made 
to reassine the "home folk" of the condition of the regiment. Captain 
William J. Freeland of Company C wrote his wife: 

1 am yet alive and well. ... Be of good cheer, dear Julia, 
for I hope the last great battle is fought and won.@ 

Others assured the public that the regiment had ^von a name for 
itself by captiuing "Sherman's famous Batten. '(SOne of the privates 
in the regiment summed tip the feelings of his comrades: 

... I am ^\•ell at this time an hope these few lines may find 
you all in the same state of helth. ... I would be glad to com 
horn to see the girles and tell them ho-(\- good I love them. . . . Q^ 

The men had come through their first battle. Althotigh the gal- 
lant Fisher was dead, destinv beckoned for those who survived. 



IV 



A New^ Colonel Takes Command 



"/ have the honor to state that I readied here last evening and 
have assumed command of the Regt." 



William D. Pender to Henry T. Clark. August 27, 1861. 



On August 3, 1861, the Sixth Regiment A\as marched to Camp , 
Jones at Bristoe Station, a distance of eight miles from Manassas.^ 
Here the men settled do^vn to the usual routine of Confederate 
soldiers stationed in a permanent camp. At daylight they rose to the 
sound of a drimi. This was follo^ved by a period of drill for an hour 
or two, part of it in double-time. After breakfast and more drill the 
officers went to "recitation" and studied "15 or 20" pages in Hardee's 
Tactics. Dinner and more drill occu])ied the rest of the day. There 
was no time to be idle in camp.@ 

While the regiment was stationed at Camp Jones during August, 
1861, it was faced with the necessity of getting a new commander to 
replace the lamented Fisher. William T. Dortch, the regiment's 
ex-lieiuenant colonel, ^vrote to the Military Board on August 2 
concerning the promotion of Captain Richard W. York of Company 
I to the rank of Major, "Presuming that Lt. Col. Lightfoot will be 
appointed Colonel & Major Webb, Lt. Col. of the 6th Regiment of 
State Troops. . . ."(3/The officers of the regiment suggested that Light- 
foot was not too popular by recommending some choices of their 
own — David Coleman, Esquire, from Buncombe County, "a thorough 
militar\>-.ofiicer," and Major Pride Jones of Hillsboro in Orange 
CountNvidt ^\-as felt that a native North Carolinian woidd have more 
concern for the men because they were "far removed from home, 
exposed, under the most unfavorable circumstances, necessarily to 
many hardships & privations. . . .'\Srhe officers were careful to say that 
they didn't wish to dictate to the governor, nor did they wish to 
"reflect upon anyone. "»2rhis petition was signed by evei^ company 
commander in the regiment except Lieutenants Tinner, Carter, and 
Walker ivho \\'ere "absent on furlough. "(t) 

28 



A New Colonel Takes Co^r^rAND 29 

Clark solved the problem for the regiment on August 15 ^vhen 
he ordered Colonel William Dorsey Pender of the Third North 
Carolina Volunteer Infantry to assiune command of the Sixth. The 
,i[)pointment ^\-as made "at the unanimous request of the officers. "(^ 

Pender, born on February 6, 1834, in Edgecombe County, North 
Carolina, was the son of James and Sarah Routh Pender. He -svas a 
descendant of Edwin Pender of Virginia who came to the colonies 
in the reign of Charles II. After receiving his primary education in 
the "common schools" of Edgecombe County and clerking in his 
brother's store, Pender was appointed a cadet to the United States 
Military Academy at West Point. He graduated in 1854 A\'ith a 
standing of nineteen in a class of forty-six. He was commissioned 
brevet second lieiuenant in the First Artillery, and was promoted to 
full second lieutenant in the Second Artillery in the same year. In 1855 
Pender ^\as transfened to the First Dragoons. He attained his first 
lieutenancy in that regiment in 1858. In the period 1856-1860 he saw 
much acti\e service, mostly Indian fighting, on the New Mexico, 
Oregon, 'Washington, and California frontiers.® 

Pender was a handsome man, oli\e complexioned, and slightly 
below medium height. He ivore a thick dark beard which made him 
look older than he actually was. Always honorable and faithful to 
the Confederacy, Pender had hoped that war could be averted, but 
when he saw that it could not, he did not hesitate to join with his 
native state in a common cause. 

On March 3, 1859, Pender married Mai7 Frances, daughter of 
ex-Congressman Augustine H. Shepperd of near ^Vinston-Salem, 
North Carolina. The couple had three sons: Samuel Turner; Wil- 
liam D.; and Stephen Lee. He was made adjutant of the First / 
Dragoons in 1860, but returned to the East on recruiting duty in ' 
1861. 

When Pender threw in his lot with the South in the spring of 
I86I, he was given a commission as captain of artillery in the Pro- 
visional Army of the Confederate States, and sent to Baltimore on 
recruiting duty. He returned to North Carolina in May, I86I, and 
was assigned by Governor Ellis as an instructor of volunteers at 
Camp Mangum near Raleigh, and later, of troops bfing drilled at 
Garysburg, on the Petersburg and ^Veldon Railroad.l^He was elected 
Colonel of the Third North Carolina Volunteers on May 15, 1861, 
and soon made many friends.'^N'hen he was notified of his appoint- 
ment to conmiand the Sixth he ^vrote, 

I ha\e not made up my mind as to what I shall do about 
Fisher's Regt. but expect to remain where I am. I should like 
\erv much to go up ^vhere it is, but dislike to leave the 3rd. ((2) 

On Auoust 26 Pender arrived at his ne^\' command. His anival 

CD 

was received with much enthusiasm by the men, possibly because of 



30 The Bloody Sixth 

Lieutenant Colonel Lightl'oot's evident unpopularity with the regi- 



ment>^ender found the regiment's camp "in excellent order." In- 
deed, General William H. C. Whiting, new commander of the Third ^- 
Brigade^^ated the Sixth's camp as "the best camp in liis Brigade." <& 
There was still sickness among the men; only 284 privates were fit 
for duty, a number less than half of the men in the regiment. Many 
were ^vithout shoes, even at this early stage of the wai'V^Vhen lie saw 
his men drilling barefooted Pender promptly ordered seven hospital 
tents forwarded from Norfolk, "as there is but one tent for the sick 
in the Regt." This wotild alleviate conditions among the sick, espe- 
cially since most of the men had to lie in company tents "which 
leak badly. '((prhe young colonel appealed to Governor Clark to send 
provisions and ecjuipment to the regiment, especially shoes: 

Could you not sir come to our assistance and send us some. 
Every one says the Regt. has suffered terribly & rendered the 
most efficient service. Gen. Whiting does not hesitate to say that 
it is the best of the five Regts. in his Brigade. (Tj) 

Pender was not afraid to ask a personal favor of the governor: Wotdd 
Governor Clark please appoint "my brother-in-law Jacob Shepperd"^— 
to a second lieutenancy in Company G, Captain Craige's company?^ 

To his wife, Pender could unburden the innermost secrets of his 
heart. He was determined to do his best for his men, even though ^^ 
he feared "we shall (have) great many deaths before we get through. "g 
It was a sad regiment that Pender came to command — possibly the 
situation was made even worse by the fact that this was the yoiuig 
commander's first experience with a command fresh from the horrors 
of a Civil War battle. Even so, there ^\as time for pleasantries of a 
sort: 

I had the honor of taking tea with Gen. Johnston last-night."^ 
Mrs. Johnston is Avith him, and charming lady she is. Tliey 
recolected me from Leavenworth, and treated me very kindly. 
Old officers have an enonnous advantage. What I have seen of 
Whiting 1 like very much.(a|; 

It must have satklened Pender to see Lightfoot's wife in camp with 
Irer two childrenv*There was a war to be fought, a war which left 
little time for women or children. 

The Sixth was faced with many troubles throughout the month 
of August, 1861. While no battle was fought, there were many false 
alarms. On the 26th of July heavy cannonading was heard in the 
direction of Acquia Creek, too "far for us to have any hand in the 
engagement if there was an engagement. "^^ 

The fact that the ^•alieus Confederate regiments were camped 
separate from one another^id not alleviate the problem of sickness. 



A New Colonel Takes Command 31 

The situation became so serious that Charles E. IWinson, North 
Carohna Surgeon General, became deeply concerned.^He urged that 
more surgeons be added to the regiments, ^o be paid by the state," 
as U\o surgeons were not deemed sufficient^ t is knoivn that typhoid 
fever accounted for at leaM some of the deaths, although some suf- 
fered from battle \\'OundsK3t is certain that lack of adequate clothing 
was a cause of much suffering among the men. The situation de- 
teriorated to the point where the ladies of HillsbOTO were asked 
to knit the men "a supply of substantial stockings."@rhe fact that 
the men had not been paid only compounded their difficulties. Many 
of them were "poor men witly-dependent families." They needed 
money to keep up their morale.^^dolphus W. Mangum of Salisbury 
■\\rote Governor Clark on August 19: 

If they are neglected thus (not being paid) , they -ivill become 
disheartened and will not feel like fighting and suffering for the 
careless and ungrateful. . . . I'm sure your good judgement will 
agree that if men are expected to suffer & fight they must be 
kept in fighting plight & fighting spirits. (Si 

Mangum emphasized, "They cannot be kept so unless they are paid." 
The hardships met \\ith in August c^sed men to ivish for "\\ater 
milions" and "cidar" and "whiskey.'^Homesickness haunted many 
of the men, although some of them hoped l^at their loved ones ^^•ould 
come from North Carolina to visit them.^23rhis feeling was not con- 
fined to enlisted nien. Pender Avanted eatables from home, as ivell as 
visits from friends^The eternal soldier's lament for forgotten articles 
of clothing is reflected in Pender's statement that, 

On looking over my trimk I find that I left all my handker- 
chiefs & most of my drawers & some socks &: shirts at Camp 
Ruffin. ^?) 

^Vhile the regiment ^vas haunted by sickness and official neglect, 
Captain Samuel McDoAvell Tate ^vas faced with the unpleasant task 
of settling the accounts of the deceased Colonel Fisher. These ac- 
counts were made by Fisher in supplying the regiment during the 
preceding spring, and were left vmsettled at his death. Bills for meat 
(steaks, shanks, roasts, beef, etc.)V^arious kinds ot,uniform material, ' 
and other supplies'^ere settled by Fisher's estateCpR. A. Caldwell of 
Salisbury, a friend of Fisher, asked if the dead officer owed any 
notes or bonds in two of the leading banks of cefttial North Carolina. 
Fortunately, the replies were in the negati\e.'*5ln at least tAvo in- 
stances the Confederate government assiuned the obligation of pay- 
ing debts incurred by Fisher in equipping the regiment. One of these 
involved unifonn coats, pants, capes^shirts, blankets, and "66 pair 
of shoes" costing a total of S960.90.Gahe other case involved "fifty- 



© 



32 The Bloody Sixth 

two pair of shoes" costing $88.605-T^n both cases the problem of re- 
payment was solved by putting the supplies on the regiment's Aiigust 
payrolls and charging them to the Confederate government, ft^ 

The regiment waited, in the closing days of August, for a possible 
movement to a secret destination. ttS'Althongh there were 803^ien 
and officers on the regimental morning ix{)ort for August 31,CJynly 
"three hundred men" were fit for duty^sfhis number increased as 
the weather improved about September loS'ender wrote his wife: 

... I long for the 3rd. (regiment) . Between us there is not 
such a Reg! — in the service. This does not compare with it: & 
I fear never will. But still I can brins, it^^tit a oreat deal, and 
have already done something towards it. '.^S) 

One of the things Pender did for his men was to write an appeal to 
the "ladies of N. C." to prepare socks and tinder^vear for theml^=^his 
was promptly done by numerous women in piedmont North Caro- 
lina. Captain Craige's company received ninety pairs of socks and four 
blankets fimn "the ladies of Franklin Church and vicinity" (near 
Salisbury) .©'These welcome items were received at the end of Sep- 
tember, "and you may be sure much appreciated by all.'^^n appeal 
was made to the ladies of Hillsboro for articles of clothing and 
other "comforts" for the sick in the regiment. When these articles 
were sent John A. McMannen of Hillsboro wrote, 

. . . the remembrance of which (the articles sent) will be 
ever fresh and green in their minds, and will be treasured up in 
their hearts as long as life lasts. (^ 

McMannen urged that future shipments of goods shotdd be sent in 
strong boxes, "hooped and nailed at the ends." No cooked meats 
were to be sent; but bread, cake, potatoes, onions, beets, dry beef, 
ham, pickles, preserves, wines, and cordials were in great demand. 
Clothing "of all kinds" was badly needed along ^th light cotton 
comforts which "will answer for bed and blanket. 'vS^Ioney was also 
sent, especially for special groups of particularly destitute soldiers. 
Citizens of Hillsboro collected 580.00 for destitute Irish families 
of men in Captain James W. Wilson's Rowan Company F.sMr sending 
the money a friend of the donors explained. 

By this act of liberality they mean no reflection upon your 
portion of the State, but as an expression of their willingness 
to assist those who have shown their loyalty by battling for oiu" 
rights and liberties, no niatter who they are, or from what 
countn' they ha\e come. ^7) 

All these shortages and worries tended to make the men sad 
and despondent. Morale was low, probably because of the number 



A Ne^v Colonel Takes Command 33 

of deaths from disease. Pender reported "six in the last week 8: sev- 
eral more will die.v^Food was also very scarce at Camp Jones. There 
was a great shortage of such commodities as butter, preserves, pickles, 
lard, and hams. Candles, tea, coffee, sugar, and matches were more 
plenti[ul.t^\mong those who suffered were the "poor helpless ne- 
groes" belonging to some of the officers and men. Some of these 
servants were, according to Pender, "allowed to die ^vithout any 
care on the part of those who are responsible for their well being." 
The regiment had lo^t-^t-ivo Negro servants recently, and possibly a 
third \\ould soon die.^^^he nights were^extremely cold, Pender had 



four blankets "& sleep cold every night. "'-^e summed up his feelings 
about his regiment in terse language: 

. . . This betiveen us is not the Regt that I had before. The 
men are not as good a class & the officers are nothing like as 
intelligent. This is strictly confidential. And the morale of the 
Regt. is bad. ... I find it hard to keep up my spirits with so 
much sickness & so many deaths. ... I read the burial service 
over a man yesterday &: to save me I could not help crying. . . . 
We have not moved yet 8; according to all appearances no more 
likely to move than a week ago. Our troops are so badly cripled 
by sickness that I do not see how we could well (move) .... (Q) 

In spite of this statement Pender did feel thathis presence was prov- 
ing "beneficial" to both the officers and men. (^ 

The young colonel coidd not solve one persistent problem which 
remained ^vith his men as siunmer turned into early fall. This was 
the lack of pay. Some of the men hadn't even received their bounty 
money "which should have been promptly paid at their enlistment." 
The hardship was made more serious by the fact that many of the 
regiments camped aroimd the Sixth had recei\ed their pay "two or 
three weeks ago." It seemed to many of the men that they had been 
slighted. Hadn't they done their fidl duty? Hadn't they taken Rick- 
ett's and Griffin's batteries at Manassas, opening the way for a Con- 
federate victory? Many of their families were already suffering from 
need of mone\'." Committees, appointed by state authority to pro- 
\ ide for soldiers' families, hadn't done their duty. Several families, 
'whose children no\\' \\ant bread," hadn't e\en been visited(2&t was 
hard for the men to understand these things, harder still for them to 
remain where they were withoiu doing something about this un- 
bearable situation. W. H. Alexander, assistant commissary sergeant 
to the regiment, had feelings in this matter which were fairly typical. 
He wrote directly to Governor Clark in early September: 

I have been in service of the ^\-ar since the 23rd day of April 
by appointment first of Col. Fisher, next by the autlimities at 
Raleigh, and lastly by a commission of L. P. Walker.lSSi left a 



34 The Bloody Sixth 

family of children who recjuired nearly all the money I had to 
subsist upon until I returned & being here and having to feed 
myself at very exorbitant prices I feel discouraged that I cannot 
receive some money. Must I resign 8: go home for a support or 
is it likely that the paymaster will soon make his appearance. 
There are 500 or more in this glorious Regt. who have not a 
cent of money: I loaned and borrowed until the thing is out. @ 

Alexander saw and felt the lack of money. He ^vondered "who pays" 
and when. Woidd he be paid for his six-weeks service prior to the 
date of "my first commission for service rendered"? These were things 
which came close-to the men: conditions which they hoped would be 
soon alleviated.'eft'Alexander ended his letter on a note of sadness: 
"Our men continue to die daily." @ 

Pender was anxious to complete the organization of his regi- 
mental staff ^s'hile the regiment was still encamped in the vicinity ot 
Manassas. On September 4 he w-rote Governor Clark requesting 
that a chaplain be sent to join the regimenr3P. A. HolL had been 
transferred to the regiment on August 6 as surgeon>2^athaniel 
Scales, the regimental quartermaster, had a high reputation in 
Pender's eyes. He was "very highly spoken of. I like him very well.'tj 
Gradually the staff was "shaping up," even though Lieutenant Colonel 
Lightfoot was proving himself pompous and unlikeable. Pender 
felt that "I shall be annoyed by him."(23n spite of this annoyance, 
Pender felt that life was continuing on an even balance for him. He 
wrote his wife that she needn't worry about him. There was no 
danger that he would soon fall in battle "for the chances as I wrote 
you before, are that we ^vill be in reserve. "^^ 



Camp Fisher 



"]]'e have fust moi<ed over to our new Quarters. . . . Suine of our 
houses are very fine and tastey. . . ." 

Robert F. Webb to Lucv Mancum. December 31. Irfiil. 



For some time it had become evident that^he regiment ^\"otild 
be moved to the area along the Potomac RiverW^Ithough this didn't 
please Colonel Pender since it would take the regiment out of the 
field of active operationsM;here was good reason for it. A defensi\e 
work on the Potomac at E\ansport and near Dumfries ^\as under 
construction in early September. General Whiting was ordered to go 
there and direct the "mounting of the guns." He was also directed 
to detemiine how many men woidd be needed to defend the position 
"S; the time they should be expected to hold out.'*«1„Inion forces had 
been moving in a threatening manner in the direction of the Occo- 
quan River, some tAventy-five miles below Washington. There was 
also some reason to suspect that a Union force might land in the 
vicinity of Dumfries and thus flank the Confederate position at 
Manassas. It woiUd be necessary for the Confederates "to take a po- 
sition some where in the vicinity of Bacon Race Chinch" below the 
Occoquan to intercept such a movement. The right flank of the 
Confederate line, based at ^^^<3lf Run Shoals on the Occoquan, was 
a particularly sensitive spotif? Confederate cavalry under Colonel 
Wade Hampton was stationed there, but a-Jorce of infantry would 
obviously be necessary to hold the positionviGeneral Joseph E. John- 
ston, commanding all Confederate forces in northern Virginia, ^\as 
extremely anxious for Whiting to determine how many infanti-y 
troops ivould be necessary "for the observation of the Occoquan, Sc 
succor of Evansport."© 

By mid-September Whiting had decided to move his brigade, con- 
sisting of the Fourth Alabama, First Tennessee, Second ^Iississippi, 
l-.le\enth Mississippi, Sixth North Carolina, and Imboden's batterv, 

35 



36 The Bloody Sixth 

to the vicinity of Dumfries^ Orders Avereiirepared for the march, to 
begin on the morning of September 18.(2/ 

As the men prepared to march, Pender's fears were rejuvenated. 
He felt that he couldn't move more than "three hundred 8: thirty 
or forty men" when the time came to go. This iiias a sad figure 
out of a total of 798 men on the regimental rostei>2/rhe regimental 
health was improving, but men were still dying. According to 
Pender, 

They average about one per day in deaths. But few new cases 
but the old ones are hard to get up. Still I do not despair; the 
general health is much better, and the spirits of the men are 
getting more bouyant. I never saw such long faces as ivhen I 
came here. Together ^vith sickness & misdirected discipline (an 
obvious slap at Lightfoot) one never heard a good laugh or a (n) 
attempt at a song. (Jo) 

Indeed, the lieutenant colonel had been a strict disciplinarian, 
trying to teach the men his "Military-School-notions." Lightfoot 
wouldn't alleviate his discipline by anything, not even a single "kind 
word or act. "(friction ^vas revealed on the regimental staff bv Pen- 
der's sharp criticism of Lightfoot, a statement ^vorth repeating: 

The sick ivere allo-^ved to ^\allo-\v in nuid & to shift for 
themselves. They had an asst. surgeon who had never done 
anything but compound medicines, and Lightfoot seemed to 
make no effort to get any others. In fact he seemed to be totally 
ignorant of their ivants, or totally indifferent. He talked in- 
cessantly of disorganisation &:c. without one single effort ... to 
remedy it . . . these conceited military school teachers, are ivorse 
than good men ignorant of the first principles of drill. The more 
I see the more I am disgusted with the idea that to kno-sv ho^v to 
drill entitles a man to any position. If he has sense it helps him 
but if not, it (is) even better for him & those who have the mis- 
fortune to be under him that he did not kno-^v right face from 
left. @ 

The young colonel continued with an exposition of Lightfoot's good 
points. He ■^\'as a gentleman, would obey orders, and was a good 
assistant.OiPender had been forced to reprimand Lightfoot for the 
latter's pompous attitude. As^~Pender explained, "I am Colonel 
'de facto' as well as 'de jure.' '*^ightfoot ^\as hated throughout the 
regiment, Major Webb Avas "a fine man," Adjutant Smith was a 
"good boy" who showed great i-espect to his colonel iM'ender revealed 
his sympathy for the sufferings of his men -ivhen he wrote, 

I should much prefer this horrible war could end without 
any more bloodshed & misery. Oh! the terrible heart-rendering 



Camp Fisher 37 

anxiety that the poor \vomen must suffer for those ivho they 
lose. The anxiety of some poor fathers who come here to see 
their sick sons, (j^ 

Pender recalled one incident ^\hen he ^vas visiting the regimental 
hospital to see the sick. He came upon a bespectacled elderly man 
who was sitting by his son with a brush to keep the flies off the boy's 
face. The solciier was "pale &: emaciated," looking very ill. Pender 
sat down and began talking to the father, whoJinally remarked, " 'but 
f am forced to leave him in the morning.' \}ja\\& young colonel ivas 
doino evervthino- he coidd for his men — larovidino- clean tents A\'ith 
plenty of room, good attention, and the knowledge that his officers 
cared for their welfare. Q§) 

Early in the morning of September 18 the men were roused otit 
of bed to beein their lona; march to Dumfries. >frs. Scales, wife of 
the regimental quartermaster, accompanied the regimentiiS-Vlthough 
the regiment would be out of the reach of "nuich fighting," there \\as 
no spirit to get into a fight. As Pender said, "f shall be content if it 
happens to be my luck, not^-to be in a fight, ff it comes I shall be 
ready & Avilling to meet it. ''battles coidd ^\ait: the suffering of the 
[Kist month had been too much to wish for the additional test of 
battle at this time. 

On the night of the 18th the men filed across Powell's Run and 
went into a temporary camp. The next morning the men were 
marched half a mile and pitchedrtents. This new camp was named 
"Camp Hill," for obvious reasons^^he camp was situated in an area 
of rolling hillSj^veraging about 250 feet in height, with excellent 
streams nearbyVi^Dnly 350 officers and men marched to the new 
campground. The sick had been^ieft at Camp Jones under Light- 
foot to folloxs' on September 20?^\en as the regiment marched 
from Camp Jones the lieuteirajut colonel was preparing "a long- 
letter about drills parades 'kd^Ks, Pender expressed it, "Did you ever 
hear of such a thing?\^t seemed that the old animosity between the 
two highest-ranking officers in the regiment Avas still alive. It was 
only a matter of time until other incidents would occur, to the pos- 
sible detriment of the men in the regiment. 

The town near ^vhich the regiment found itself encamped ^s'as an 
old Virginia river port, founded in the early Eighteenth Century. The 
main road, or Telegraph Road, between Washington and Richmond 
passed through its center, giving an atmosphere of importance to 
the vicinity. There ^vere some elegant brick buiWings in the town, 
but by 1861 most of these had fallen into ruinL-A'ow the area \vas 
the scene of extensive militan- activity. As if to emphasize Dum- 
fries' new importance as a military center General Whiting issued 
orders appointing a provost marshal and provost guards to maintain 
order in the town. The provost marshal would imprison all "officers 



38 The Bloody Sixth 

and Privates he finds in his premises," ^\•ithout a Avritten pass. Seecial 
provision \vas made regarding the "sale of spirituous liquor.'VStrict 
orders were also given for regiments and batteries, "already posted," 
to retain their positions. The articles of war dealing with conduct of 
troops were to be "published" at each regimental dress parade, "and 
strictly enforced." All officers and men, except regimental, post, and 
corps commanders, were required to have written passes from camp. 
No one was pennitted to approach the Potomac. Some of them were 
harsh orders, but Whiting meant what he said — they would be 
enforced! (^ 

Anridst the occasional sound of artiller)' fire between Union ships 
in the Potomac and the Evgnsport batteries, the men settled down 
to the routine of camp life^'ender was still deeply concerned about 
the demoralized condition of many of his men, much of it caused 
by "stai-ving wives at-home. . . . They say feed their families &; they 
will fight willingly."'^eath in battle field no fear for Pender: "Noth- 
ing but a natural death can await me here."^jD 

The regiment marched a distance of seven miles on September 
25 to act in support of a battery at Freestone Point on the Potomac. 
A Unipn landing ivas expected, but the enemy was "not so impru- 
dent. "^3"he men bivouacked that night near the j4yer. All things 
considered, everyone "spent a very pleasant time.'^^^till, when they 
returned to Camp Fisher on the morning of the 26th, the men were 
glad to be back; even the return to camp routine was "a little more 
interesting. . . .'(JPV new spirit seemed to be taking possession of the 
regiment. By the end of September nearly 400 men and officers were 
fit for duty. The morale of the regiment was generally good, at least 
compared with what it had been during the preceding summer. Q^ 

Towards the end of September the Sixth received a most-welcome 
addition to the regimental staff. He was the new chaplain. Reverend 
Adolphus -iVilliamson Mangum, pastor of the Methodist Church in 
Salisbury .@"he Hillsborough Recorder praised Mangum saying, 

Mr. Mangum is highly spoken of as a gentleman and a 
christian, and as having won by his social and generous dispo- 
sition, the affection and esteem of the members of all the churches 
of the community in ^vhich he has been residing. It may be 
hoped that he will be of great usefulness in the field -which 
he has gone to occupy. 6?) 

Mangum was at Petersburg on the 26th, carrying many boxes with 
him. He had heard that the regiment was "at a place called Dvnn- 
fries," according,^^to Mangum "one of the best positions / could have 
chosen for us.'t^Xbe, reverend was anxious to see a battle, but not 
to participate in it.^^Iis \o\e was religion, not the horrors of war. By 
October 29 Manginn was requesting a tent for himself, "a /^H 
tent, poles & pins. ... I have no tent but am entitled to one.'v^y 



Camp Fisher 39 

early October he was writing from "Land's End., Va." to a North 
Carolina friend stationed at Bristoe Station. The letter concernedithe 
death of Mangum's cousin. Lieutenant Willie P. Mangum.(£/rhe 
young officer died "a noble death . . . beaiing his arms against tyranny 
& outrage and at peace with his God.'^Olangum sho^ved his com- 
bination of religious fervor and strong Confederate sentiment Avhen 
he exclaimed, 

He was of the proper mould to take a leading position in 
national affairs — so much promise so much of pure genius, so 
much of patriotism blasted in the Inid and oh, the vile agent 
that caused it. (fs) 



The regiment also gained a sutler on September 28. His name 
was E. L. Fant, and he was duly elected by^^r^'Regimental Council 
of Administration" to sell goods to the mensSFThis was undoubtedly 
a welcome addition to a unit which coidd muster 450 men fit for 
duty by late September. Pender's efforts to improve the health of his 
men were paying off. Indeed, there was a "strong feeltng of gratitude 
fe attachment" towards the young, ambitious colonel.'^s Pender him- 
self explained it, "They would not loose me, to fall again into the 
hands of Col. Lightfoot for anything in the world. "^e would admit 
that he enjoyed the applause of his men: "still I do not think the 
desire foe their good opinion coidd make me do ^vhat I know to be 
wrong. "^£i) 

Possibly one aspect of Pender ^\•hich endeared him to his men 
was his strong religious conviction. This feeling was exemplified 
b\ his detenninatioiv-tp be baptized at Fredericksburg in full sight 
I some of his mens^his desire was accomplished on October 7. 
the presiding minister being Reverend Toomer Porter of Charleston, 
South Carolina. The actual baptism was accomplished near the 
regiment's camp and in full sight of the men, just as Pender wished. (5^ 
As Pender explained it, 

I was willing to have it done in the sight of all, for with^ 

God's help 1 shall endeavor to Vwe up to the vows I then tcK)k.(£5' 

Stephen D. Lee, later a Confederate lieutenant general and a friend 
of Pender, ivas one of the two ivitnesses. ^P 

Another example of Pender's piety ^vas the books that he read. 
These included "The End of Controversy Controverted, Double 
Worship of the Church, Confession of Sias^ by Dr. Lewis of Brook- 
hn. Sacred Pravetd," and two others.&^ender's religious fervor 
and his benevolent attitude toward his men were expressed in many 
different ways. The young colonel felt that the regiment would ^.^^ 
"care for me just in the proportion as I can be of service to them." ^^ 



40 The Bloody Sixth 

This care was manifested in the issuance of a large amount of per- 
sonal equipment to the men during the month of October, equip- 
ment which was badly needed after the deprivations of the preceding 
sinnmer. Ouarterniasier Scales provided one ■ivall tent to Compan\ 
H on October 19!SEScales also provided large amounts of shoes, 
blankets, haversacks, knapsacks, unifonn coats, and pants to the regi- 
ment, an interesting point considering the generally-accepted notion 
that Confederate troops were poorly supplied, even early in the ivar. 
In order to facilitate the prociuement of clothing. Captain Isaac 
Avery of Company E was sent to Raleigh on October 14. The 
clothing which Avery was to purchase was mainly for his company of 
Burke, Yancey and McDowell County men. ^P 

Pender's letters reflected the monotony of life at Camp Fisher as 
September faded into October. On September 28 he wrote. 

We are in a distressing state of quietude here no^\-, but look 
for something on the river soon. We play a secondary part here, 
the batteries being of the most important consideration. ^ 

Again, on October 7, 

We are still here in inactivity, preparing for what may take 
place. What we will do before winter sets in &: where we will be 
when it does, are subjects about \vhich we are in profound 
darkness. (^ 

On October 9 he wrote in a more discomaging tone: 

. . . we live in such a huni-driun ^vay that a piece of nei\s 
with us is good for &c. I never see a paper scarcely. (<^ 



To add to his usual burdens with the regiment, and to increase 
the routine of camp life, Pender was designated as chief judge on a 
court-martial which convened in the camp of the Sixth Regiment on 
October 8. The court ^voidd be operative "for the trial of such 
commissiorjetl officers and other persons as may be properly brought 
before it."€l'ender was fatigued by the i^uine of the court, especially 
the "continual drag upon oiu' temper. "(s0n one occasion he wrote his 
wife: 

You must h^ satisfied ^\'ith a poor letter as I have to write 
in the coiut.((£^ 

It was with general relief that the^ourt foimd itself adionmed, "until 
further orders," on October 25v^ender ivas especially relieved; he 
hated to invoke the death penalty, especially as president of the 
court. (Q\ 



Camp Fisher 41 

Pender's letters to his wife during the fall and \vinter of 1861-1862 
reveal much of the routine and excitement of camp life. They shed 
much light on Confederates in both temporary camp and permanent 
winter quarters. Much of the infoiTnation sent concerned friends and 
their affairs. On October 9 he ivrote, 

Capt. Da\idson Avhose ^\ife acted so baiUy in California and 
^vho we did not wish to call on in San Francisco, took the oath 
on the other side, saying- he could not bear to come south & 
let his family starve, (ij^ 

Again, on October 11, 

. . . did I write you that Beaut (J. E. B.) Stuart has been 
made Brig. General and placed in conmiand of all the cavah7 in 
this army of the Potomac. Mr. Peter Hairston was here a fe\ v 
days since from Beaut's Hdqrs. He is volunteer aid to him. ^5y 

Pender's letters do not reveal much in the way of intimate military 
information since his fomial military training had imposed a volun- 
tary censorship upon him. He felt that the Union commanders 
"have gained a great deal of infoamation from imprudent men in 
our army & through our papers. "(i^'jo military information should be 
given, even by imprudent men, since "it is against orders." Anyway 
regimental commanders knew little about the over-all skuation and 
couldn't divulge much information if they had wished. (6^ 

October continued with both good news and bad. On the 16th the 
entire rcsfflient was equipped with new shoes, and "are no^\' com- 
fortable. '^till, there was a note of uncertainty in the air. The high 
command tightened up on the granting of passes, except to the 
sick.^siStrict orders were given to the pickets at the jtmction of 
Quantico River and the Occoquan Road (Telegraph Road) to stop 
"all persons" who did not carry a written pass. Only a handful of 
officers were attthorized to grant passes in the brigade, Pender being 
among themsiS-The "utmost vigilance" was required of everyone, a 
glim reminder that they were in a war zone and on continual alert. (7y 
Strict orders were given regulating the sale of provisions by hucksters. 
Such goods as butter, sweet potatoes, milk, chickens, turkeys, mutton, 
Irish potatoes, cabbages, and onions were included in the list. A 
violation of the rides go\erning sales ^voidd subject the guilty parties 
to "recantation of permit &; stoppage of business. "©The fleecing of 
soldiers by the hucksters had been brought to General Whiting's 
attention and "must be stopped." Qj) 

While this barrage of orders was coming do\vn from brigatie and 
division headquarters, the usual routine of life continued relatively 
uninterrupted during October. Mrs. Whiting, wife of the brigade 
commander, came to camp, "as she says for the \\'ar:" to make 



42 The Bloody Sixth 

camp life more interesting, so did Mrs. Scales, wife of the able regi- 
mental quartermaster. The imminent birth of a baby might-, take 
Mrs. Scales home before the war ended, but not Mrs. Whiting(^ow- 
ever, Mrs. Whiting left for Fredericksbiag^n October 21, leaving 
the determined Mrs. Scales behind in campSiPender showed his lack 
of tact with women when he said, 

I inad\'ertently said yesterday to Mrs. Scales that she would 
leave in a few days — that Mrs. Whiting had gone and my atten- 
tion was called off before I had time to carry in the joke . . . 
and she I feel has taken it to heart. So after all my efforts to 
please & make her comfortable she will go away with anything 
l)ut kind feelings towards me. 



Pender felt his motives were pure; a military camp in a war zone was 
no place for A\'omen, particularly one in Mrs. Scales's condition. No 
one could possibly know when a Union attack would take place, q^ 
Pender was disgusted with many things at Camp Fisher, with 
fault-finding officers, pregnant ivomen, and timid chaplainsSsPossibly 
the last problem was the most disappointing. Reverend Mangum, al- 
though the possessor of a distinguished family connection, an ex- 
cellent education^ and a good reputation as a minister in piedmont 
North Ca«,olina,v?I^as seriously considering an early return to North 
Carolina^^^ven though his health had improved (he had been sick 
in early October) , and although he spoke "so cheeringly of (his) 
prospects for usefulness, '^Si^ie young minister had become discour- 
aged with a persistent cold and "a tendency to jaundice." By 
October 29 Pender was ^vaiting, in disparaging temrs, of the chap- 
lain's departure foi>-Petersburg. As Pender put it, "Did you ever hear 
of such a thing. "vS\s if to illustrate Pender's expectations, Man- 
gum wrote an interesting letter from Richmond: 

After a most trying trip we reached here just before night. 
There happened to be a kind gentleman along from North Caro- 
lina or we should have suffered more. At Bristoe the man 
could get no transportation (Mangum was accompanying some 
sick soldiers) & I had to give a certificate of the number of men 
& the distance. I telegraphed to this point from Louisa C. H. 
for I feared that the men would have to lie out. They are no-^v 
in a Gov. Hospital &: if there be room in Petersburg they will 
probably go there tommorrow. I fear they have no room in P(e- 
tersburg) for 100 N. Carolinians were sent there yesterday. For 
the sake of himianity don't send any more ^vho are so feeble 
& who (know) nothing on earth about travelling withoiU send- 
ing some intelligent muse &; guide. There is also a coffin here 
from the 6th uhich was unceremoniously sent up to Bristoe to 
my care. ^^ 



Camp Fisher 43 

MaiigLim pointed out his feeble condition to Pender in a most direct 
manner, saying, "If I am well enough tomorro^v to go to Petersburg 
& find out anything farther I will write. Please excuse this coarse note 
. . I am very bad off ... &: convinced that if Old Abe gets the 
Janders' tie cause of the South will triumph, provided it depends 
on him.'®By early November Mangum had resigned, to the imme- 
diate relief of his colonel. Pender immediately made plans to get 
an Episcopal minister, if one could be found. He had procured a 
"Methodist to please some of the men. He has left &: I shall try 
to please myself." (S/ 

The Third Brigade became the object of much activity as Oc- 
tober drew to a close. An order was issued on October 19 calling 
for the collection and transportation of all extra baggage to Brook's 
Station on the Orange 8; Alexandria Railroad. Especial concern 
■\\'ould be shown to the "anus, acoutrements &;c." of those ^vho 
were sick and absent. This equipment was to be sent to the rear as 
soon as possible>SOn October 23 orders \vere issued regarding the 
sufficiency of salt rations in the various commands. Amis and am- 
munition were to be kept in order in readiness for a possible emer- 
gency. The brigade might have to march out and meet the enemy 
at a moment's notice. It ^\•as important that there he-N^plenty of 
wagons on hand to carry necessan- supplies for the men^22\.dditional 
orders were given to "Field officers of regiments, and mounted 
officers . . ." to reconnoiter the area in their spare time, to note eg^ecial- 
]y "the direction of roads between camps and the Occoquan.'W4\ll in- 
fonuation acqiured in this manner was to be reported to headquarters. 
Sjjecial directions were given to insure a total of fourteen ^\agons 
a regiment, one wagon to a company, "besides that for commissary, 
ordnance, field S: stafi and quarter master." This order would go into 
effect immediately.c2A.s if to lend support to this feverish preparation 
to meet an expected attack, troop movements were ordered to take 
place on October 26. The Second Mississippi and Fourth Alabama 
Regiments and Imboden's battery of the Third Brigade were ordered 
to march to Seymours' farm, above the camp of the Sixth North Caro- 
lina.63Vould the men see action at last? 'Were they finally going to 
march out and meet the enemy after three months of inactivity? 

The answer was somewhat disappointing to men ^sho had known 
the strain of discipline and inactivity for so long. The regiment 
■(vould move (orders were issued for that object on No\'ember 1) , 
but only to the support of the Evansport batteries. Routine picket 
duty was the order of the day, the regiment spending a day and 
night in support of the batteries maintaining the Potomac blockade. 
Colonel Pender described the operation in a graphic manner: 

I took my Regt. out Friday night on Pickett duty — at the 
battery 7 miles — and got back Saturday. It commenced to rain 



44 The Bloody Sixth 

that night & rained incessantly 24 hours all of which we had to 
take as we had no tents. The men in addition had to wade two 
streams waist deep, and you may be assured we were all pretty 
wet, & then had to sleep in wet blankets last night, but as yet I 
have not heard of any ill results. ^^ 

The men seemed to take the hardships "very cheerfully." Everyone 
was anxious to see the batteries fire at two small schooners that were 
passing.CT"he crisis and urgency of late October had subsided to the 
point where "we were . . . three weeks ago." ^?) 

As if to emphasize this apparent return to normalcy orders were 
issued to reconvene the court-martial, adjourned on October 25. 
The court was to reassemble at "9 o'clock A.M." on November -i.d 
Pender looked forward to a return of such unpleasant duty with fore- 
boding. He wrote that the court-martial "takes up all my time, or 
so much of it that I do not feel like doing anything after it is over. 
Judging men was not pleasant, especially since there were m^w cases 
from the Sixth Regiment for "sleeping on Post & desertion.'u3(Iorale 
had again become low; during October many regimental officers were 
planning to resign, a process which Pender felt would be difficult 
under his administration "for I do not think it right that i*fficers who 
get their men to come, should go off and leave them.'whe court- 
martial was finally adjourned on November 12 because the order 
asseml^ling it had been "technically incorrect." The court was there- 
fore not legally organized and its proceediiigs were void, a sorry 
verdict after twenty-six days of deliberations. ©P 

Whiting's anxiety over a possible Union attack remained acute 
throughout the autumn of 1861. General Johnston, at Manassas 
Junction, agreed with Whiting, but answered his request for a new 
battery with the statement that, "I look upon the case as hopless 
... it is too late to make this additiana^l preparation against any 
combined operation against Evansport.'^^S^ohnston felt that there was 
no fear of shellfire from the Union fleet: "I fear landing in force." 
The bluffs behind the batteries should be converted into "an in- 
trenched camp" where two or three regiments could maintain their 
position for several days in the face of an attack by a superior force. 
The roads about Manassas were becoming worse, and Johnston felt 
that "This place^ (Manassas) is not fit for our winter residence on 
any account. 'Viigeneral P. G. T. Beauregard offered Whiting his 
advice about future operations. The captor of Fort Sumter felt that 
Triplett's and Powhatan's Hills, in the vicinity of Po^vell's Run, 
should be fortified. Beainegard felt that the line of the Occoquan 
was very important, provided "the enemy does not land below it." 
Whiting must hold out, if attacketi, until some of the forces at 
Manassas could come to his relieni-^eneral Gustavus W. Smith, com- 
manding the Second Corps, wrote Whiting on the 14th that Colonel 



Camp Fisher 45 

Ech\ard P. Alexander would "practice daily telegraph ivith you." 
It ^vas important that all elements of the Confederate Army have 
"prompt communications." Bridges ^\•ere^eing built across the Occo- 
qiian to insme rapid troojj movementsUiWhiting ^vrote-rhis superiors 
that he woidd fall back to "the Neabsco crossing'^^^t the enemy 
crossed the Occoquan in heavy force. "We have tremendous odds 
against us, and if they cross the run we shall have a heavy fight." (^ 
Observing that Whiting ivas becoming extremely nervous under the 
threat of Union attack. General Theophilius H. Holmes, command- 
ing the Acquia District, assured ^Vhiting: 



Keep cool and exercise your great intellect dispassionately 
so you will succeed. (Toi) 



Anil so it ■(vent, letter after letter, explaining the militarv situation 

in detailed temis and anticipating an attack ivhich ne\'er came. ll£3^ 

AVhiting thought that the enemy might make an attack towards 
the end of November, "earlv iK^t week," as he wrote in General 



Orders Number 20 on the 23rd^i0'n the 25th orders ^vere given to the 
commanders of regiments directing them to prepare to leave camp 
"at a moments notice." Tents and baggage were to be moved beyond 
Dimifries on the 26th. The Confederates -vvoidd remain in bivouac 
and observe the enemy's movements. This was rendered neces^sm' 
by the enemy's operations "which are no-\\- coming to a point.'^-^-m 
preparation for a possible enemy attack the Third Brigade Avas 
moved to Dane's farm belo^v the line of the Neabsce^rd in a position 
near the other U\-o brigades in 'Whiting's command^^'hiting pleaded, 
in a memorandum to Johnston: 

I must have more troops. . . . 

Can no aid be given from the well-drilled regiments occupy- 
ing the Peninsida or from Norfolk? ([jj) 

Whiting went so far as to prepare a detailed letter to Johnston an- 
nouncing his plan of defense. He planned to make his clefense along 
Powell's Rim, "in the dense woods and heigitts?, -ivhich there are in 
our advantage, as on Neabsco they are his.'^i-4render wrote, in the 
midst of this activity, about the situation, and expressed the fervent 
wish, 

God grant they (the enemy) may have their hearts changed 
and offer peace, /fj^ 

On November 12 the regiment had been ordered into the field, 
but went only about "a hundred yards from Camp." Here the men 
stayed for two hours, only to return to camp to prepare "t^vo days 
rations" and keep themselves in readiness to mo\e. Pender didn't 



46 The Bloody Sixth 

think the enemy would attack them along Powell's Run, "when the 
country is so much in our in\'or.'(l!Me injected a light note into his 
correspondence by saying, 

. . . Mrs. Lightfoot has . . . reached us. I have not & do not 
intend to call on her, for her husband is such a funny fellow that 
he would not understand me, as he does not in any other po- 
sition I take. (JJJ) 

The young colonel reported that the Sixth Regiment mustered 550 
men fit for duty on November 17. Prospects for even more men 
looked hopeful, in spite of numerous misdemeanors committed by 
some of the men. One of these incidents involved some members of 
the Sixth who broke into a box from home sent to other men. Over 
$100 ivorth of private property was stolen and sold "around the 
Regt." Pender felt that the company involved should give the men 
a sound whipping and let them go, rather than bring the guilty 
parties before a court-martial. Honesty ^\as evidently not a policy 
shared by many soldiers, in Pender's opinion.(f/^ 

The most important operation that the Sixth engaged in during 
November and December, 1861, was the preparation of winter quar- 
ters. General Johnston Avrote Whiting on November 11 that, 

I am embarrassed on the subject of winter quarters. I made 
arrangements a month ago for the beginning of preparations, but 
was disappointed by the supposed contractor, who gave up the 
undertaking withotit giving me notice. I stippose that, upon oc- 
casion, your troops could make themselves log huts in a few days. 
Here (Manassas) we can't find the logs -(vhere the huts will be 
wanted. /'[Jq) 

Johnston felt that the enemy would disturb-Jris men "as soon as we 
have become comfortable for the winter."<Ia*ender wrote on Novem- 
ber 17 tliat his men were binlding huts, "tlie_idea of remaining here 
for the winter has fixed itself in our minds. vBajrhe men did not begin 
to construct their winter camp until the end of November, since the 
problem of military operatkurs still hovered in the foreground during 
the late November scare.^^4*Ender assured his wife that when he built 
his hut "it will be to hold you as well as myself." Qj;^ 

General Johnston visited the regimental camp on November 20. 
He seemed to be greatly pleased with the entire Third Brigade. 
Pender took much of this praise to heart, giving many compliments 
to the men in tlie-Sixth. a sreat change from his attitude of the pre- 
vious SeptembeiL^His pride was reflected in his words: 

None of the Regts. come up to mine in either of the three 
qualities above specified (drill, discipline, and pohsh) .... My 



Camp Fisher 47 

men are the sort ^vho obey orders & make little fuss or pre- 
tensions. 0^) 

Pender had determined to begin building huts for his regiment 
as soon as the necessary tools were available. It would be slow av 
but it A\ould make them comfortable during the coming ^vinter 
November 22 all of the men had Hues to their tents, "which makes 
them very comfortable barring a little smoke occasionally. "CIi>' 

The lack of axes plagued the regiment in its efforts to begin 
winter quarters. Axes Avere scarce in the Southern Confederacy, but 
even if they hadn't been "they would soon all be lost or ruined. '(2i£ 
The occasional negligence of his men worried the neat, orderly 
Pender: 

If they had been raised so, it would not be so bad, but nrost 
of them have been raised to make everything go as far as 
possible. (7g) 



Winter quarters ^vere finally jjegim on December 2, and just in 
time for the weather was arettino; extremely cold. There was even 
a feel of snow in the northern Virginia aiiV^his did not stop 
the men from performing their duties on picket guard. One company 
"has to g (o) every day from our regment.'y?/) 

'Whiting had come to Pender on November 23 to compliment 
the Sixth Regiment for having the neatest camp in the Confederate 
Armv of the Potomac. "Wliiting had chosen Pender's position him- 
self, the left flank of the troops guarding the Potomac batteries. 
Pender ■i\rote. 

This is all gratifying but I hope it does not increase my 
\anity, for of a surety I feel that what I do is through God's ^_^^ 
mercy, having given me a desire to do my duty in all respects. Ql^ 

As December began, the prospect of a fight seemed to loom larger 
in the camps below the Occoquan. A fluri^ of correspondence be- 
tween Johnston and Whiting discussed the possibility of the latter's 
moving closer to Manassas. The batteries should be abandoned; 
they could be re-taken after the enemy's infanti7 had been defeated. 
Whiting should-guard each crossing of the Occoquan to prevent a 
surprise attackV^lie fact that the Evansport batteries ivere under close 
balloon surveillance by the Unionists caused Johnston much alarm: 
"The infernal baJloon may interfere with such success as we had 
with Patterson.Q2johnston directed Whiting to keep the enein^inder 
sinveillance; "We must be prepared for all contingencies.''-^^ case 
of an emergency, the Third Brigade was ordered to cany only their 
blankets, cooking implements, and ammunition. The ^vagons accom- 
panying the troops had to be "\ig\u."(7j0 



48 Thf, Bloody Sixth 

During this period the Sixth Regiment still continued to have 
many sick men in its ranks. Although Render procured some medi- 
cine which had been stored in the areai=4lis men still continued to 
sicken and die. The young colonel wrote, 

They are the most sickly men I e\er saw. I have tried to do 
all in my power for them. We have (a) good deal of pneu- 
monia, & I fear (a) good deal of it has been brought on by 
imprudence. ^ 



One of the men had nearly recovered from a severe fever, but 
went out into the rain one night, "without his coat & shoes." He 
contracted pneumonia and died, chiefly through his own imprudence.(£ 
By December 7 Pender himself was ill with a mild case of dvsentery. 
He went about as usual, and cured himself by dieting.(T^ 

While the men >^ere preparing to move into their winter quarters 
in early DecemberV*other important events occurred, both good and 
bad, which are worth recording. On December 4 Whiting gave the 
flag of the Third Brigade to the Sixth Regiment, to use "imtil fur- 
ther arrangements." He showed great partiality to the Sixth because 
it came from North Carolina (his adopted siaxe) , and because it 
"gives him less trouble than any of the others. '^^nother event, which 
was not so happy, concerned Mr. Fant, the regimental sutler. He was 
found to be bringing liquor into camp, in spite of orders to the 
contrary. When remindetLof this order by Pender he assured "me 
it ^vas for his own use.'U>The incident might have ended here, but 
Fant, anxious to make a profit, went to \Vhiting and received that 
general's permission to sell it to the officers of the Sixth. 'Whiting 
quite probably did not fully understand the situation. When Pender 
learned of this new development he went to Fant's clerk and ordered 
the sale stopped "upon pain of being shut up & the store broken up." 
Some of the liquor was taken for the use of the sick; Fant was to re- 
reive payment at cost and transportation. Pender ivas determined to 
stop the sale of liquor to hu--«fficers, "before it grows to such dimen- 
sions as to give me trouble.^^iSrant seemed to be "bound up" in making 
money, but had spme good qualities too. He was a gentleman and 
was very obligingU^Mm spite of troubles like this, it was a good thing 
to learn that the troops along the Occoquan had been reinforced, 
and that the Sixth Regiment was finally ready to move into ^vinter 
quarters. (S^ /^ 

When the threat of an enemy attack had partially subsided, it was 
determined to move into Tvinter quarters as soon as possible. While 
the men would have ordinary log cabins, their colonel must have 
something special. Pender decided to construct fivo good-sized rooms, 
"13 ft by 14 ft," with a wooden floor, one window and a door to 
each room and a door between the rooms. The hut woidd be built 



Camp Fisher 49 

of poplar logs, daubed in between with mud; the weather in mid- 
December was mild enough to make daubing possible. As Pender^.,— 
jokingly explained it, the hut would be known as "a popular house. "(Z^il/ 
Mrs. Pender was instructed to bring sheets, pillow cases, knives, forks, 
spoons, a saltcellar, half a dozen plates, three or four cups and 
saucers, a mattress, one pillow, two or three camp stools, "& some few 
spices." The colonel already had blankets, a pillow, three stools, 
buckets, a basin, mess chest, cooking utensils, and some crockeiy 
candle sticks: "You see I am getting in earnest provided nothing turns 
up to mar my plans &: provided you will-ieave the comforts of home, 
for the hardships of camp &: log huts.ci^me of the officers were ex- 
pecting^ieir wives, notably Captain Scales and Lietuenant Alphonso 
A\erv.QiThe camp would be "quite a little town" with about 100 
hius, some 700 to 800 men, women, children, horses, cows, and dogs. 
Pender expressed the ^vish that "if the Yankees will let us alone we 
shall be so happy. "(T^y 

By De^ernber 11 Pender's hut was taking shape, although at a 
slow paceiSgIn December 18 the regimenLJHOved into winter quarters 
near its old camp beside Powell's Runr-Pender's hut was ready at 
last, while Xfc. Scales and Mrs. A\ery had anived in camp accord- 

ing to plai-ff^Hcveryone seemed content with the new camp. It was 

good to settle down in a comfortable place to spend the \\inter.(Z£^ 
On December 31 Major Robert F. Webb ivrote home, describing 
the regiment's ne^v home: 

. . . \Ve have just moved over to oin- new Quarters . . . over 
six hundred houses reqiureing about four hiuidred thousand 
boards. . . . Some of om- houses are ven' fine and tastey 
you wotdd be sinprised at the neatness of some of them (.) Mine 
has glass windo^vs and pannel door, it is astonishing in a few 
weeks a large city has been built with regular streets we have 
also built hospitals, stores, commissary and Quartermaster de- 
partments stables and every thing comfortable and neat. I feel 
quite at home here and have a serious notion of bringing my 
familv on to spend the whuer.ffs^ 

Webb had t^vo rooms, a parlour and sitting room, ivith the "nec- 
essar\" kitchen and stables. He had a fine Christmas dinner — turkey, 
oysters and hog,,-^ine. Oysters were plentiful; only two dollars a 



gallon, shuckecKii-^s Webb happily elaborated 

I ha\e concluded a bachelors life is not so bad after all. 
You know the old song no wiie to scold or children to bawl 
happy is the man that can go to bed with his boots on if he 
choose get up when he pleases take his tody when he please eat 
^\'hen it suits him smoke his pipe when it suits him lean back in 
his chair and put his foot on the table if he choses, now this is 
liberty in the broad sense. . . -A^D 



50 The Bloody Sixth 

This existence was accentuated by occasional nights on picket duty 
in the rain and days without eating. War was a terrible thing. \Vebb 
was disgT-isted to hear men "wba, profess to be gentlemen" curse as 
if they had no breeding at aliy^ro^any of the men in the Sixth were 
"small" doctors and "small" lawyers with some clerks "and all these 
gentlemens sons whose fathers are in congress or some other wicked 
place^,^nd they are the most corrupt and abandoned men I ever 
saw.'vferiien there was the occasional sound of the guns at Evansport 
and Cockpit Point, reminding meA that there was a war being fought, 
just over the horizon to the easii^-The camp of the Sixth was in "no 
little excitement" with the news from England over the Trent AfEair;(/ 
but life, for the most part, went on as usual. The health of the regi- 
ment was good, and morale was high. Webb lamented that his \vife 
Amanda couldn't be with him during the Christmas season, the per- 
ennial soldier's lament. CSI^ 

Life in winter quarters was extremely boring. Besides the picket 
duty, mentioned by Webb, there were drills, snowball fights, reading, 
singing, and gossiping. Cock fights were common, many roosters 
being kept in the Confederate camps. Card playing, sometimes for 
very high stakes, and many practical jokes were enjoyed by the men([ 
Life was, however, severe in the camps along the Occoquan. One of 
the officers of the Sixth, Captain William J. H. Durham, ^\as forced 
to leave for a Richmoaid hospital "and then to await the acceptance 
of his resignation. t/i&^rivates suffered more than the officers, some 
because the hard wintep-fif northern Virginia was more severe than 
that in North CarolinaV-^he dirt floors in their huts more than off- 
set the presence of "good Chimnfeys." Most of the soldiers' huts were 
sixteen and a half feet by eleven feet. Eight men were quartered in 
each hut. The huts were made frqpi pine logs, plentiful in the area. 
The camp was protected by a heavy growth of pine on the north and 
west sides, keeping out much of the cold wind. Still, its position on 
a hieh^aill south of Powell's Rim must have made it a very cold 
placeJ-Colonel Pender was held in high regard by most of his men. 
One of them ivrote to the Hillsborough Recorder in early Januai7, 
1862: 

In a word, I don't think that the Colonel has an equal in 
the whole amiy of the Confederacy holding the same commis- 
sion. As for myself, and all who I have heard speak of him, fear 
greatly that he will be promoted, . . . depriving us not only of 
an able, bold and noble commander, but of a kind one also, who 
always seems to be deeply interested in the Avelfare of his men^ 

The same writer felt that it wasn't necessary to say much about Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Lightfoot and Major Webb since "nearly all the 
citizens of Orange are personally acquainted with them, at least 



Camp Fisher 51 

by reputation." Both of them stood high in the regiment (according 
to this writer) because they were "agreeable and accommodaling," 
most especially when they were in command of the regimentS^^(Dctor 
Peter A. Holt, regimental surgeon, was "a finished gentleman and 
an accomplished physician." He was always at his post, doing his 
full duty "with the utmost care and vigilance." Holt's assistants, Dr. 
Collet and Henderson, were also "nlre gentlemen," who were very 
careful in their attention to the sickvL^rlie writer continued: 

Our Steward, Dr. Cun7, is always on foot attending to every- 
thing that comes under his charge with the greatest care. Great 
credit is due to our old friend William Harris for the patriotism 
he has shown in leaving his kind wife and friends to attend to 
the sufferings of our brave soldiers. He never seems to wear-)' in 
attending to our sick boys. He takes the rounds evei-y day, seeing 
to all, that they may not suffer for the want of attention. He 
speaks of returning home soon, but if he does I assure you he 
ivill be greatly missed, (fjf) 

There were forty sick men in the hospital on Januai^ 1, eleven 
of these from Orange County. Many of the sick had fever and pneu- 
monia, a reflection on the wet winter conditions in camp. Some of 
the sjek, men were sent to the North Carolina hospital at Peters- 



burgM^Still, the spirits of everyone jvjje high, and the winter weather 
milder than many had expectedy-4'ossibly the men were in good 
spirits because of the "lively" Christmas celebration held in the regi- 
mental camp. Duty had been temporarily made easier, with no 
ruler about "except King Alcohol." (TtJ* 

By December 31, the regiment mustered 796 men and officers, on 
paper. Out of this there were 13S— sick, 38 of them on sick leave. 
Only 412 privates were fit for dutylvK^ecause of the fact that the high 
command was laboring under the delusiQiM.hat active military opera- 
tions might be reopened at any momenfr^nder began efforts to re- 
cruit reinforcements. Early in December, and again on December 
15, Pender wrote to James G. Martin, Nortli..,^Carolina's adjutant 
general, requesting aid in jarocuring recruitiiJjHartin responded by 
assuring the help of the state authorities in filling Pender's ranks. 
The usual bounty of $15.00 would be paid by the state through the 
colonel. However, Martin advised Pender that. 

The details of reaiiiting must necessarily be made under 
the authority of the Confederate States, while your Regiment is 
in their service, and those who come here on that duty will 
receive every assistance, and transportation for the men re- 
cruited. (7T~^ 



Although Martin happily sent a commission for Lieut&rant Louis 
H. Rotherick, who had been recommended bv Pender>-'me latter's 



52 The Bloody Sixth 

request for additional companies of troops to be added to the ten 
existing companies of the regiment was refused. Martin wrote: 

The laws of this State authorize only ten companies to a 
Regiment, and the Governor will not permit additional com- 
panies to be added to any Regiment; every Regiment within the 
limits of this State that had more than ten companies, were 
reduced to the legal organization, the same would have been 
done with those in Virginia, had there been anyway in which 
it coidd be done \\ithout injm-y to the Service. (7^ 

Pender might fill his ranks ^vith recruits from the Third North 
Carolina Volunteers, his old regiment, when that regiment was dis- 
banded. Also, automatic commissions would be given to men who 
brought Pender recruits and received his recommendation, if there 
were "any vacant offices" available. More than this the state au- 
thorities would not or could not do. (\^ 



VI 



The Regiment Leaves For Richmond 



']]'(■ hcwe been expecting to move every day for a week. . . . 
I hope we will leave here soon." 

\\'ULiAM DoRSl;^ Pi;nder to his wife, March 6, 1862. 



The general military situation along the Occoquan during the 
winter of 1861-1862 consisted of small skirmishes and numerous in- 
cursions and alarums. A detachment of the enemy was defeated by 
cavali-y under Wade Hampton on December 18. The Union force 
was driven back across the river and \\oidd have been destroyed if 
the Confederate infantry had come up in timeCtHampton was anxious 
to try those fellows again" if he had the proper number of troops 
to send against them. On the 19th, a Union force of 200 infantry, 
100 cavah7, and 2 guns maneuvered north of the Occoquan, pos- 
sibly to hue Hampton into affecting a crossing. The Confederate 
cavaln' did cross, driving the Union forces beyond Bacon Race 
Church, but the object of the Union Army had been accomplished. 
The Confederates, especially the nervous Whiting, had been kept in 
a constant uproar and state of alarun>?'Hampton, energetic as usual, 
was anxious to bring the enemy to battle; "There is no chance of a 
fight here, so Ave will have to look up one."^ 

Whiting shared Hampton's desire to move against the enemy; 
Hampton must reconnoitre the Telegraph Road as far to the north 
as possible and find out the enemy's intentions. The Union forces 
must not be allowed to make a sudden crossing of the Occoquan at 
Union Mills or Wolf Run Shoals and drive a wedge between John- 
ston's force at Manassas and Whiting.^ As Johnston said, "We must 
be prepared for all contingencies. "QjOii December 28 Whiting is- 
sued orders calling for constant vigilance and preparations to make 
an immediate advance "at a moment's notice towards the enemy." 
Passes and fin-lourfis were temporarily suspended, except in cases 
of ingent necessitylS^pecial Orders Number 2, issued on January 3, 

53 



54 The Bloody Sixth 

authorized Captain Scales, Quartermaster of the Sixth, to purchase — 
or press — hay for the regimental mules and horses in Stafford and 
Fauquier Counties®An immediate move was expected "and this com- 
mand must be ready to meet it.'(^ 

The Sixth was holding itself in readiness to march, rations had 
been cooked, but "We have had such orders so often that we don't 
expect a fight hardly at all." However, if the enemy came, the regi- 
ment would be prepared to "go at any moment. '(1/Nevertheless, the 
scare eventually died down, even though orders fle^v from Whiting's 
headquarters throughout most of January .QJ 

On January 30 some members of Hood's Texas brigade dis- 
tinguished themselves before the whole division. Eight of the Texans 
were sleeping in a house at Colchester on the north bank of the Oc- 
coquan Vi^hen they were roused from their beds by a "nimierous 
scouting party" of the enemy and ordered to surrender. The Texans 
made a fight of it, beating off the enemy with some loss. The size of 
the Union force was estimated to be eighty supported by cavalry, 
probably greatly exaggerated.(i2\'Vhiting used this exploit to instill 
enthusiasm into the other regiments of his division. He stated, 

Such conduct deserves praise & invites emidation and is 
worthy of the successors of those men who many years ago gal- 
lantly defended their cause at the Alamo & San Jacinto against 
an enemy as superior in nimibers as cowardly & as treacherous.^ 

Violence of another sort occurred at Camp Fisher in early Janu- 
ary. Two privates in the Sixth, Mark \Vimbly and F. I. Hudson, 
were engaged in a bloody fight. Wimbly stabbed Hudson with a knife 
in front of the latter's left hip. The wound was two or three inches 
deep and "bled powerfid." For a time it was believed that Hudson 
would die, but by mid-January his improvement was evident. Wimbly 
was immediately placed in the guard house. (j2) 

In mid-January there was heavy firing down on the Potomac at 
Evansporu which resulted in the Confederate capture of a small 
schooneiW)n January 19, a cold rain fell; however, the. snow which 
had fallen in December and early Januai7 had melteciyiThe weather 
was the cause of still more cases of pneumonia among the men.(ji' 

At this time there were many leaves of absence and replacements 
among the regimental officers. Captain S. S. Kirkland of Company 
A became so ill that he was forced to apply for, and receive, a sixty- 
day leave of absence upon the presentation of a surgeon's certificate.( 
Doctor Holt was granted a five-day leave^f absence to go to Richmond 
"on business connected with his Dept.'^Iajor Webb asked for leave 
to go to North Carolina and visit his wife and "three small children."( 
Lieutenant Joseph S. Vincent of Company K was granted a thirty-day 
leave of absence upon presentation of a surgeon's certificate.lOTender 



The Regiment Leaves for Richmond 55 

liad finally been able to replace Captain William H. J. Durham of 
Company H with Judge Thomas Ruffin, Jr., of Graham. Ruffin's 
commission^Tivert in Camp Fisher on January 14, much to Pender's 
satisfactioiv^Governor Clark ^vrote Ruflin, notifying him of his 



ao: 



pointment: 

I think you are as fully capable of being a soldier as a Judge, 
and you may now choose bet^\'een the two — and your career in 
either ^vill be most honorable and usefid. . . .(^} 

Pender also received commissions for two other officers: Captain 
Jerry A. Lea and Lieutenant Monroe Oliver. These commissions ar- 
rived at regimental headquarters on FebruaiT 3. (^ 

As February progiessed the leaves of absence continued among 
the regimental officers. On the 7th, Assistant Surgeon W. A. Collett 
was oranted a leave of thirty davs to visit "his home in the State 
of North Carolina. 'CiJSecond Lieutenant J^---7T- Roseborough was 
given a leave of seven days on February 20;wliile Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Lightfootsivas allowed an absence of foin- clays to visit Culpeper 
on the 24tliiS.ieutenant Evans Turner was given a thirty-dav^ave 
for disability under a surgeon's certificate, also on the 24th.e^ven 
Colonel Pender was given a leave of seven davs, on Februan' 15, 
to visit Richmond. The divisional quartermaster ^\'as ordered to 
furnish transportation for the colonel on the same day. (^ 

While in Richmond, Pender received an interesting piece of in- 
formation. He heard, mainly through a rumour circtdated in the 
lobby of the hotel where General Joseph E. Johnston (commander of 
the Confederate Army of the Potomac) was staying, that the Confed- 
erate Cabinet was planning to ^rithdraw tlie anny from jManassasNsaie 
asked the startled Johnston if this fact were not so; the latter's an- 
swer is not recordeci!^\4iile he A\as in the Confederate capital, Pf^ler 
stayed ^vith his good friend of West Point days, Curtis Lee.?SThe 
young Xorth Carolinian was espeeially pleased that Curtis' sister 
Mars inquired about Mrs. Pender !2i'Miss Lee expres^d great regret 
"that she had not known that you w'ere in town.'^Ss^Vhen Pender 
arrived back at Camp Fisher he found everything was normal, ex- 
cept for the interesting fact that "Col. Lightfe»t had an attack of 
apoplexy in my absence & came near dying.'G^ender, although he 
was a man of gentle feelings, could not have been too sympathetic 
for an officer ^vho had been so detrimental to his management of 
the regiment. 

Although not much has been said about regimental supply during 
the winter of 1861-1862, much of importance was being accomplished. 
During the first quarter of 1862, Captain Scales procured forty-eight 
jj< jackets, forty-eight pairs of pants, /efsven pairs of shoes, and forty- 
ja eight pairs of socks for Company FSs^ompanies A, B, C, D, I, and K 



56 The Bloody Sixth 

■were supplied with large amounts of ordnance equipment during the 
fall of 1861. This included rifled muskets, smoothbore muskets, car- 
tridge boxes, cartridge box belts, cartridges, musket wipers, ball 
screws (for removing unfired cartridges from the gun barrels) , bn>wiet 
scabbards, waist belt plates. Sharp's rifles, and musket conesS^^he 
amoiuiu-af this equipment, although too detailed to record, was im- 
pressivs^SCaptain Isaac Avery's CompaHA' E received fifty caps and 
eighty-one pairs of pants on January 2!:>l^he men were also equipped 
through contributions of soldiers' aid societies in North Carolina. 
Captain William K. Parrish's Company B received fifty shirts, a pair 
of blankets and a large ajjKlunt of smoking tobacco from the Soldiers' 
Aid Society of Hillsboro^*arrish thanked the -svomen with fond re- 
marks: 

These were timely presents, and fdl oin- hearts with gratitude 
to be thus remembered by our fair friends at home. Can any 
soldier whose heart beats under one of these shirts, refuse to 
fight for his coimtry and his home? ^9) 

Captain William J. Freeland's Company C received many socks, 
pants, cotton shirts, a few comforts, gloves, hats, boots, wool, pepper, 
and some money from the same source. Freeland thanked his Hills- 
boro friends for the gifts which "fire oiu^ zeal for the cause we 
have espoused. "(^ 

By the end of February the regiment, now numbering 401 pri- 
vates fit f0i%duty with 104 on the sick list, knew that something was 
in the aiAitOne indication of what was to come was given when Gen- 
eral Whiting ordered all regimental officers in the Third Brigade to 
requisition haversacks for their men.tbAnother indication of coming 
action was the order for a general musteivaiid inspection of all troops 
in Whiting's division on February 27':^^n the 28th, regimental 
commanders were instructed to place their units in marching order; 
passes would not be granted; ammunition, spare arms, and cooking 
implements were to be provided. Th&~rnen were ordered to prepare I i 
baggage to be canied on their persons-XA^U of the women in the Sixth it 
had left, except Mi*. Scales, "Sc even she is going as soon as the 
ambulance returns. 'x^s Pender related. 

We are upon the brink of something. . . . Danger always 
looks more dangerous in the imagination than in reality./^ 



There was a flurry of activity in the camps along Powell's Run 
and the Occoquan as preparations for the movement were advanced. 
Lieutenant Louis Rothrock of the Sixth was sent to Fredericksburg 
to attend to thirty sick men belonging to the regimentc2Captain 
Avery was detailed to "a board of survey" to examine damaged prop- 



The Regiment Leaves for Richmond 57 

erty belonging to Light Battery D of the Third BrigadeS-^he ex- 
pected movement was fixed for Saturday, March 8: the exact t+jne 
was a secret shared only by Generals Johnston and WhitingsSOn 
Mardi 7 orders were given to pack the regimental wagons. Each 
team would carry a small supply of forage, if any were available. 
Three days's provisions would be cooked during the night of March 7 
and distributed to the men. The, maintenance of silence and order 
during the night was essentialsQOrders for the actual march were 
explicit: 

At daylight in the morning the trains ^\ill start the Brigade 
train leacling all accompanied by the train guards & the sick if 
any under an officer. Ammunition ^vagons will remain ;\ith 
their regiments. On march all officers are emphatically ordered 
to preserve the formation of ranks and prevent straggling. Colo- 
nels w'\\\ frequently allow their regiments to file past them to 
see they are well closed & will direct their field &: staff to give 
their whole attention to the march. (^ 

Brigade commanders would order the necessai-y halts, the regimental 
colors -^vould be carried. @ 
On March 7 Pender ^vrote, 

. . . our long looked for orders to mo\e are out. My surmises 
to the point were correct. Our -(vaggons go in a few hours. \Ve 
shall not leave to night. I cannot help but think it will be better 
for us in the end, as we shall gain time enough to get our Regts. 
filled up. I shall try to oet to Richmond as soon after we settle 
down as possible. ^ 

The destination \\'as Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock Ri\er, 
twenty miles closer to Richmond. As the regiment prepared to leave, 
the huts at Camp Fisher -ivhich had sheltered them throughout the 
winter werfi-Jjurned. The roof, doors, and floors ^vere consinned bv 



the flames>3^\s the men filed down the muddy road, the air was 



cool and bracing. Gentle clouds drifted over the horizon, partially 
concealing the sun. On the 9th, the Sixth marched fifteen miles, 
arriving at their final destination. Camp Bartow, on the afternoon 
of March 10 at 3 o'clock^-^farch 11, 1862 found the men busily 
cleaning camp streets and striking tents. The warm sunshine Avas a 
brilliant contrast to the mud and rain of the retreat.'23'ndeed, there 
was mtich criticism directed at General Whiting by President Davis, 
SecretaiT of War Judah P. Benjamin, and other members of the gov- 
ernment for the way the retreat of his division was managed. Lhi- 
official reports had reached Davis that tents -ivere needlessly binned, 
ammunition destroyed, and much government property abandoRetl. 
An explanation was called for and was not long in coming. CPLn 






58 The Bloody Sixth 

angiy Whiting replied to these charges by describing in detail the 
disposition of his division for the defense oL^the Occoqiian, and 
then defended himself against the accusations^^ke emphatically de- 
fended the role of the Third Brigade, which was under his immediate 
supervision: 

. . . not a cartridge was abandoned or destroyed, nor any 
public property \vhatever, except a few worn-out tents and 8 
condemned ivagons, ■(vithout animals to haul them. It should i 
be observed that the tents of the Third Brigade, their own 
property, brought with them to Harper's Ferry and in use from 
there to Dumfries, had been condemned as entirely worn-out 
some months before, on the troops getting hutted, and no requi- 
sition for new ones had been made on the Quartermaster's De- 
partment. A few of the best ^vere brought, together ^\ith the 
entire quartennaster's stores, tools, &c. Most of the regiments 
also succeeded in getting off a large amount of private baggage. 
A portion was distributed and concealed, with a view to recovery, 
at farms in the rear, and a portion given to poor and loyal people 
in the vicinity. (^ 

Whiting was in difficulty because most of the military^quipment 
in the other brigades had been successfully carried away.^-The prob- 
able reason for the uproar against ^Vhiting and, indirectly, the Sixth 
Regiment, was Johnston's rapid withdrawal from his advanced po- 
sitions at Manassas and on the line of the Occoquan. It is evident 
that Johnston wished to be in close supporting distance of Whiting, 
and within easier reaclv-sf Richmond and the peninsula between the 
James and York Riverslsil he Union forces Tvere at Cedar Run, tivelve 
miles from Rappahannock Bridge, too close for comfort if the Con- 
federate forces were widely separated. Johnston was preparing to 
cross the Rappahannock lo support Whiting, if the enemy advanced 
towards Fredericksbing.(^ 

Regardless of the reason for the inqiui"^', Whiting was indignant 
that his troops were "the subject of such reports." He felt that he 
and his men had been maliciously slandered and demanded justice 
from President Davis. Whiting felt that "in justice to the officers and 
men I may say . . . that the COU1U17 and the cause have reason to 
congratulate itself on the army."(^ 

Shortly before the regiment left Camp Fisher, Major ^Vebb re- 
tiuned from a thirty-day leave in North Carolina. Webb had been to 
Orange County and had been asked many questions about the regi- 
ment, and about Colonel Pender in particular. He had been treated 
like a hero. Parties were given in his honor, with wreaths depicting 
President Davis on one side and Webb's name on the other. The 
major had gained tAvent)v-Roimds on this admirable duty, and seemed 
to greatly enjoy himself.^Ske brought back interesting reports about 



The Regiment Leaves for Richmond 59 

Colonel Lightfoot. Listening eagerly to these statements about his 
"bitter enemy," Pender wrote, 

Maj. Webb says that the Colonel (Lightfoot) is completely 
dead around Hillsboro when he used to have a great (many) 
friends & admirers. What weight to attach to the Major's state- 
ment I neither know nor care. I feel confident that the colonel 
can neither do me much harm here nor in N. C. But my own 
conscience is my strongest supporter. If I have treated him un- 
justly it has not been iiuentionalh . (^ 

Webb also reported a rumor that Lieutenant Evans Turner of Com- 
pany C ^vould soon be elected captain of a company being raised 
by his supporters in Hillsboro. Pender had no objection to Turner's 
leaving the_,^Sixth, especially since he was a strong supporter of 
Lightfoot. OS 

One of the most importaiu problems to face the regiment during 
the bleak winter and early spring of 1862 was the matter of recruit- 
ing. Many of the >«en on duty were homesick with a "crazy desire 
. . . to get home.'^^^his feeling was deplored by the energetic and 
ambitious Gender, a sentiment which was supix)rted by many of the 
other menS^An effort to recruit more men to fill uj>^aps in the 
ranks caused by sickness had been made in December,Mnow a more 
ambitious effort would be made. On Febniary 8, Pender \\TOte to 
the adjutant general's office in Raleigh requesting assistance in re- 
cruiting troops. Me accused the adjutant general of refusing men 
for his regimenti23ii reply the assistant adjutant general, A. Gordon, 
had ^vritten: 

There is no foundation for the re{X>rt that reached you in 
regard to men being refused for your Regiment, but you can 
readily perceive that other recruiting officers will avail them- 
selves of every means to secure men, and if circulating such re- 
liorts irill aid them, thev \vill no doubt do it. (7/} 



Nevertheless, Gordon promised to assistPender's recruiting parties 
whenever they came to North CarolinaCSpender was confident that 
his recruiting officers \\'ouM get enough men to fill the ranks "for 
all practicable purposes. '^SA group of recruits was procured in Mc- 
Dowell County, collected maiHly through the efforts of Lieutenant 
John Carson of Company D.^^SAssistant Surgeon Henderson ivas able 
to bring more men into camp when he went to the Richmond and 
Petersburg hospitals at the end ©£.March to collect "all men fit for 
duty" belonging to the regimen f22'rhrough these means Pender was 
able to collect a total of 650 j3ri\ates ready for duty by March 31. 
The young colonel was jubilant over his success. He Avrote, 



60 The Bloody Sixth 

. . . when we get them trained & set-iip, wont I be proud of 
my Regt. I would be tempted to do as Col. Pettigrew, & refuse 
promotion, nj^ 

The camp of the Sixth was delightfully situated, on the soiuh 
side of the Rappahannock River two imles west of Fredericksburg, 
"abotit the right distance from Town.''^4"he only drawback was the 
presence of the Eleventh Mississippi Regiment that was camped too 
close to the Sixth for quiet. Even relations with the normally-hostile 
Lightfoot were cordial. As Pender said, "He works & voluivt«ers to 
do, on all occasions. I hope he has determined to do better.'fs*'ender 
himself was comfortable in his new quarters; there were no sick 
men in the regimental hospital, and the men, thanks to the young 
colonel's firmly benevolent tactics, were more amenable to military 
life. His only problem was a persistent cold which kept him from 
drillins; his men. He had some success in curina: his illness \\'\\\\ 
liberal doses of castor oil. Probably the persistent rain and clotidy 
weather aggravated his lingering hoarseness, (s^ 

On March 17 Lieutenant Colonel Lightfoot was assigned to the 
command of the Fifth Battalion ,\labama Volunteers which was 
their attached to the Third BrigadeSPender had hopes that Light- 
foot's transfer would be permanent "altho' we have gotten along very 
well lately." Things were shaping up along the Rappahannock, re- 
cruits were comiim^in, and there were prospects of an early resump- 
tion of hostilities^^ender was anxious for the Sixth to do well when 
he led them into battle. His fears were eloquently expressed when 
he -ivrote. 



... I hope my Regt will do well \vhen Ave may get into a 
fight. N. C. troops stand so low in that way, but f believe it is 
because they have been so badly handled. I can manage my men 
in camp, on the march, & at drill, but it remains to be seen how 
I can manage them on the field. They all seem to have thg, 
utmost confidence in me 8: 1 hope I shall not disappoint them.(^ 

Pender felt that if he could "live twelve months" he -ivould defi- 
nitely be promoted. All he needed was a chance to prove that he 
was made of "the right material." He felt that he \vould already be 
a general officer if he only had political influence. His opportunity 
would have to come on the battlefield. He would take his chances.! 

The usual military events occupied the attention of the men 
during the remainder of March. Sergeant Smith, quartermaster ser- 
geant of the regiment, was ordered to Richmond 0n the 15th. His 
mission Avas to procure a lot of government midesSfLieutenant Ben- 
jamin R. Smith of Company G ^vas granted a t^venty-day furlough on 
surgeon's certificate of disability on the IGth.^^Second Lieutenants 



The Regiment Leaves for Richmond 61 

George N. Albright o£ Company F and Samuel J. Crawford of Com- 
pany K -ivere both given four-day leaves on the 24th to go to^ich- 
mond. This last assignment Avas for reasons other than illnes?S^ur- 
geon Holt and Train Master Skeen were orderecL-to Bowling Green 
to testify at a court-martial on the 18th and 24th\^Three men from 
the Sixth were detailed to report to Divisional Surgeon J. E. Herndon 
at Fredericksburg "to act as nurses in the drdsion hospital under the 
charge of asst. surgeon H. B. Christian. '(^'inally, on March 17, 
Pender himself was given permission to go to Richmond on regi- 
mental-ordnance business. He succeeded in getting only half the 
weapons that he wanted, but the number procured Avas impressive. (29 
Captain Avery's company was issued eleven percussion muskets, eleven 
cartridge boxes, seventeen cartridge box belts, eleven cap pouches, 
eleven bayonet scabbards, anci-eleven waist belts on March 22, chiefly 
as a result of Pender's efforts®Qumerous other articles were issued to 
the troops during the month of March. These included the usual 
items of military clothing: pants; over coats; shoes; socks; drawers; 
shirts; caps; etc. Other ec|uipment issued included haversacks, can- 
teens, axes, blankets and tents. The Confederate government was 
doing its best to keep the men properly supplied, and seemed to 
be succeeding. (^ 

By March 21 Pender had entirely recovered from his sore throat, 
but still had a cold. He was troubled by the fact that Major ^V'ebb 
and Doctor Holt insisted in sharing their mess with him. As Pender 
put it, 

I like the doctor less every day, as I see his character devel- 

ope. He tried to put on some airs the other day in consequence 

of the position he thinks he occupies above, but I told him 

- plainly if he had any such views to cari-y out, that I wanted him 

ie« to resign & make way for some one else. ^^ 

o« 

Pender's opinion of the doctor was not enhanced by the latter's al- 
leged insults to Captain Lea's wife. Webb, also, was beginning to 
fatigue Pender: "I shoi-rkl hate very much to leave the regt. in the 
hands of Maj. Webb.'(2iAt times Pender's only happiness was to be 
found in attending church and associating with the local inhabi- 
tants, who, on the whole, were "not hospitable to strangers. "(9^ 

'"! A grand review was held by General Whiting on March 25. 

Eight regiments were represented, the Sixth being the largest \vith 
500 men in its marching ranks. ^Vlliting was so pleased with the ap- 
pearance of the regiment that he rode up after the ceremony and 
personally complimented Pender on the appearance of his men. (_ 
This triiunph ^vas repeated at another revie^\' held on April 3 
at which the regiment was rexiewed by General Gustavus Smith and 
one of General Johnston's staff. Pender proudly wrote, "It has the 



62 The Bloody Sixth 

reputation of being about tbe best in the sel■^•ice now if we can only 
maintain our reputation in battle. 'Whese minor successes only stimu- 
lated Pender towards his first experience in combat at the head of his 
men. Although he felt "quite nervous" about the prospects of a battle, 
he was confident in the fighting aljility xif his men and wished for an 
opportiniity to prove them under fireOsfcamp living was tiring; the 
routine problems oLaunp life were becoming boresome to the young, 
ambitious colonel. (2J^ 

Possibly some of Pender's fatigue ^vas occasioned by the continuous 
sufferine and destitution of his men and their families. On one occa- 

O 

sion the wife of one of his men came from Alamance County to see 
her sick husband. The \\oman had spent her last cent to get to 
Fredericksburg. When she arrived she found that her husband had 
died and been buried several days before. In despair she had walked 
the two miles to Camp Bartow, through the rain and mud, ^Q-A^e 
his captain. Pender was heartsick when he learned of her plighf^-^e 
wrote, 

I sent her back in the ambulance & gave her .S5. I know I 
should spend it better that way than any other. She had a fe- 
male friend to come on with her. I should have gone to see 
her, but I am a poor comforter. Wasnt her case a hard one. (joj) 

And then he -svrote, as if in prophecy, "Many is the poor heart that 
will be broken by this war."(i£^ 

As March dre^v to a close there was talk of another move; the 
destination was still a profound mystery. It was thought that the 
enemy had departed from the line of the Rappahannock for York- 
town and the Virginia Peninsula. A supreme confidence seemed to ; 
enervate_the regiment; Pender felt that the Sixth was "a match for | 
them.'^2^ April 7 it was known. The destination of the regiment, 
and of the entire Third Brigade, would be Yorktown where General 
George B. McClellan seemed to be starting another "on to Rich- 
mond" campaign. Au^rOi) A.M. on the 8th, the regiment was up and 
preparing to march—Tne peninsula and adventure lay ahead. The 
war, the real fighting, was about to start. All the months of prepara- 
tion were behind them. The regiment was soon to be placed in com- 
bat, \\-herein lay all Pender's hopes and ambitions. 



VII 



In the Peninsula 



"I'Ve marched from Ricltmond, reaching the immediate vicinity 
of the enemy about 5 p.m.. iclien I was at once ordered to move my 
regiment fonvard and to drive the enemy before me." 

WiLLiANr DoRsi V Pender to James G. Martin, June 6. 1862. 



The morning of the 8th of April was cool and wet. Rain was 
falling in torrents as the regiment marched do^\-n the road to^vards 
Ashland. As the men came to streams, they waded through, marching 
on in the wind and raiiiWCamp was made on the night of the 8th, and 
the march continued the next morning. The \\eather ^vas still u-et as 
the men marched through Bowling Green at 3 o'clock in the after- 
noon and proceeded to the railroad depot belo\v the toivn Jlere they 
were loaded into box cars and canied down to Ashland.^^^he men 
were in Ashland only a day and a half when they were marched 
into some woods about a mile from town where they pitched their 
tents.l-^They had taken these hardships "manfully ... & thus far 
have apj>eared to suffer no ill effects." They ivere again complimented 
by General ^V'hiting on the morning of the 10th for their behavior 
during the march, especially the maintenance of their regimental 
organizatiton. Pender was recoinmended for promotion because of 
his success with his regiment.*ifcT)uring the march he had slept on 
the ground and gone ivithout supper just like his men, "but feel as 
well this morning as ever." He was determined to be a good officer, 
both to his regiment and to his superior officers.® 

While the regiment was in Ashland it was called upon to furnish 
a guard for the railroad depot. The duty of the guard was to control 
the passage of "any officer or soldiei^ . . ■\\-ithout a written leave 
of absence from Brig. Genl. AVhiting.^s-On the morning of the 11th, 
the regiment was assembled and paraded in a general inspection; 
the time for this event ivas 4:00 A.M.! Arms and accoutrements were 
carefully checked, "especially the cartridge hoxes.'tZ'ln spite of this 

63 



64 The Bloody Sixth 

apparent harassment, the regiment was honored by the appointment 
of Captain Samuel McDojtell Tate to the position of provost marshal 
of the town of Ashland.Cl/ 

The men left Ashland on the morning of April 14, and marched 
for Yorktown and the Virginia Peninsula. Everyone was in an ex- 
pectant mood as the arena of great expectations was approached. (Si 
Pender wrote, 

I can really say I am well & in fine spirits. ... I think we 
can give them a pretty lively time as we have three annies con- 
centrated. . . . With the help of God we shall save the country 
for they are making their grand move in oiu" front. (7^ 

Then it was march, march, march, for five long daysVVPender 
wrote that he was still in good spirits, but no one knew when the 
regiment would get to Yorktown. Then, with much fei-vor, "You 
may expect to hear of stirring times soon."(i£;) 

At 9:00 A.M. on the morning of April 18 the regiment marched 
through Williamsburg. That evening they reached General John- 
ston's headquarters about a mile from Yorktown. The regiment im- 
mediately went into camp, to be held in reserve during the com- 
ing operations. v!3/ 

The scene that met the men as they arrived at Yorktown was de- 
scribed by Pender: 

We have a magnificent Army here; the largest ic finest we 
have ever had at (any) place. We have our best Generals also 
.... We hear firing in the distance all the time, but not near 
enough to do us any damage. (T^ 

Everyone was confident that the enemy would be beaten.^Vhat did 
it matter that the troops were undergoing much discomfort in the 
luifamiliar country. No one complained, no one held any conviction 
other than that the enemy could be defeated.Q^he Sixth found that 
it was just one of many North Carolina regiments present; "We 
have about 20 Regts. down here. 6 state troops regt Sc the 3rd, 4th, 
5th, 12th, 13th, 6th vohmteers, besides several others." Pender's 
old regiment, the Third, nou- rechristened the Thirteenth, was pres- 
ent. North Carolina^iould put forth a good effort if the Confed- 
erates were attackedvLUvhen Pender went to visit his old regiment 
the )»«n cheered him and stood around in groups "to get a look at 
me.'^liAll of this praise and attention seemed beneficial to the young 
colonel. He happily wrote. 

My chances for promotion are noiv better than they were 
six months ago so far as I can see. ... I am now senior Colonel 
of the Brigade & may have command of it soon. I have been 



In the Peninsula 65 

told heretofore that when I became senior I -ivould be placed in 
command. I do not want the command without the rank. Too 
much trouble for nothing. (/|) 

On April 25, Pender was saying that there ^\as no battle, nor 
was there any chance of one. There was a rumor that McCMIan 
was marching to^vards Fredericksburg, but no one was certainl^^he 
Sixth was fairly comfortable, duties were light, "Nothing but to rest 
— & enjoy ourselves." It was good to be in the reserves, to be able 
to rush in and give the enemy "the final 8: decisive blow" after the 
other troops had softened him up.<^ 

By the 25th, the regiment had procured a new chaplain, a Rev- 
erend Mr. Stuart of an Episcopal church in Alexandria^tuart ^\'as 
about fifty years of age, was eccentric, but very ablc^s^He would 
preach before the regiment for the first time on Tuesday, April 29. 
Pender hoped that Reverend Stuart would administer the holy 
sacrament "upon the eve of ^s-hat we suppose is to be a great & bloody 
battle. '>oThe enemy was digging entrenchments; the air was full of 
tensiort?5?(s May began the regiment \vaited, 65Z.strong, for the battle 
which would surely take place at Yorkto\\n.{_£J7 

On May 1, orders \vere issued to begin a ^\-ithdra\\-al from York- 
towTi on the morning of May 2. Whiting was ordered to move his 
wagon train early in the morning in order to clear the road for 
General D. H. Hill's division which would follo^v him towards 
Williamsburg. The movemeirt-svas highly complicated due to the 
scarcity of roads in the region^riiirs division was the rear guard on 
the retreat,^n operation which \\'as rendered difficult due to the 
heavy rain.^C^ 

On May 5, the Confederate rear guard was attacked by Mc- 
Clellan's advance at WilliamsbuugT) An indecisive action ensued in 
which the Sixth was not engagecr?<jn May 7, there was an attempt 
to cut the_retreating Confederates off, at a place called Eltham's 
Landing, gj) 

On May 6 General McClellan had sent the divisions of Franklin, 
Sedgwick, Porter, and Richardson on steamers up the York and 
Pammrkey Rivers from Yorktown. Franklin's division was disem- 
barked on the morning of the 7th and placed in "a good position to 
cover die landing place." His flanks were protected by water; his 
front faced the Confederates ^\lie.^were centered about Barhamsville, 
a few miles south of the river.^=-<ieneral Gustavus W. Smith, com- 
manding the reserve corps, had reconnoitred the Union position 
and observed the Union fleet anchored in the river on May 6. 
Early on the 7th he ordered Whiting to attack the enemy with his 
division. (20 

Whiting immediately ordered Hood's Texas brigade and Wade 
Hampton's legion to dislodge the enemy who Avere advancing in- 



66 The Bloody Sixth 

land. Whiting's own Third Brigade, containing the Sixth, was held 
in reserve. The Texans and South Carolinians drove the enemy 
"fairly before" them for one and a half miles. At this jimctiire the 
Third Brigade was moved into position on the extrenxej-right and par- 
ticipated in the final stages of the advance to the river^cy 12:00 noon 
the enemy had been driven onto their gunboats, which immediately 
opened fire on the Confederates, but with little effect. Whiting quickly 
ordered Major Stephen Lee and Captain James Reilly to take position 
on the river bluff with their batteries and attempt to reach the gun- 
boats. The batteries were supported by the Sixth, under enemy 
fire for the first time since Manassas. An artillery barrage was opened 
on the Union vessels but the range was too great. Before the bat- 
teries and regiment could be withdrawn, a Union gunboat came 
close in shore under the bluff and opened fire. Although the fire was 
very accurate there were only tw/a^asualties in the Sixth, both of 
them wounded "not dangerously. ''<23?y early afternoon the Battle of 
Eltham's Landing was over; the Union forces had been driven back 
and the road to Richmond was still open. Whiting's division was 
ordered to resume its former position near Barhamsville, while the 
rest of the Confederate Army continued its retreatd^Vhiting wrote of 
the battle's effect on Confederate operations: 

It was very creditable to the officers and men, and produced 
important residts on the enemy's movements. ( 



Pender had sought a battle, but had to be content with being involved 
on the perimeter of one. He wrote his wife on May 8: 

... I have seldom been much more sleepy, hungry, or tired 
than I am just now. Up nearly all of two nights & in the saddle 
for t^vo days. Four hours will cover the sleep I have had in 
forty-eight. We were in a pretty tight place last night are all 
right now. We are out of the Peninsula, which was a perfect 
trap for us. We had some hard marching &: famishing. ... I 
saw enough to satisfy me of my mens pluck. (|T) 

The big battle had not yet taken place, but it would. At least Pender 
hoped so.^^This constant retreating was bad enough, but -ivhen would 
the high command stop and make a stand for Richmond? By May 9 
the Sixth had marched to a point t^veiity-two miles froni/^ie city. 
The march had been very slow, only "about 4 miles today. 'v£j0n May 
10. the regiment only covered one and a half miles, even less than on 
the 9tl{^^ender expressed his impatience ivith the retreat: 

I "svish we were at our joiuney's end ^vhere we coidd have 
what few comforts we can ha>:£ along. I can neither have clean 
clothes or ivriting material. (^ 



In the Peninsula 67 

To add to the monotony of the march, the country through which 
the men were marching was ravaged and deserted. Pender had only 
seen three white ivomen "since coming to this part of the.counti7." 
Nearly evei7 farm that the regiment passed was deserted.^ 

As the army drew closer to Richmond the civilian population 
became panicky. It was believed that the enemy could have posses- 
sion of the city at any time. The retreating Sixth, although not 
sharing this view, was forced to march on half rations, ^^n the 
regimental officers were occasionally forced to do without.^Pender 
wrote, 

. . . we are barely subsisting upon meat & bread. I have 
managed to keep a little coffee & tea yet. @ 

Rank-conscious and ambitious as always, Pender was fearful that Gen- 
eral Whiting would place the Third Brigade under another officer, 
even though Pender was senior colonel. Well, if another colonel were 
placed in command he uould resign "&: look out for some other po- 
sition." Pender's opinion of Whiting had declined during the re- 
treat; he didn't trust the motives of his commanding officer any more. I 

By May 17. the regiment had moved to within a few miles of 
Richmond. The rate of march was still slow, about a mile an hour. 
Rain fell incessantly as the men moved through the desolate coun- 
try. Stragglers were everywhere. According to Pender, 

... of all the poor looking country you can see this is it. 
Its like the flats of Edgecomb (County, N. C.) only ^\orse. I had 
expected to see a pretty, hilly country. /^ 

The division ^\■ent into camp at ^Villiams House near Richmond 
on the 18th. One of ^V^hiting's first orders was to prohibit leaves of 
absence to the city "until the camps are set in order." Much needed 
to be done, guards had to be placed and ai^angements perfected to 
force stragglers back into their commands.ttal; was essential to keep 
civilians from passing into/the enemy's lines and to keep stragglers 
from going into Richmond^^ther orders were issued enforcing sani- 
tary conditions in the division camps. Sinks were to be dug to a 
certain depth in positions "sufficiently remote from bivouacs/fe yet 
inside the lines of sentinels & covered with a sufficient screen. "offt'lore 
rigid controls wer&r^laced over sick leaves to keep shirkers from 
going to the rearviS^irigade commanders were permitted to send 
dragons into Richmond to procure provisions for their troops; the 
general health of the men was important. (¥^ 

The Sixth was placed in a pleasant location ivhile the brigade 
was encamped about Williams House. Pender's tent ivas struck in 
"a beautiful little nook of the hills." There were beech trees and 



68 The Bloody Sixth 

honeysuckle vines all about the area with a pleasant stream close by. 
The men had dammed this up to fonn a swimming place. It was a 
"perfectlv charming" location for a regiment w-eai^ after an arduous 
retreat.® 

The condition of the men was excellent, with only a few ex- 
ceptions. The weather was so warm that many of the men dreamed 
of going fishing. The nearness of Richmond and the prohibition of 
passes was vexing, but Mr. Fant, the regimental sutler, was back 
again. This alleviated the lack of passes, at least to some extent. (Si) 

While the regiment remained at Williams House, news arrived 
that Colonel Lightfoot had been elected to the colonelcy of the 
Twenty-second North Carolina. Pender breathed a sigh of relief: "I 
never want to have him back here.'^iThe Reverend Mr. Stuart was 
turning out to be an interesting addition to the regimental staff. 
Pender liked him because the chajjlain Avas "a most excellent Chris- 
tian," ivas agreeable, and very industrious. Revei'end Stuart made him- 
self "useful" instead of "troublesome as I feared." Pewiler felt that 
close association with the chaplain Avould be beneficial6J/gain, on the 
25th, Pender wrote, 

I find that the company of Mr. Stuart is of great benefit to 
me. He is a good man with good sense. ^^ 

General Whiting was presented with an expensive horse by the 
Fourth Alabama Regiment, one of the Third Brigade, on May 22. 
The horse cost 51,000, and brought a sneering comment from Pender 
that "such todyism as has been shown in this matter ... is rather too 
much of a good thing." To make the matter worse the Eleventh 
Mississippi had raised §1,200, to buy another horse for the general, 
while the Second Mississippi "are going to do likewise." These pres- 
entations -ivould reflect uj^on the poor Sixth, a regiment in which 
many of the men could not afford to be so generous. (^^^ 

As May advanced, McCIellan's army moved closer to Richmond. 
By the 27th, the Union forces were within three miles of the Con- 
federate lineswPlans ^vere afoot in the Confederate high command 
for an attack upon McCIellan's position. Suddenly, everything be- 
came a flurry of excitement, orders were issued, men prepared to go 
out and meet the enemy. On the 24th orders were issued to the men 
to prepare two days's cooked rations. Utensils were to be packed after 
cooking, along ^\'ith tent equipage. Brigade and regimental Tvagons 
were to be loaded in preparation for an advance. The men were to 
march ^vith only single blankets and their "cooked provisions." 
Ambidances were prepared to follow the troops into action; ^e sick 
^vere to remain behind as camp guards "imtil farther orders. '^-0n the 
26th, orders were issued to prepare for an attack at 1:00 A.M. the 
following day. Hood's command was to form the advance; the 



In the Peninsula G9 

Third Brigade would follow-. The men were to be aroused Iroiii 
slumber without the benefit of drum beat.^lthough regimental field 
music would accompany the regiments." -©(ithough the attack -was 
delayed, spirits remained high. Pender sinnmed up the feelings of 
his command ^vhen he wrote, 

Every man w-ho has any manhood shoukl 8; does feel the 
absolute necessity of fighting to the death. (S^ 

Confidence was high, although a heavv rain began on the night of the 
26th. The rain continued into the morning of the 27th, delaying the 
Confederate attack. About 3:00 in the afternoon of the 27th hea\7 
firins; ^^■as heard in the direction of Hanover Coint House. The Sixth 
Regiment Avatted, expecting to be called into battle, but the order 
didn't come.^SsPender A\rote his wife on the 29th: 

5 miles from Richmond. . . . We came out here last night 
fidlv expecting to move or attack the enemy this morning, but 
something prevented. I hope the attack ^vill not be delayed many 
more hours. ... I slept not a wink last night & but vei7 little 
for the previous 48 hours. I have felt anything but bright to 
day. . . . (^ 

The Sixth was moved towards the enemy on the night of the 
28th. The regiment was countermarched the next day, until the 
men were only one and a half miles from Richmond-^— marches and 
countermarches, but no fighting; i\ould it never endj'^inally, on the 
31st the men were marched toward the C^hickahominy. At 3:00 P.M. 
the regiment drew near to Fair Oaks. The Third Brigade A\as under 
command of Colonel Evandor Mclver I->a-w-, Colonel of the Fointh 
Alabama Infantry and acting brigadiei-V^The Sixth Regiment, in 
advance of the brigade, was ordered to charge and drive the enemy. 
Line of battle was formed on the Nine Mile Road ^vith the ranks 
facing south. With a rapid movement the regiment rushed forward 
in the direction of the enemy. Moving through a thick wood, 
Pender noticed three Union regiments nraking an effort to take the 
Sixth in flank. The regiment was ordered to change front and move 
fon\ard at a double-quick. As the men filed behind the wood they 
came upon a masked^ battery "which opened upon us when about 
150 vards from it.txtThe regiment obeyed Pender's orders as if it 
were on parade. However, the se^ere fire from the batten' broke the 
right flank -ivhich was posted in an open field. Three companies on 
the left flank, Tate's, Kirkland's and Carter's, held their position and 
advanced slowly against the enemy's infantry. The ground was cov- 
ered ;\ith brush and small pits. When these companies sa^\- that the 
right had broken and flecl, they slowly ^vithdre^v, "but not until 



70 The Bloody Sixth 

they were too late to form on them, and they were joined to another 
regiment, and acted with it."^^ 

The right was ralHed, still under a heavy artillery fire, and 
ordered forward again, supported by other regiments. This time 
the men reached a point within seventy-five yards of the battery. 
Nevertheless, the fire from the battery and supporting infantry be- 
came so severe that the regiment was again forced to slowly withdraw. 
The men held dreir ground for some time, "being partially sheltered 
by some rising ground." Darkness was setting in and inevitable con- 
fusion ensued. Pender realized the futility of another charge and 
finally ivithdrew his men. As the Sixth withdrew, the other regi- 
ments of the Third Brigade made a charge on the Union position. 
They, too, were repiUsed in great disorder. Pender went forward 
and personally rallied the broken regiments, "and restored the line 
by his courage and coolness." President Davis was on the field, and 
saw Pender's action. He came forij'ard and said to the yoimg colonel, 
"General Pender, I salute you." ikly 

The regiment had performed gallantly, but not without severe 
loss. Captain William J. Freeland was badly wounded in the leg 
and had to be left on the field, where he was captured. Captain J. W. 
Lea was severely ivounded: Lieutenants Ray, Barbee, and Smith were 
slightly wounded. Fourteen enlisted men had been killed, eighty- 
two were wounded, and twenty were missing. Major Webb/^as 
singled out for especial commendation for gallanti7 on the field^n- 
deed, Pender praised the conduct of most of his men, writing, 

Lieiu. Vincent led his company most gallantly to charge 
a small party across a field. The stubborness with which Captains 
Tate, Kirkland and Carter maintained their position on the left 
in the first charge on the battei-y entitles them to great credit. 
The coolness of Capt., now Lieut. Colonel Avery, was also very 
conspicuous. £g) 

Pender knew that there were many other instances of gallantry, "but 
it is impossible to see or mention all." First Sergeant Covington of 
Company H and Coiporal Cox of Company E were both singled out 
for commendationJ&JCaptain Freeland had gone into action with the 
Twenty-second North Carolina, and "it is feared, has fallen into the 
hands of the Yankees. They could not have taken a braver man or a 
more cool and gallant officer." Pender also praised Adjutant Benjamin 
R. Smith 'ivho was "brave, cool and active.'vJS 

The case of Captain Freeland was especially heartrending. His 
company, the Orange Grays (Company D) had been detailed to guard 
General Johnston's headquarters tent. When the battle began, fifteen 
of the company were left in camp and the rest, under Freeland, had 
joined the Twenty-second North Carolina, which was commanded by 



In the Peninsula 71 

Colonel Lightfoot. Freeland had been shot in the thigh while charging 
the Union batter^'. He was carried towards the rear by four of his men, 
but was "hotly pursued." When he saw that the enemy would capture 
them all, he ordered the men to leave him ancL save themselves. This 
they did, leaving Freeland in Union hands. kUJ 

The regiment slept in a Union camp that night, uncertain of 'ts^~^^ 
casualties, but secure in the knowledge that it had done its best. ^J 
The enemy had been driven back more than two miles through their 
camps and "from a series of intrenchments^^ Still, Union reinforce- 
ments arrived diu-ing the night of the 31stviM"he Sixth ■ivas ordered 
to fall into line of battle on the morning of June 1, but remained 
in position all day. The battle, as far as the regiment :\'as concerned, 
\vas over. (^ 

Pender was elated. He had been appointed to the temporary rank 
of brigadier general effective June "i.^&Cht Sixth would need an- 
other colonel to replace him. Who would it be? 

The answer to this question lay in the commander of Company 
E, Captain Isaac Erwin Avery. Avery was a stocky man of medium 
height with a determined look upon his face. He wore a short but 
impressive beard, and was a representative of the best type of Con- 
federate officer. He was born at Swan Ponds, his family's ancestral 
estate in Burke County, on December 20, 1828. He grew up on the 
plantation and entered the state university at Chapel Hill in 1847. 
Avery attended college for only one year, returning to assist his 
father in the operation of the plantation. Young Avery was espe- 
cially interested in the breeding of cattle and horses, particularly on 
his father's stock farm in Yancey County. When the Western North 
Carolina Railroad was chartered in 1854, Avery went into partner- 
ship with Charles F. Fisher and Samuel McDowell Tate (of Morgan- 
ton) to build the road. By 1861, the railroad had been completed 
to a point ivithin three miles of Morganton when all work ceased. Q^ 

Avery, assisted by his yoimger brother, Alphonso Calhoun Avery, 
raised Compan\f E for the Sixth Regiment in Burke County in the 
spring of 186lQjHis record as company commander had been capa- 
ble, if not dramatic. Still, Pender had been impressed ^vith Avery's 
enthusiasm and with his sobriety. On May 2, Pender was able to 
procure Avery's commission as lieutenant colenel of the regiment, 
a move ^vhich would have repercussions lateivi*T)r some time Pender 
had hoped .\very would be promoted to field grade. He wrote on 
May 17, 

I was glad to hear . . . that Col. Lightfoot would ... be re- 
elected in the 22nd N. C. . . . I think Capt. Avery will get his 
place here. I shall reconuiiend him K; so will Gen. Whiting. ^ 



72 The Bloody Sixth 

On May 29 the North Carolina assistant adjutant general wrote 
Pender that Avery "has not returned to this office the acceptance of 
his commission." The commission had been sent from Raleigh on 
May 1. If it hadn't been received "another will be sent.'ll^ender 
\vired Adjutant General James G. Martin on June 3 requesting 
Avery's immediate appointment as lieiuenant colonel. It was im- 
portant that the regiment acquire^.ajiother field officer; "Every mo- 
ment is of the greatest importance. 'vSCovernor Clark answered Pender 
immediately: 

In compliance \\'ith your telegraph just received I have or- 
dered an appointment of Lt. Colonel sent on Capt. I. E. Avery 
and telegraphed the fact to General Whiting. 

I had previously upon yotu" suggestion and on notification 
of the election of Col. Lightfoot to the 22nd. Regiment, sent 
on commissions to Lightfoot for Col. of 22nd, and Avery Lt. 
Colonel of 6th and supposed they had been received and ac- 
cepted, and your telegram to day \\-as the first intimation I had 
that they were not now acting under these commissions in these 
Regiments. . . .(S) 



Avery assumed command of the regiment \\ith the rank of lieu- 
tenant colonel on June 4. (£^ 

Avery's promotion \\as received with deep resentment by Major 
Robert F. \Vebb, obviously next in line to succeed Pender. The issue 
was taken up by Webb's hometown newspaper, the Hillsborough 
Recorder: 

We are informed, that the rule is -well established, ^\-henever, 
promotion is made by Executive appointment, that seniority if 
commission entitles an officer as a matter of right, to succeed to 
the place next above him, in case of vacancy, in all Regimental 
offices. . . . Major Webb was entitled by his merits to receive 
this promotion, and to be spared the degradation implied by 
denying it to him.^i 

Webb had served in the Hillsboro company of the North Caro- 
lina regiment in the Mexican War. He kne^v more of "discipline 
and the duties of camp and garrison" than did Avery. Now Webb 
had resigned his commission in protest to Avery's appointment.^^The 
Recorder continued: 

We are not in the habit of harsh comment on the conduct 
of public fimctionaries, but we have deemed it^U" duty to call 
attention to this violation of the rights of tivo^gallant citizens 
of Orange, who were among the earliest to rally for the defence 
of their country in this war, who have now become veterans in 
danger and suffering, and to protest against it.fev) 



In the Peninsula 73 

The North CaroHna Slaii'dard took up Webb's cause on June 25, 
asserting that the major did not get the-coveted appointment because 
he "was not an original secessionist. "©This article was paraphrased 
and criticized in the State ]ournal: 

. . . we think he (\Vebb) has been wronged, and enter our 
protest against the treatment which he has received. And this 
we do, not because he was not "an original secessionist," or be- 
cause he was "an old Union man," but because he is an officer 
and a soldier, \vhose rights and honor we will uphold and de- 
fend, regardless of those who ^vould trample them under foot, 
if anv such there hei' 



The dispute seemed to be headed to a controversy of major propor- 
tions when Webb received-^a six-day leave of absence on "surgeon's 
certificate of disability. "^SOn June 11, Webb ^vas promoted to 
lieutenant colonel of the regimepty Samuel McDowell Tate was 
promoted to major in his place.Qjstill. ^Vebb's animosity towards 
Avery continued to sho\v itself in many subtle ways as the weeks 
and months passed. It was hard being passed over in favor of an 
officer with less seniority than yourself. ^ 

As usual ^V'hiting issued niunerous orders to his division after 
the Battle of Seven Pines. Brigade commanders were instructed to 
post pickets on all the roads leading to Richmond to prevent officers 
and men from going to the rear "without proper authority." Force 
was to be used to stop shirkers, if necessanVHThe men were issued 
whiskey on June 6, on orders issued by \Vhiting: "No one must 
receive more than his rations & those rations now drawn, or required 
must be kept on hand.v5J35rigade hospitals were established to care 
for the sick andi ^vounded: tents and tent flies were to be used for 
these hospitalsS^rigade commanders were ordered to furnish Whiting 
with their bi-jeade ammunition lists — it was important to ascertain 
any shortageaSTools were sent to the various brigades to be used in 
road construction "leading to the several positions" and to the picket 
lines. Directions Avere given t'or the construction of "a strong abatis" 
in front of the picket linesQ^tricter rules were issued ooverninar 
leaves of absence. None-,would be granted "except upon surgeon's 
certificate of disability.''— ^'ender, now a voung brigadier, wrote on 
June 8, 

I can ^vrite but little as my mind is pretty weW taken up 
with pickets, abattis, roads, rations, & such usual military details. (^^^ 

Regimental connnanders were ordered to furnish division head- 
quarters with lists of their killed, wounded, and missing "in the late 
battle." The monthly rosters for May had to be furnished -(vith the 
casualty lists. (Too) 



74 The Bloody Sixth 

The regiment remained in camjn on the Chickahominy in an 
advanced position until June 1 \v^o one knew when the battle 
might be resumed; everywhere there was military activity to meet 
the expected Union advance upon Richmond. The system for pasting 
sentinels was tightened up. Stragglers were to be arrested if noticed. 
Everytlwng seemed to point to an early resumption of military ac- 
tivit)C^eneral Whiting issued a congratulatory order to his division 
on June 2. The men were thanked for their "spirit & gallantry" 
which was revealed in the battle on May 31. Whiting eulogized the 
action by saying, 

The enemy were driven from their camps, to the shelter of 
their formidable breastworks &: batteries. Night . . . alone pre- 
vented the success on our line from being complete. . . . Let 
every one continue to display the same courage &; endurance & 
under God our success will be sure &: final. ^fgg ) 

A solemn note of caution was injected: "Remember that every day 
we may be called upon to attack. We must watdwUie enemy, & 
never permit him to put up his heavy fortifications. "'^^i^W. Mangum, 
formerly chaplain to the regiment, reflected the sentiment concur- 
rent in North Carolina on the residt of the battle of May 31 when 
he wrote. 

Of the (loss of) the privates (of the Sixth) I have heard 
nothing. We are thought by some to have lost about 1200 killed 
at Richmond. . . . Our troops are said to he in fine spirits at 
Richmond. They number over 100,000.(7^ 

As the regiment remained on picket in the s^vamps along the 
Chickahominy a movement was being undertaken by General Whit- 
ing which was to take the men far from the Virginia Peninsula. 
Orders were given for the transportation of Whiting's entire division 
to the Shenandoah Valley. On June 11, the regiment left Rich- 
mond via the Virginia Central Railroad,--/rheir destination was 
Staunton in the upper Shenandoah Valle\ViriThe reason for going to 
the valley was kept secret, although, ostensibly it Avas to-help General 
"Stonewall" Jackson clear the enemy from the valle^U-iiideed, Jack- 
son's secrecy, proverbial with him in all of his campaigns, even con- 
fused Whiting. On Jime 16 Jackson had written AVhiting: 

I am more than gratified at the prospect of again meeting 
you in the valley . . . please move yoiu" command to the vicinity 
of Mount Cra\\ford, but on this side of North River, and let me 
see you at my headquarters. (l£|) 

Again, on the same day, 



In- the Peninsula 75 

If your troops are in camp please let them remain there, 
and if marching please put them in camp as soon as practicable, 
and give like orders to other troops near you, and let me see you 
at my headquarters upon important business, (foj) 



Whiting was perplexed. He had come all the way from Richmond 
expecting to play an important role in Jackson's movements when 
he suddenly received orders to meet Jackson at Mount Crawford, 
leaving his division in camp. He ^^•as so expectant of important 
action that he had issued elaborate orders to his division, now com- 
posed of the First and Third Brigades, to prepare for "an active cam- 
paign in the Valley."diiW'hiting's perplexion was changed to anger 
A\-hen he anived, worn out after a forty-mile ride, at Jackson's head- 
quarters. His division -^vas-^all ordered immediately over the moun- 
tains back to Richmond.'^t^s AVhiting mockingly expressed it. 

So I have marched up the hill, to turn ai'ound & march 
down again. I only hope that all will turn out for the best, 
though it seems to me a sinoidar move. 



Whiting ^\-as afraid to tell his men of their new destination. Every- 
one thought they ^\-ere going to attack General Fremont in the val- 
ley. Instead, they marched back across the Blue Ridge on June 19. 
Theip4X)ute lay through Staunton and Waynesboro to Mitcheners 
RiveW^Miirifig, exhausted after several days in the saddle, followed 
in a bugg/i^Tie di^•ision Avas to spearhead Jackson's attack against 
McClellan before Richmond. ^Vhitino- wrote: 

o 

I do not look forward. It is more than likely that I shall 
be kept in Jackson's Corps & will have to make the assault on 
AlcClellan's flank &: rear which I presume is intended in this 
new move. A hazardous but if successful a glorious blo-ss-. The 
Lord is my helper. I will not fear what man can do to me. (JT^ 

And then, in a tone of deep humility, "... I ask in my trouble & 
weakness for faith & grace & the Blessed Spirit thus above all I may 
be ready. "(Hfe) 

AVhiting's move through central Virginia back towards the pen- 
insula baffled the Union high command. A deserter notified Mc- 
Clellan on June 24 that Whiting's men ^^•ere moving on Freder- 
icks Hall and would attack the Union rear on the 28th. McClellan 
anxiously requested Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton to send "the 
most exact infomration you have as to the position and movements 
of Jackson, as^^ell as the soiuxes from \\hich your information is 
derived. . . .'(ZiSfanton thought that Jackson (with Whiting's divi- 
sion in advance) might be at Gordonsville, or possibly still in the 
valley. Maybe the Confederate general was marching against W^ash- 



76 The Bloody Sixth 

ington and Baltimore. McCIellan should be wary of Jackson's move- 
ments. According to Stanton, 

. . . Jackson's real movement now is toward Richmond.(7/J) 

By June 25, Whiting's division was encamped a mile west of 
Ashland. Jackson's orders were to attack McClellan's right flank in 
its position immediately to the east of the small village of Mechanics- 
ville. If McClellan's right could be destroyed while the remainder 
of the Confederate Army attacked his center and left, the Union 
general might be defeated. At least the immediate threat to Rich- 
mond woidd be removed. In accordance with these plans, the men 
broke camp on the 26th and marched on along the Chickahominy 
River, driving in the advanced Union pickets as they proceeded. An 
advanced post of Lhiion cavalry Avest of Totopotomoy Creek fled 
upon the approach of the Confederates when the latter reached that 
stream at 3:00 P.M. Nevertheless a crossing would be difficult because 
the bridge was in flames. Union troops on the east side of the stream 
frantically blocked the road to prevent a crossing. This did not deter 
the indomitable Whiting who ordered the Texans to cross and en- 
gage the enemy. ^Vhile Confederate infantry pushed across the deep 
and swampy stream. Captain James Reilly's artillei^y battei'y was 
brought into action. A sharp biust of cannon fire disbursed the 
enemy \\ho fled in confusion down the road towards Pole Green 
Chinch. The bridge was soon rebuilt and the Confederates crossed 
and marched rapidly towards the church (sometimes called Hundley's 
Corner) . By nightfall \Vhiting's exhausted men were imited with 
Ewell's division. As darkness fell over the camp, heavy cannon fire 
was heard in the direction of Mechanicsville. Was a battle being 
fought? Only tomorrow could te\[(Tj^) 



Earlv on the morning of Jinie 27, the division continued its 
advance. Heavy musketry fire and cannonading were heard on the 
right. "Whiting ordered artillei7 to be sent to shell the Union rear at 
Beaver Dam Swamp, forcing their withdrawal. The Chickahominy 
was crossed ^vithout opposition as the division marched towards Cold 
Harbor. The advance of the Confederates was slow; there were many 
interruptions occasioned by frequent halts. At 3:00 P.M. one of 
Jackson's aides directed Whiting to form line of battle-a«d "press 
through the woods to the firing, now become very heavy. ^^i^aie Texas 
brigade was posted on the left, with the Third Brigade on the right. 
Slowly the troops advanced through dense woods. The Telegraph 
Road was reached at 4:00 P.M. Heavy artillery firing was heard in 
the distance. Here, Whiting met General Robert E. Lee who ordered 
him to mo\e in a direction "a little to my right. '(j^Ji^'hiting wrote. 



In the Peninsula 77 

The field where \\e entered it was about the head of the 

ravine, which covered the enemy's left near the main road, z. 

deep and steep chasm, dividing the bluffs of the Chickahominy.(7^3^ 

The scene which met AVhiting's eyes was appalling. Men were 
"leaving the field in every direction and in great disorder." Some 
regiments ^vere withdrawing more slowly and in better order. ^Vhit- 
ing saw that something had to be done in order to save the day for 
the Confederates. He quickly ordered the First Texas Regiment to 
charge the enemy and "go over them or through them." The rest 
of Hood's Texas brigade was ordered for^vard, fonning their line of 
battle on the right of thj&-Kavine. The Third Brigade was advanced 



still further to the rightS^ith a wild yell the men charged down the 
hill. At the bottoiru-^ve found solid log works with sharpened sticks 
and a deep ditch. "QiKoming up in support of the Texans, the Third 
Brigade was forced to change front to a position parallel to the 
ravine because of this obstacle and the general nature of the ground. 
The men pressed for^vard under "a destructive fire" from the enemy 
who were concealed in the woods and "protected by the ravine." 
Do^vn into the ravine went the men, across the ditch, heavily de- 
fended by the enemy, and into infantry fire from rifle pits on the 
other side of the stream. Colonel \jSiW bravely led the charge. Colo- 
nel Aven' was severely wounded in the thigh, a Avoimd ■(diich dis- 
abled him until after the Battle of Antietam. i,/i5y 

The Sixth kept up with the rest of the brigade as it swept through 
the enemy's position. Fourteen pieces of artillery were captured along 
with "nearly a ^\hole regiment of the enemy." At the Union second 
line, the brigade paused imtil General Longstreet sent Brigadier 
General Richard H. Anderson's brigade forward as reinforcements. 
Together the two brigades, ably assisted by Hood's Texans, drove 
the enemy before them until niglufall found the Confederates in 
full possession of the battlefieldU^ne hard-fought battle of Gains's 
Mill had been won. The victors, -ivorn out by their exertions, slept 
upon the field. The feelings of these men are expressed by a member 
of the Sixth who wrote. 

Our regiment slept on the outposts of the battle-field that 
night, and no doubt every one enjoyed the night's rest after the 
day's march and fatigue as Avell or better perhaps than ever 
before. No one who has never slept upon a battle-field can pos- 
sibly have any coiTect idea of the deep solemnity that seems to 
pen'ade the place. One can almost imagine he can hear the 
flitting of departing spirits as they unwillingly leave the fallen 
tenements of clay that now lie the chosen victims of the ravages 
of war. The time has been when we coidd not have slept with 
hundreds of dead and dying almost \\-ithin reach, but that night 
I slept sweetly and dreamed as j^leasantly as ever before in my 



78 The Bloody Sixth 



life, and it was sometime after I awoke next morning before I 
could fully realize that I had passed through such scenes on the 
day before, and that daylight might again bring on something of 
the same again. //^^ 



When the sun rose the writer was pleasantly surprised to find that the 
enemy had left "under the cover of darkness. "(^p 

Whiting was obviously pleased with the results of the action. 
He singled out Colonel E. M. Law, brigade commander of the Third 
Brigade, for special praise. And he stated, "Lieut. Col. I. E. Avery, 
Sixth North Carolina, was wounded, the command devolving on Maj. 
R. F. Webb, who ably sustained his pan.'Ospiie Sixth Regiment, al- 
though not so hotly engaged as some of the other units, sustained a 
loss of five killed and foKty-seven wounded. The total loss for the 
Third Brigade was 447viit\niiting stnnmed up his opinion by saying, 
"The battle was very severe, hotly contested, and gallantly w'on.'C^!/ 

Command of the Sixth Regiment now finally passed to Major 
Robert Frederick Webb, of the Flat River Community in north- 
eastern Orange Coiuity (now Diuham County) . Webb, a handsome 
but morose man of imposing appearance with a full beard, was born 
on April 25, 1825, in Washington, D. C. His family moved to Balti- 
more when he was still a child. In 1847, he emigrated to North 
Carolina. After sei^vice in the Mexican War, he returned to Orange 
County and resumed the life of a planter. In 1850, he married Miss 
Amanda Mangum, a cousin of United States Senator Willie P. 
Mangimi, in the latter's home near Rougemont. Webb became Cap- 
tain of Company B, Sixth North Carolina Regiment in April, 1861. 
He was a great friend of the Mangums as evidenced by his many 
letters in their correspondence. (/J^ 

Webb seems to have been a good soldier, kind husband, but a 
jealous and embittered man. There is an undertone of dislike for 
Colonel Isaac Avery in some of his correspondence, particularly in 
the above-mentioned dispute over the regimental colonelcy in June, 
ISGiiiriiis barely concealed ill-feeling would be seen again and again 
in the months ahead. 

On tlie morning of Saturday, June 28, \Vhiting moved his divi- 
sion back across the ravine which they had crossed in the Battle of 
Gains's Mill, to a position half a mile in the rear. Here the troops 
were halted and a temporary camp was erected. There were buildings 
near by — McGehee's House and Farm — a position which had been the 
extreme right flank of the Union line and the end of the causeway 
over the Chickahominy swamps. The Confederates remained in this 
position all day and throughout the night of June 28. On the 
29th, the men remained in position, not moving forward until Mon- 
day morning, June 30. As the division advanced on the morning 
of the 30th, it crossed the Chickahominy River using the Union- 



In the Peninsula 79 

built causeway and bridge (which had been repaired by the Con- 
federates) . The Union camps, empty now, were quickly passed, as 
well as the York River Railroad. Marching by way of the Williams- 
burg Road, the division turned off at the White Oak Bridge Road. 
Whiting's men reached White Oak Swamp at noon. The bridg^e^-was 
destroyed "and the enemy drawn up beyond in line of battle. 'NjJJRit- 
teries of artillery were brought up and fire was opened upon the 
enemy. Although the Confederate fire caused some weakening of 
the Union resistance, the Confederates were still prevented from^ — 
advancing by "a distant and random fire of shell about the crossing."(2_^V 

While Whiting's men were drawn up in line waiting to cross 
White Oak Swamp, they heard the sounds of the Battle of Frazier's 
Farm being fought "scarcely 2 miles from us." Since Jackson's corps 
was advancing in the rear of the Union forces and in an excellent 
position to strike an effective blow for the Confederate cause. Whit- 
ing's statement that "Our delay at White Oak Bridge was unfor- 
tunate" seems some^vhat superfluous. By the following morning the 
enemy had retired. The bridge was repaired "and the troops passed." 
Whiting's division was in the advance, following the road to Turkey 
Bridge, farther down the Chickahominy. Some of General John 
Bankhead Magruder's skirmishers were passed, the men pressing 
until the advance guard, "a regiment of cavah7," was reached. This 
regiment was fcmnd in a thick wood near Crew's Fami. It was 11:00 
A.M., July lU^head was the enemy, "very strongly posted." His 
artillery immediately began to shell the road, filled Avith the men 
of AVhiting's division. (||j> 

What followed might be termed "the debacle of Malvern Hill." 
Here McClellan's formidable artillei-y was placed in an excellent 
position to completely enfilade the Confederate lines as they moved 
to the attack. Whiting's description of the situation cannot be im- 
proved upon: 

To our left was a very large wheat field, on the farm of Mr. 
Poindexter, which afforded a good view of the enemy's position 
and fair opportunities for artillery. Batteries were ordered up. 
The enemy's position, naturally commanding, was materially 
strengthened by the juchcious distril)iuion of his artillery. (JY 



The first Confederate battery which went into Poindexter's field 
found itself exposed to a "vastly superior crossfire," and soon was 
forced to retire, although without any casualties. Other batteries 
were ordered forward, while ^V'hiting was directed by General Jack- 
son to form a line '^vith my right on the road in the wood, advancing 
to the edge in front and holding that." It was in this position that 
the Sixth Regiment was ordered into line of battle, at the edge of 
the woods near Poindexter's field, completely under the murderous 



80 The Bloody Sixth 

artillery fire of the enemy. The line was continued by Hood's bri- 
gade across Poindexter's field. The men found what protection they 
could in hastily improvised trenches, behind the young wheat, and in 
natural folds of the ground. Since Whiting has been ordered to 
maintain his position, his men were forced to stay where they were 
throughout the day, enduring the terrible fire. Whiting says they did 
this "unflinchingly" throughout the long afternoon. (7^> 

Whiting wrote that the enemy "deployed at one time six batteries 
in front of our center, when, opening in this deployment ^vith ar- 
tillei7, they together with the stationary batteries already in position, 
and which we had been engaging at times during the day, all opened 
a terrific fire upon Poindexter's field. . . . JZIris cross fire was exces- 
sively severe upon the supporting troops. '(?iHeven after nightfall the 
enemy continued to shell Poindexter's field and the adjacent woods 
"with rapid and heavy fire."Gil2>-' 

The Sixth was trapped in this inferno ^vithout sufficient shelter. 
A member of the Eleventh Mississippi Regiment, in the Third Bri- 
gade, wrote, 

I saw a pine tree ciu off twenty or thirty feet from the 
ground, fall on the 6th North Carolina Regiment, killing and 
^voundins' fourteen men.fTiT^ 



Webb said that his men w-^i^ exposed to "ten hours of the heaviest 
cannonading of the War.'^^^e described the situation in eloquent, 
if somewhat exaggerated, style: 

I could be risked in command of this Regt. when it trembled 
on the verge of demoralization to hold a most important position 
ivhich I done. ... I held them there loosing seventy-three 
men in the tenible hours of night Avhen my men lay bleed- 
ing around me with sixteen officers and only one captain. I was 
asked by a mesenger from the general can you hold your 
position. My answer was yes or die trying, and I did hold it 
and it was the crowning act of Malvern Hill. ((^ 

The loss of the Sixth Regiment was extremely high at Malvern 
Hill. Captain R. F. Carter of the Hawfield Boys, Company F, was 
ntimbered among the slain. Although it is true that most of the 
wounded at Malvern Hill were only slightly hurt, there is still no 
answer to the night of tenor which the men werejorced to spend in 
the open, some of it under heavy enemy fireCiiifeeneral Whiting 
praised his men and gave an accurate reason for his casualties ^vhich 
totaled 123 in the Third Brigade:(j^ 

My list of casualties is almost entirely from the artillery 
fire of the enemy, for scarcely a musket was fired in the division. 



In the Peninsula 81 

When the immense amount of their artillery is considered, the 
violence and duration of their fire, and the exposed position of 
the troops, the loss, thanks to God, may be regarded as small, 
\vhile the courage and imfiinching endurance of the troops are 
\\orthy of the highest praise. (^T?|) 

On Wednesday morning, July 2, a heavy rain began to fall. 
soaking the weary troops who "remained in bivouac cooking." The 
next day Jackson's entire corps marched toward Westover Plantation, 
but bivouacked near Willis' Church when it was discovered that the 
wrong road was being followed. M 2:00 P.M. on the 3rd, the ene- 
my's outposts were "discovered intrenched at Hening Creek." Since 
it was deemed imprudent to attack these lines the corps withdrew in 
the direction of Richmond. The Sixth Regiment arrived at the 
Confederate capital on July 9. d© 

As soon ai-\Vhiting had placed his command on "the Heights of 
Richmond,' <l$re issued a series of disciplinary orders, an occurrence 
which seems to have been customary in both the Union and Con- 
federate Armies. On July 6, brigade commanders were ordered to 
report the total number "of effective men present" in their com- 
mandi^i^his was followed on Jidy 10 by a more detailed order, 
General Orders Number 84, which directed the brigade commanders 
to return their men "to that high state of discipline for which it (the 
division) was so much noted dining its stay at Fredericksburg, Vir- 
ginia, in March and April last.'uiother articles in the order reiter- 
ated orders issued at Fredericksbtug "relating to guards, drills, police, 
sinks, &;c.;" provided for the stationing of sentinels over orchards, 
crops, farms, and gardens: enforced the regulations "requiring three 
stated roll calls daily, reveille retreat and tattoo:" and annoimced the 
observance of two drills a day, "in the u*«ining from 6:00 to 7:30, 
and in the evening from 6:00 to sunset. '^i^s if the beleaguered men 
of the Third Brigade didn't have enough to do, more orders were 
issued on the 10th restricting the granting of "any military pennit 
or leave whatsoever" by regimental surgeons. Soldiers who left camp 
merely upon a surgeon's authority would be subjected to a llCharge 
of 'Absence without leave' and will be treated accordingly. '(i-fThese 
examples of orders which concerned the Third Brigade and, there- 
fore, the Sixth Regiment, are cited to illustrate the amazing simi- 
larity between army life then and now. Few records exist of dis- 
agreement with these orders. They ^vere obviously considered to be 
proper, and accepted in that light by the men.) 

In mid-July the old feud between Colonel Avery, now home re- 
covering from a wound received at Gains's Mill, and Major Webb 
was renewed. Avery wrote North Carolina Governor Henry T. Clark 
on Jidy 12 referring to a conversation which Clark had recently had 
with Captain Alphonso C. Avery, Avery's younger brother. Avei7 



82 The Bloody Sixth 

raged, "I no longer feel any delicacy in making suggestions^ifh re- 
gard to promotions in the Sixth North Carolina Regiment. "^He had 
learned that Webb had again sent in his resignation; that the major 
was still determined to resign, .'\fter the comment that the regiment 
wouldn't suffer "in discipline or efficiency" by Webb's departure, 
Avery wrote an interesting exposition about who might be expected 
to fill Webb's position: 

Capt. (Samuel McDowell) Tate the senior Captain, is an 
excellent officer and deserves promotion for his conduct and 
qualifications apart from the claim of seniority. I would there- 
fore recommend him above any other for any office which may 
be, or become vacant. Capt. Craige is next in rank to Capt. Tate. 
His appointment to a Field Office would be acceptable to a 
majority of the Officeis in the Regt. Should Capt. Craige accept 
a position in another Regt. however, Capt. York would be next 
in rank. It would not, in my opinion, be judicious to promote 
Capt. York. Capt. Parrish, the fourth captain in the line, is an 
excellent officer, and his appointment over Capt. York, would not 
only result in good to the service, but would, I believe, be ac- 
ceptable to almost every officer in the Regiment. It would prob- 
ably be better (as Capt. Craige has already made arrangements 
to leave the 6th Regt.) than Capt. Parrish. (J^ 

Avei7 concluded with the hope that he would be able to rejoin his 
regiment by September 1, even if he weren't completely "fit for 
service. "(TfJ) 

Webb ably presented his side of the controversy in a letter writ- 
ten to his kinsman, Adolphus W. Mangum, a Methodist minister and 
fonner chaplain of the regiment, on July 28. ^Vebb complained: 

My unfortunate position of Com (m) ander of this Regt. 
has been closely watched even^^:pm emissaries from that sink 
of polution. I wont say wher^J*T could be risked in command 
of this Regt. when it trembled on the verge of demoralization (at 
Malvern Hill). ... I bro(ugh)t the remnant of this Regiment 
to the Heights of Richmond broken down, cut up, and in a 
deplorable condition. Ask any one of the numerous gentlemen 
who visit this camp about the condition of the men here they 
are and they speak for themselves (.) I have toiled hard for 
them and my labour has been crowned with success and this 
from the man they could not promote (.) But I dont mind it 
and hardly think I would have any thing they could give me. 
I have made up my mind as soon as the officers come to take 
command to resign. I do not say I have done enough I am will- 
ing to do more but in a position where my services will at least 
be appreciated.(1?5) 

Webb continued his letter with information that many of the officers 
had tendered their resignations. Captains Lea, Kirkland, and Craige 



In the Peninsula 83 

were included in this number. Even General \Vhiting had left, "gone 
home sick." General John B. Hood, formerly commander of the Texas 
brigade and "a man we all love," had assumed command of the 
division. (TtJ) 

The changes ^^•hich ^\'ebb mentioned are noteworthy. On July 
17, Captain James A. Craige of Company G^as promoted to Major 
of the Fifty-se\enth North Carolina TroopsfTHis position was taken 
by Benjamin R. Smitli(2^r. Peter A. Holt, regimental surgeon, wrote 
a letter on July 26 to accompany the resignation of Captain John ^\^ 
Lea. Holt's letter, headed "Camp near Richmond," explained, 

I certify that I have been intimately associated with Capt. 
J. W. Lea of Co. K. 6th N. C. Regt. as surgeon have thoroughly 
examined him at repeated intervals during the past year, and 
find that he is physically a feeble man — having a constitutional 
predestination for tubercular disease. At the battle of Seven 
Pines said officer received a painful -ivound of the right hand 
destroying its use for practical purposes, besides producing 
serious impaimrent of his health rendering his temporary aban- 
donment of the public service indispensibly important/%5) 

Earlier in the month, Holt himself had been under attack by no less 
a personage than General ^Vhiting. Holt had complained of certain 
orders issued by \Vhiting shortly after the regiment had marched to 
Richmond from the battlefield of Malvern Hill. James H. Hill, 
Whiting's assistant adjutant general, wrote to Holt on July 13 that, 

The Brig. Genl. comdg. to whom yoiu- note of yesterday has 
been submitted, directs me to inform you that it is highly im- 
proper, if not disrespectful. He is disposed ho^vever to attribute 
it to ignorance, on your part of both the orders of ^vhich you 
complain & of militai7 etiquette — and further, if you desire 
to leave the 3d. brigade simply because of the discipline which 
exists, it is his opinion that you cannot leave it too soon. (fZj^ 

July passed slowly in the camps near Richmond. On the 10th 
Whiting ordered picket guards to be posted on the Meadows- Bridge 
Road, the Mechanicsville Turnpike and the York River Railroad. (^^ 
Strict orders were issued governing passes to Richmond. Only two 
commissioned officers from each regiment and t-(\'o enlisted men from 
eacli company could be absent in the capital at one time. The passes 
were strictly regulated because the company, regimental, and brigade 
commanders had to approve then{3^n Jidy 11, directions were 
given for the establishment of a divisional field hospital "in houses 
to be rented if such can be conveniently found within the lines, 
otherwise imder canvas to which all the sick \\ill be sent to be at- 
tended by their own Medical officers. "(7^7) 



84 The Bloody Sixth 

Amidst these unfortunate officer resignations and the overly-strict 
military etiquette insisted upon by martinet Whiting, there was a 
bit of welcome news. Whiting issued General Orders Number 88 on 
July 25, which directed, 

The regiments of the five brigades of this division now pres- 
ent will have inscribed on their battle flag the names, "Seven 
Pines, Gaines Farm 8c Malvern Hill." In addition to the above 
the regts of the Texas Brigade, the Hampton Legion & the 
6th N. C. will have the word Eltham's Landing put on their 
colors & all the regiments of the 3d. Brigade including the Le- 
gion the word Manassas. (Tip 

This was real praise for men ^vho had been baptized on the plains of 
Manassas and in the peninsida. They were veterans now. This was 
their contribution to the past and their hope for the future. 



VIII 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 



"On the 29th, the Regiment supported tlie battery in the centre 
. . . the men firing until their muskets were so hot they could scarcely 
handle them." 

Anonymous membkr of the Sixth Regiment. 

NeWSPAITR CIIPl'INC IN THE A. ^V. MANGUM PAPERS. 



On the morning of July 28, 1862, the encampment of the Sixth 
Regiment was moved to a position about two miles from Richmond 
on the Meadow Bridge Road. It was a pleasant day with large niun- 
bers of troops on the move, some arriving to reinforce the army before 
Richmond, others being sent to support General Thomas J. Jackson in 
his movement to the northCi^Iajor Webb sat down to write what must 
rank as one of the most revealing complaints of modern military 
history to his friend and cousin Adolphus \W Mangum. He began 
1)\ complaining of the lack of mail: "1 have ^vritten to you several 
times since the great batiles belo\\' Richmorul but not a line have I 
received only one short letter from ,\iiiandiT°yesterday dated the 11th 
of the month hoiv it is I am at a loss.l^AVebb was anxious to hear from 
Mangimi and his other friends in North Carolina. He continued by 
expressing anger at "Enemys who gave me more pain than the merci- 
less foes in the field." After a brief review of the military situation 
below — "The Enemy are helpless and having entrenched themselves 
are safe while we equally helpless are in no condition to strike" — 
and the usual prophecy that the Union forces "are driving on to their 
own destruction," Webb began to bitterly complain of the high price 
of food stuffs. He lamented: 

Even i\hile I am writing there is two or three waggons ped- 
dling chicken soup one chicken to a barrel 25 cents a cup-full 
black berry dumplings size 1 poiuider smoothbore would answer 
for shrapnall 50 cents a dumpling, a small farm in N. C. might 
buy a suit of clothes. . . . We get no coffee and we get only what 

85 



86 The Bloody Sixth 

we buy from the land sharks about Richmond coffee 250 (dol- 
lars) per pound tea 20 dollars, sugar one dollar, molasses eight 
dollars per gallon.(^ 

His bitterest complaint was directed against "swell heads" who 
withheld captured supplies from the Confederate troops. Some vine- 
gar and a supply of tents had been captured from the enemy, but had 
not been distributed to the men. Webb's bitterness over this fact rose 
to an unstable key: 

Yet these things, while we ivho have born the brunt of 
battle and suffered are only insidted by those who have the 
power to do so. A Major here has not the same privi ledge of a 
negro at home — he has only one master while I have three to 
ask for the little priviledge of going to town, but I would not 
murmur at this -ivere I treated as a gentleman or white man.^ 

Perhaps the most interesting statement in an unusually interesting 
letter is the phrase, "I do not write this in any spirit of complaint. 
If I was to do that I should complain at som (e) thing more impor- 
tant. vain spite of his tendency to complain, Webb was optimistic about 
some things, except for the moving of troops near the normally quiet 
Confederate camp. Webb noted that "it is a rare thing to even hear 
the soimdjaf a gun." Another bright point concerned the previously 
mentione(S3accession of General Hood to the command of Whiting's 
old division. Hood was well-liked, "a man we all love." Also, 
Webb's health "is pretty good," even though "care and trouble has 
made its mark upon me." Webb was confident in some aspects of 
the future: 

I bear up under it trusting in God ^vho has never forsaken 
me. I am confident I have been the object of God('s) special mercy 
for which I am thankful . . . give my love to every body, write ■ 
to Amanda often and cheer her up if you see any thing in the 
papers cut it out and send it to me. May this horrid war end ; 
soon and may we meet with sweet peace smiling over our wonce 
happy land soon. ■■■(£) 

Diu-ing the month of July several unrelated communications were 
sent regarding the Sixth Regiment which might be mentioned at 
this point. On the 12th the fiery Whiting wrote directly to General 
Lee from "1st Division 1st. Corps Dills Fami," requesting action 
"on my application to be restored to my proper position in this 
army." Whiting's force consisted of only t^\'o brigade^jMoo small a 
command for an officer accustomed to leading five brigades into 
action. He was especially anxious to be detached from the com- 
mand of General Jackson, an officer noted for his strict application 



is not in- 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 87 

of militan' discipline. Since Whiting had been in long association 
with the Sixth Regiment, a portion of his letter is worth repeating 
although a complete biography of this interesting officer 
tended at this point. "Whiting wrote, 

I understand that the service on -ivhich I -went was to be 
special and temporary. How that service has been perfonned is 
^\ell kno\\n. You called my attention to the fact that I made 
application to go upon it. I should scarcely have done so, could 
I have thought that advantage would be taken of that application 
made in good faith for the public good, to reduce my command, 
to throw one of my best officers, Genl. Hamptmi entirely out to 
place me in a position after t^\o severe battles«iiferior to that I 
occupied before 8; to continue me permanently detached from the 
1st. Corps. If this be the intention &; it is my misfortune, please 
to let me kno-w.nn 

Whiting had another brush with Lee on the 21st, Avhen he ^vrote 
the great Virginian to "respectfully request to know by ivhat au- 
thority" Captain Nathaniel Scales of the Sixth North Carolina 
Regiment and Captain Barksdale of the Eleventh Mississippi Regi- 
ment "are absent or detached from their regiments." Scales was re- 
ported to Whiting as serving in >he position of brigade quartermaster 
with Brigadier General PendeK!3''formerly in my division with his 
command." Barksdale ^vas serving imder his brother Colonel William 
Barksdale who commanded "the late Brig. Genl. Griffith's brigade. "(l£,' 
Whiting was angry because no "official intimation" had been given 
him of the changes. He siunmed up his feelings about the two 
officers bv ivriting, 

Both are good officers & I should dislike exceedingly to have 
to use harsh measures with them. Unless they can sho-sv your 
aiuhority for their absence from their regiments I shall be com- 
pelled to take them in arrest. ^ 

On July 23, the regiments composing the Third Brigade ivere 
the Fourth Alabama, Colonel Evander M. Law; the Second Missis- 
sippi, Colonel J. M. Stone; the Eleventh Mississippi, Colonel P. F. 
Liddell; and the Sixth North Carolina, ColoneLJ. E. Avery (no^v 
commanded by Major Webb in Avei7's absence)03n the same date 
La\\'s brigade became a part of Hood's division, connnanded by 
Brigadier General John Bell Hood, past commander of the famed 
Texas brigade. Hood's new division, besides La^v's brigade, was 
composed of Brigadier General |. Ix Robertson's brigade, the First, 
Fourth and Fifth Texas Regiments. QiJ 

On Jtdy 25, Lee had written President Davis an interesting letter 
which sheds important light on the Confederate militai-y policy of 



88 The Bloody Sixth 

brigading units from the same states together. Writing in "reply 
to the letter of Col. Liddell" of the Eleventh Mississippi Regiment, 
Lee explained, 

... I have the honor to state that I consider the brigade to 
which they are now attached a Mississippi brigade (Law's bri- 
gade) . Ttvo of the four regiments which compose it are from 
Mississippi (Eleventh and Second Mississippi Regiments), and it is 
commanded by a Mississippian. It is my intention, as soon as the 
Forty-second Mississippi Regiment, lately arrived in Richmond, 
Colonel Miller, can be \\ithdra^\n from the city, to assign it to 
that brigade, and to attach the Sixth North Carolina, now with 
it, to Colonel ^Valker's brigade. I should like to obtain a fourth 
Mississippi regiment to replace the Fourth Alabama: it would 
then be entirely composed of Mississippi regiments.. If the Elev- 
enth and Second are now withdrawn from it, it will break up a 
veteran brigade, distinguished for good service from the begin- 
ning of the war in Virginia, and will leave General ^Vhiting, 
an officer from Mississippi, without a brigade. (^ 

On August 7, 1862, the Sixth Regiment, together with the rest 
of Hood's division, began to march to^\ards .\shland. On the 9th, 
the march, ivhich had been interrupted by a day of rest near Ash- 
land, was continued. That night the men bivouacked about three 
miles north of Ashland(2y^ood had received orders on the 7th to 
"move your command over to the Brook Turnpike (north of Rich- 
mond) , taking position near Brook River, having especial care for 
all standing crops and against damaging private property or depre- 
dating in any manner by men of yotn- command. '(^The enemy had 
been reported to be moving^ in considerable force "by the Telegraph 
Road toward Richmond.'^Perhaps the men of the Sixth would see 
action again, after a lull of over a month. 

Hoocl's command -(vas ordered to move towards Hanover Court 
House on the 8th. The General "must make arrangements for 'his' 
sick. Yoiu- very sick can be sent to the hospitals in Richmond. The 
others I hope will be well enough to accompany— you. Take your 
wagon train and batteries. They must march. '(2iOn and on the 
command marched, the Sixth along with the rest. On August 10, the 
men marched into Hanover Juiie^pn. By the 14th the regiment was 
marching towards Gordonsvillep^nder orders from Lee to Hood 
Avhich stated, 

Having received information that Binnside's forces have 
left Fredericksburg to join (General John) Pope, unless you know 
to the contrai7 I clesire you to march at once with your command 
to Gordonsville and report to General Longstreet. 6j) 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 89 

Lee wrote Longstreet at the same time: 

... as soon as I learned yesterday that Burnside had left Fred- 
ericksburg I ordered Hood to march and report to you. Send him 
-ivord to ^vhat point to direct his march. You can stop the troops 
in transit from here at Louisa, if you thipk fit, and direct them to 
move to\vard the Rappahannock. . . . [2^ 

Hood's division, along with ten brigades under Longstreet, and 
Stuart's cavalry were directing their march to\\ard Gordonsville to 
meet the enemy. (iS) 

Hardly anyone in the Sixth Regiment had time to notice that 
voung Lieutenant William E. McMannen of Company B (Flat River 
Guards) had died on August 14 "of a disease incurred by ex- 
haustion and exposure" on the field of Manassa^sSpew, also, had taken 
time to understand the important implications imposed by the elec- 
tion of young Zebulou— fiaird \^ance to the governorship of North 
Carolina on August 8£5(Ien ^dio had a war to fight had no time 
to think of secondary things. 

In the afternoon of August 22, Longstreet sent Hood \vith his 
two brigades to relieve General Isaac Trimble, stationed at Freeman's 
Ford on Hazel River, a tributary of the Rappahannock. Trimble was 
engaged in protecting Jackson's wagon train. Just as Hood arrived 
-ivith his men, a considerable force of the enemy crossed the river, but 
was forced back "after a short bin spirited engagement. "(*£/ 

According to General Hood, 

On August 22, agreeably to orders of the commanding gen- 
eral. I proceeded to Freeman's Fort to relie\e General Trimble's 
brigade. On my arrival in the afternoon I found the enemy had 
crossed over the river and were in the immediate front of General 
Trimble. The Texas brigade being placed on the right and 
Colonel Law's on the left, that attack was made at once. General 
Trimble leading off in the center. The enemy was driven pre- 
cipitately over the Rappahannock with considerable loss, not less, 
I think, than from 200 to oOO./^J) 

Hazel River had been little more than a heavy skirmish.^2^ 

On the night of August 23, the division marched to Waterloo 
Ford on the upper Rappahannock River, where the men relieved 
General A. P. Hill's division of Jackson's corps. The line of march 
was resumed toward Thoroughfare Gap in the Bidl Run Mountains. 
By the evening of August 28, the men of the Sixth Regiment were 
able to bivouac "for the night beyond the Gap."^/) 

The stage was set for Lee's defeat of General Pope in the Battle 
of Second Manassas. In accordance with prearranged plans. Law's 
brigade marched toward Manassas J miction in the early morning 



90 The Bloody Sixth 

of March 29. When the cohimn reached Gainesville, on the War- 
renton-Alexandria Turnpike, "the line of march changed abnaptly 
to the left, along the turnpike, in the direction of Centreville." 
When Law had arrived at a point about midway between Gaines- 
ville and the stone house at Manassas, which latter place "is situated 
at the junction of the turnpike and the Sudley Ford Road," he was 
ordered to form his brigade into line of battle to the left of the 
turnpike "and almost at right angles with it." Law's right flank 
was resting on the road, his left connected with Jackson's line of 
battle. The Texas brigade had previously been fomied on the right 
of the turnpike, its left flank joining Law's right. The men slowly 
moved fonvard, supported by a "strong line of riflemen in front. "Q^ 

As the Confederates advanced, the enemy skirmishers were slowly 
cb"iven back. The brigade finally anived at a commanding position 
"in front of the enemy, about three-foiuths of a mile from Dogan's 
house, which seemed to be the center of his position." 'While the 
brigade was in this position, the enemy opened a severe fire upon it 
from his batteries. A halt was ordered until Confederate artillery 
could be brought forward to reply to the enemy's fire. The Confed- 
erates placed their artillery on a ridge to Law's left ajid rear, "and 
opened fire with marked effect upon the enemy. '?23JAccording to 
Colonel Law, 

The fire of the artillery and skinnishers continued almost 
without intermission until near 4:00 p.m., when heavy musketry 
on my left announced an attack of the enemy on General Jack- 
son's position. Soon after this attack commenced a brigade of 
General Jackson's conmiand moved oiu of the wood on my left, 
drove the enemy from his position on the ridge to the left of the 
hamlet of Groveton, and captured a piece of artillery posted there. 
I immediately moved my line forward as far as Groxeton, where 
it was halted on a line with the troops to my Jeft.(3^ 

At 6:00 P.M. a Union battery, supported by infantry and cavalry, 
moved forward on the turnpike to within 400 yards of the brigade's 
position. Hood ordered Law to charge the enemy. As it moved 
through the open fields, the brigade came under the fire of the Union 
battery; then it received a devastating fire from the enemy's infanti^. (5 
One of the men in the Sixth North Carolina remembered, , 

We rose up from behind the hill, gave tliem a deadly volley, 
charged them over a mile, when we were compelled to halt, as 
we had advanced beyond support, and our brigade consisted of 
only four regiments of not over 300 men each. We captured the 
battery that had -ivorked on us all day. Our regiment took the 
colors of the 56th Penn., and the 4th Alabama and 1 1th Mississippi 
also captured a stand of colors each, and 2d Mississippi took two 
guns.rjt) 



From Richmond to Fredf.ricksblrg 91 

While the Sixth ^vas halted in a corn field, "waiting for reinforce- 
ments, ^vhich shoidd protect our left flank," it was charged by the 
Twenty-fifth New York Regiment. The battle-tried men of the Sixth 
gave the enemy a volley which "soon hushed their 'Hun-ah for the 
Union,' 'The Stars and Stripes,' &;c." The Fourth Alabama \\as 
chargedat this time by a squadron of cavalry, "all of whom were cap- 
tmed.'QjAfter reinforcements had arrived, the ^\'eai7 men of the 
brigade retiu-ned to witliin half a mile of their formei_position and 
established their line across the Warrenton Turnpike. ^ 

It had been a busy day for the Sixth. Earlier in the afternoon 
Company A, under Lieutenant J. Calder Turner, and Company I, 
under Lieutenant Wyatt B. Allen, had engaged in a severe skimiish 
^vith the enemy, "the men firing^mtil their muskets Avere so hot 
they could scarcely handle them.Xijhn the charge, men of the Sixth 
had captured Captain J. A. Judson, Assistant Adjutant General to 
General J. P. Hatch. Judson 

. . . stated that our colimin was too heavy for Gen. (Rufus) 
King, -^vho had only 16 Regiments. He was thunderstruck when 
he found out that they had been ^vhipped by 4 little Regiments.^ 

The ^vriter of the above was high in his praise of Colonel Law, saying 
that the colonel "behaved most gallantly, and maneuvred the brigade 
finely, and so did Maj. \V'ebb our regiment. "@ 

During the night Law's brigade, acting under orders from Gen- 
eral Hood, fell back to the position behind Groveton -svhich they 
had occupied on the morning of the 29th. @ 

In the early morning of August 30, the enemy "advanced a 
heavy line of skirmishers toward this point." The Confederate skir- 
mishers advanced to meet them, "and sharp skirmishing continued 
until about 3:00 p^ock in the afternoon, when the main attack of 
the enemy began. ''^)uring this heavy skimiishing the Sixth Regiment 
^\as constantly engaged, "each company going in turn (to the skirmish 
line) one hour at a time." Then heavy enemy musketry fire opened 
to the left of the brigade. The Confederates coulrf-^e everything 
"distinctly" from the hilltop which they occllpied^3>La^^•'s brigade 
^vas then ad\anced to the vicinity of Groveton in support of a rifled 
battery which A\as placed in an advanced position. Here the brigade 
remaineil for half an hour "under a terrific fire of artillery," until 
orders were received from General Hood to ad\ance across the turn- 
pike to the left of the Texas brigade. Law moved his men rapidly 
into position on an eminence "a few hundred yards to the right of 
the road, ^vhich commanded a view of the field." Upon close observa- 
tion, La\\- saw large numbers of Confederate troops pushing toward 
the right in the direction of the Blackburn Ford Road. Being imable 
to "distinguish the locality of the Texas Brigade," and observing a 



92 The Bloody Sixth 

large force of the enemy advancing into a ravine and pine woods 
directly in front of the brigade's position, probably to support a 
Union battei-y posted at IDpgan's House, Law advanced three of his 
regiments "to that point. "(^f5y 

In this advance Law placed the Sixth North Carolina and the 
Fourth Alabama in the pine woods, while the Second Mississippi was 
posted to their left "and at the foot of the hill on which the house 
is situated." The advance of these three regiments was delayed for 
a time to await the arrival of the Eleventh Mississippi, which had 
been ordered to advance against the battei7 from the left of the 
tiunpike. During this interval the enemy "advanced on the right 
of the house, but was repulsed by a well-directed and destructive fire 
from the Sixth North Carolina and Fourth Alabama." When the 
Eleventh Mississippi Regiment did not come up, Law ordered the 
Sixth North Carolina to unite with the Fourth Alabama and the 
Second Mississippi. Together the three regiments advanced upon 
the battery which, "taking time by the forelock, escaped, when the 
infantry was beaten. \^f;^he brigade 

. . . then kept advancing until we slept on the battle-field of 
Manassas, which was strewn thicker than on the 21st of Jidy. A 
Yankee battery was placed precisely where it was last year — two 
battles on the same ground, same residts and similar in many 
other respects, (I™ 

The Eleventh Mississippi had moved to the right, toward the 
Chinn House, because of a mistake in the delivery of their orders. 
The regiment fought "gallantly and incurring heavy loss" with the 
troops on that part of the fieiiL At night the Mississippians slept 
"on oiu- most advanced line."^W)) 

Law had high praise for all of his regimental commanders — Colo- 
nel P. F. Liddell of the Eleventh Mississippi, Colonel Stone of the 
Second Mississippi, Lieutenant Colonel O. K. McLemore of the Fotuth 
Alabama, and Major Robert F. Webb of the Sixth North Carolina. 
All these officers "handled their men ^vith consummate ability." (+^ 

Still, for the Sixth the victory had been bloody. Captain Benjamin 
F. White, commanding Company F of Alamance, was "severely 
woimded in the arm, and it is feared amputation may be necessary." 
The regiment lost a total of 6 killed and 64 ^vounded; total for Law's 
brigade was 56 killeiL-a.nd 264 Abounded — a heavy price to pay for 
an incomplete victor)l£3Lven so, the men of the Sixth could be proud 
of themselves. During the various engagements they had performed 
very ^vell, revealing many basits^traits of courage and valor in the 
individual Confederate soldiei\£LPraise was high for the manner in 
which Major Webb led the regiment. One of his men wrote. 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 93 

It Avill be gratifying to you to knots' that Maj. Webb com- 
manded the regiment superbly, and ^\as compliments by all . . . 
under his command the regiiiient challenges the admiration of 
the commanding Generals. (5^ 

Then the writer added a word of praise for Captain Richard 'Watt 
York: 

■\Ve learn that Capt. York acted as Major during the battles 
and behaved admirably. f^i) 

One outcome of the Battle of Second Manassas involved some 
ambulances captured by men of Hood's division. These caused Hood 
"somewhat of annoyance" because of directions given Hood, a brig- 
adier, to turn them over to the brigade of General Nathan G. 
"Shanks" Evans. Hood refused this order, saying. 

Whereas I would cheerfully ha\e obeyed directions to deliver 
them to General Lee's Quarter Master for the use of the Amiy, 
I did not consider it just that I should be required to yield them 
to another brigade of the division, which -svas in no manner en- 
titled to them. I regarded the command, ^\hich had captured 
them, as the rightfid owners in this instance, and therefore refused 
to obey the order./'J^ 

Hood T\'as, "in consequence," ordered under arrest, an order which 
remained in force until the Battle of South Mountain, September 
14, 1862. @ 

Little time was oiven the Sixth Reoiment to muse over these oc- 
currences. The march into Maryland was aljout to begin. On Sep- 
tember 1, after attending to the necessar\' burial details, the divi- 
sion marched from the vicinity of Sudley Ford, and from there to 
Leesburg. The Potomac ^\as crossed at AVhite's Ford eight miles 
above Lpesburg on September 6: "Frederick City" was reached on 
the 7th!5^he march was so rapid that friends of the regiment in 
North Carolina couldn't keep up ^vith its movements. A. W. Mangum 
wrote to his sister on September 15: 

. . . You may tell Sister Amanda (^Lajor Webb's wife) that 
the Sixth Reg. has Iseen in no fight since the ,"Oth that I have heard 
of. They were not in the fight near Centre\ille. They are now* 
probably in Maryland. I do not expect our army to remain there 
long. I send a letter to Mr. Webb (R. F. ^Vebb) today by the 
hands of Capt. (.\lphonso C.) or Col. (Isaac E.) Avei7 both of 
whom I believe are going on by here tonight. . . . (j^ 

During the Sharpsbiug campaign an incident occurred ^vhicli 
goes far to reveal the spirit of Confederate soldiers in general and 



94 The Bloody Sixth 

North Carolinians in particular. The First Texas Regiment of Colo- 
nel W. J. Wofford's brigade. Hood's division was passing close to the 
Sixth North Carolina. One of the Texans, "with more wit than 
discretion," called out to the Sixth, " 'Halloa, Fellers! Have you a 
good supply of tar on yoiu- heels this morning?' " A long, lean private 
in the Sixth said back "pleasantly, but too pointedly to be mistuider- 
stood; 'and it's a real pity you'ims didn't come over and borrow a 
little the other day; it mout have saved that flag o' yoiu'n.' (The First 
Texas hpxl lost its flag at Sharpsburg after the color bearer was 
killed.) 'P^his spirit would be put to the test shortly in a battle 
noted for its ferocity and desperation. 

Hood's division marched from Frederick to Hagerstown, but was 
immediately ordered to march back to Boonsborough Gap, some 
thirteen miles southeast of Hagerstown. The division arrived at the 
crest of the gap "between 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock p.m.," in time to 
see the troops of General D. H. Hill "engaged with a large force 
of the enemy." Hood was directed to form his troops on the left 
of the Hagerstown Pike. Orders soon arrived to change position and 
form a line to the right, "as our troops on that side were giving way 
to superior numbers." Learning that the enemy had passed to the 
rear of the Confederate position. Hood moved his men more to the , 
river "over a very rugged country and succeeded in getting in a 
position to receive the enemy." Both the Texas brigade, no^r under 
Colonel W. T. WofFord, and the Third Brigade, still under Colonel 
Law, were ordered to move fonvard with fixed bayonets, "which 
they did with their tisual gallantry, driving the enemy and regaining 
all of our lost ground." Nightfall halted further pursuit, but not 
in time to prevent the loss of Lieutenant Colonel O. K. McLemore 
of the Fourth Alabama Regiment, "a most efficient, gallant, and 
valuable officer.'^ 

While the infanti-y was clearing Boonsborough Gap of Lhiion 
forces, the Confederate artillery, commanded by Hood's chief of 
artillery. Major Frobel, reached the summit "with his three batteries." 
Captain Reilly's Rowan artillery, "then consisting of four rifled 
pieces and t^^•o howitzers," joined Frobel in the vicinity of the Motui- 
tain House, but refrained from firing because of orders. (&£) 

Shortly after dark. Hood received orders to withdraw his men, 
"and for this division to constitute the rear guard of the army." 
The two weary Ijrigades slowly fell back toward Sharpsburg. They 
arrived on the hills aljove Antietam Creek, just east of the town, at 
12:00 noon on the 15th. Hood was directed "to take position in line 
of battle on the right of the road leading to Boonsborough, but soon 
received orders to move to the extreme left, near S*int Mumma 
Church (Dunker Church) , on the Hagerstown pike.t^iLaw was or- 
dered to place his brigade directly on the Hagersto\vn Pike "about 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 95 

a mile from Sharpsburg." His right was posted at the Dunker 
Church, "and the line extended along the turnpike in the edge of a 
wood :\hich bordered it on the southwest." On the other side of 
the road (to the northwest) was a large field a quarter of a mile wide. 
This field extended along the whole of Law's line "and beyond it 
about 600 yards." The field -ivas bordered bv ^\-oods on the northeast 
and northwest. There was a gap in the \\oods at the north corner 
of the field.@ 

Here the men remained throughout the 15th and into the 16th 
of September, waiting for the enemy. In the late afternoon of the 
16th, Union forces advanced through the woods in front of Law's 
position. Heavy firing broke out as the Confederate skimiishers 
were pushed back. At this junctine Law \\'as ordeied to advance 
and occupy the ^vood in which the fighting Avas going on. The 
enemy fell back before Law's advance, then at dark iirs was driven 
"to the farther side of the wood, toward Antietam.'(2^he brigade 
was relieved during the night in order to give the half-starved men 
an opportimity to cook their rations. Hood "quickly rode off in 
search of my wagons, that the men might prepare and cook their 
flour, as we were still \\ithout meat." In spite of Hood's efforts, dawn 
had btpken before many of the men had had a chance to cook their 
foodl^jHood's ivords reveal the situation: 

Soon thereafter an officer of La\\ton's staff dashed up to me, 
saying, 'General La\\ton sends his compliments A\'ith the request 
that you come at once to his support.' 'To arms' was instantly 
sounded and quite a large number of my brave soldiers were 
aoain obliged to march to the front, leaving- their uncooked ra- 
tions m camp, g^ 

The Third Brigade marched toAvards the sound of battle and into 
the open field across the Hagersto^vn Pike. Laiv noticed that few 
Confederate troops were on the field, "and these seemed to be in 
much confusion." These men were still, howei:er, opposing the 
enemy advance Avith coin-age and determination>S3Law immediately 
threw his brigade into line, "facing northward." The Texans, under 
Colonel Wofford, had moved into line of battle on Law's left. With 
a concerted movement the tivo brigades advanced fonvard against 
the enemy who had "advanced half-way across the field and had 
planted a hea\7 batten' at the north end of it." Slo^\ly the enemy 
withdre^\- before the Confederate advance, even though the former 
were "in vastly superior force." The Fifth Texas and the Fourth 
Alabama moved into the ^voods which had been the scene of heavy 
skii-mishing the night before, and "dro\e the enemy through and 
beyond it." The Sixth Regimein with the Second and Ele\enth 



96 The Bloody Sixth 

Mississippi continued to advance through the opem field, "driving 
the enemy in confusion from and beyond his guns.vrJrn Law's words, 

So far, we had been entirely successful and evei7thing prom- 
ised a decisive victory. It is true that strong support was needed 
to follow up our success, but this I expected every moment. (^^ 

Law's optimism was soon to be shattered. A fresh Union force 
advanced into the wood. The Confederates, whose losses "had been 
very heavy," were driven to desperation. Their ammunition was 
expended, while many of the men were in need of food and rest. 
In spite of these handicaps the men "held their ground," many of 
them obtaining ammunition from the pockets of their dead and 
wounded comrades. Law saw, however, "that this state of affairs 
could not long continue. No support was at hand. To remain sta- 
tionary or advance without it woidd have caused a useless butchery." 
He adopted the only possible alternative — ordering his men back "to 
the wood from which I had first advanced." The Union forces fol- 
lowed very slowly. Law re-formed his exhausted men behind the 
Dunker Church and waited for the enemy. At this moment badly- 
needed reinforcements arrived on the field, giving the Third Brigade 
the opportunity to fall back "for the ]3iupose of obtaining ammu- 
nition. "(^ 

At 1:00 P.M. Law was again ordered into position in the wood 
near the Dunker Church. Here the men stayed, "under an incessant 
cannonade," until darkness ended the long, terrible day. During 
the night the brigade was marched back half a mile closer to Sharps- 
burg where it remained throughout the night "and the following 
day."@ 

Losses in the brigade had been extremely heavy. Colonel P. F. 
Liddell of the Eleventh Mississippi had fallen mortally wounded; 
many other officers were wounded. Major Webb (of the acid dis- 
position) had been wounded in the Sixth and temporarily incapaci- 
tated for field duty. Captain Samuel McDowell Tate iiad also "re- 
ceived wounds while gallantly discharging (his) duty.(3^fany lesser 
officers had been killed or injured in the Sixth. Sergeant Major 
Cornelius Mebane had been slightly wounded in the face; Captain 
Houston B. Lowrie of Company C was killed; Lieutenant Heni7 C. 
Dixon, commanding Company F, was woiuided in the head; Lieuten- 
ant |ames T. Rosborough. commanding (>)mpany G, had also been 
wounded in the head; Lieutenant Louis Rothrock was "disabled by 
concussiofu;' The regiment suffered a total of 8 killed and 105 
woundec\3t'ossibly the most severe loss suffered by the regiment 
was that of ^fajor Webb, who was severely \w>unded in the arm. 
Captain Tate's wound was inflicted in his ueclS^aAv's brigade lost a 
total of 50 killed, 379 wounded, and 25 missing during the two days's 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 97 

fighting at Sharpsbiug. The grand total of loss^suffered at Manassas, 
Boonsborough Gap, and Sharpsburg was 788. (vy 

The Union losses at Antietam were equally great. It is interesting 
to note that General Mansfield's corps, part of which opposed the 
Sixth Regiment near DunkeK,^hurch, had 1,746 men cut down in 
about one and a half hours. (Z^ 

On September 18, Law's brigade was marched back across the 
Potomac at a shallow ford bordered by steep banks, which was called 
Boteler's Ford. By September 27, the men were encamped near 
Winchester, exhausted by the hard fighting of the previous month. ^6) 

Private John K. Walker of Company K revealed the feeling of 
the men in the ranks about the battle of Sharpsburg when he wrote, 

. . . The last fight both sides held there ground. . . . Some 
say that we are goingback in Maryland again but I cant tell 
but I hope not. . . . Opj) 

The men couldn't go back. They were too exhausted, "nearly 
broke down, & eat up with lice." Walker said that he and his com- 
rades "are nearly naked and barefooted. ... I will be glad when I 
get rid of my rage & lice & get near some railroad^-where we can 
hear from home &: can get something from home too.'tZJThe men had 
been unable to draw food rations more than once a week. Sometimes 
their only articles of food were green corn, apples "&: anything that 
we can get. "(7?) 

In spite ofthese privations the men settled down to a dull roiuine 
of drill and tearing up the track of the Harper's Ferry &: \Vinchester 
Railroad^^ife was so dull that G. T. Beavers of Company I could 
only write his family of routine events: 

With hapyness do I seat my self this morning to drop you a 
few lines to let you know that I am well at present hoping these 
few lines may find you an famly well as ever it has ben som time 
since I rote to you but I hope you ^vill excuse me for my chance 
has ben-bad an paper is scerse I hav been at the hospital for som 
time biu am now with the boys, but few of them are here (.) som 
of them Avas taken prisners and som wonded and som sick oiu" 
company nimibers 45 but 8 of them is conscript (.) /yT) 

And then a kind thought about a friend, "sandy Lewtes has iiat com 
to the redg. yet the last I hird from him he was mending.V^Xxcept 
for a brief description of the Battle of Sharpsburg, Beaver's letter 
ended on the familiar note, "It is now diner and I must dose. I 
hope the Lord -will be Avith you all through all our trials." (£^ 

October passed in the regiment's camp \vithout incident. The 
men merely remained in their camp near a big spring northwest 
of Winchester@Ai describing this camp [ohn K. AValker Avrote, 



98 The Bloody Sixth 

... we are in camp 6 ms. this side of Winchester. . . . We 
are in a tolerable good place where the water is good and handy, 
but wood to cari-y a good ways. I dont know how we are going to 
stay here there is some talk of iis going to Staunton about 90 ms. 
from here, they are moving all of our wounded and sick there 
from Winchester, ^f) 

Toward the end of the month McClellan, commanding the 
Union forces at Harper's Ferry and in Maryland, began to move into 
Virginia on a line east of the Blue RidgaljEolonel Avery, recently 
retiuned from North Carolina, wrote to his sister Laura on October 
18: 

Day before yesterday I rec'd. an order not to allow any one to 
leave camp limits as we were likely to be ordered to march any 
moment. At 1 o'clock A. M. yesterday had an order to prepare 
three days rations Sc be ready to march at day light. Laid on our 
arms all day when after dark got a message that 'there woidd be 
no move,' This morning ordered to resuuie drill &c. as usual. I 
have no idea what caused the sensation. (£7) 

Avery continued by expressing th^eeling that the Army of Northern 
Virginia "is the fighting army.'tsZThen there were regimental prob- 
lems on his mind: Dr. Holt, former suroeon of the Sixth, had been 
appointed brigade surgeon in General William D. Pender's brigade. 
Avery lamented Holt's loss by saying, "We need a surgeon very 
badly." The regiment was also "vei^ short of officers." Avery didn't 
have any field or staff officers present for duty. He was hopeful that 
the assistant regimental siugeon. Dr. Charles Hendersoiv^slowly re- 
cuperating from a bout with sickness, would soon get wel(£2rhe letter 
ended on a note of uncertainty: 

I cannot tell how long we will stay here — or what is the ob- 
ject of our remaining as we are. We cant stay a great while, for it 
will be impossible to subsist our army, ^q) 

Avery "judged" that the Confederates had employed a hundred 
ambulances to carry their sick to Staunton. Another reason for a 
probable withdrawal of the army from the Winchester area was 
"our tearing up the track, and binning cross-ties on the Harper's 
Ferry & Winchester Rl. I^d.v2()l'i any event, the yoiuig colonel from 
Burke Comity was sorry for "this badly written letter." His only ex- 
cuse was that he had been lying down imder his tent fly "in an awful 
smoke." Then came an odd statement, revealing the informality that 
war brings: 

If an opportunitv ever occurs, I \vould be glad (if) you would 
send my uniform./^ 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 99 

Several fortunate things hapi>ened to the regiment in October. 
One of these improvements was caused by Avery himself. He had 
all his men re-vaccinated for smallpox, then raging in one of the 
brigades in the armyC^^nother development, ignored by many his- 
torians, -was the matter of continual supply. On October 19, the 
regiment was partially re-equipped at its camp near Winchester. 
An examination of the articles issued will reveal the serious de- 
ficiency of clothing among the men at this comparatively early stage 
of the war, a condition definitely brought about by the hard cam- 
paigns of Second Manassas and Sharpsburg. Lieutenant John S. 
Lockhart, commanding Company B, issued 13 pairs of pants, 5 suits, 
7 jackets, 6 shirts, 3 pairs of drawers, 1 cap and cap cover, and 23 
pairs of shoes to his jnf n. Obviously, the greatest deficiency here was 
in the lack of shoe^jt'Lieutenant George N. Albright, commanding 
Company F, also found his company to be deficient in footwear. He 
issued his men 1 pair of boots, 14 pairs of pants, 5 suits, 7 jackets, 6 
shirts, 3 pairs of clra^vers, 1 cap and cap cover, and 21 pairs of shoes, 
also on October 19(^\lphonso Calhoun Avei-y, younger brother of 
Colonel Isaac E. Avery and now a captain commanding his brother's 
old Company E, issued 2 pairs of boots, 1 blanket, 12 pairs of pants, 
5 suits, 7 jackets, 4 pairs of drawers, 1 cap and cap cover, md 24 
pairs of shoes to his men. Again, the greatest need was shoe^^ieu- 
tenant Wyatt B. Allen, commanding Company I, received the fol- 
lowing articles for his men from W. M. Smith, acting quarteriTiaster 
for the regiment: 11 pairs of pants; 2 suits; 5 jackets; 6 ^|™ts; 4 pairs 



of drawers; 2 caps and cap covers; and 23 pairs of shoes(LiOnce again 
the need was in footwear. And so the list goes on: Captain D. C. 
Pearson's Company D received 21 pairs of shoes, among other things; 
First Lieutenant L. H. Walker's Company H received 22 pairs of 
shoes; Lieutenant W. ]. Christian's Company B received 20 pairs of 
shoes, along with 14 pairs of pants, 3 suits, 7 jackets, 7 shirts, 4 pairs 
of dra^^'ers, and 1 cap and cap cover; Cauta.in J. Calder Turner's 
Company A received 22 pairs of shoes, etd^'hese seemingly endless 
lists illustrate the growing seriousness of the attrition which had 
begun to enfiltrate the Confederate supply system, and the continued 
efforts by the regimental quartermasters to combat it. 

Towards the end of October young Private Beavers ^^•rote his 
brother back in Chatham County, "I have nothing of importants to 
write and if I did this is all the paper 1 liave." He had offered twenty- 
five cents for a sheet of \\riting paper that morning but couldn't get 
it. Then Beavers commenced writing a letter ^^■hich, to the historian, 
is of much importance: 

I am 24 years old to day an it is a mity bad day for it has 
ben rening ever since last night about 3 oclock. /^9^ 



100 The Bloody Sixth 

He had recently drawn a coat and pair of pants (part of the issue 
for Company I) . He hoped to go home to Chatham County for a 
visit with the home folks that winter; he wanted a letter very badly. 
Then, as if to illustrate the sad plight of the Confederate soldier, 

I hav a bad chance to \\rite we hav no tents. I an Nanoss (?) 
Herndon (and) S. E. Parish has built us a small bunk down side 
of a larg rock but sence I hav comenced writing the leves an 
dirt has becom wet and the fork split (the fork supporting the 
leanto) ; but as it hapend the fork ketched the cross pece (and) 
held it till I got a fork an placed it in the place of the other. ^7^ 



There was sadness, yes; but pride, too: "I am 24 years old today. . . ." 
An interesting event which occurred during the regiment's stay 
near Winchester was the resignation of "Brevet Second Lieut." M. B. 
Barbee of Company I. Barbee wrote to the Honorable George W. 
Randolph, Confederate Secretary of War, on October 4. His letter 
was headed "Head Quarters 6 Regt. N. C. T. Camp Near Winchester 
Va." The resignation took the usual form: 

Sir: I have the honor to tender my resignation as Brevet 
Second Lieutenant, Company "I" 6 Regt. North Carolina Troops, 
to take effect immediately. (JoT) 

The resignation was accompanied with an approval by Captain Rich- 
ard W. York of Company L Colonel Avery tendered the statement, 
"Respectfully approved for the best of reasons the immediate-saccept- 
ance of this resignation is recommended," on the same da)Ci2?^ossibly 
the most scathing indictment of Lieutenant Barbee came from Colo- 
nel La^\' who observed, 

. . . Lieut. Barbee exercises no influence whatever over his 
company and his moral status with the regt. is such that the 
service will be Ijenefited by the acceptance of his resignation (']o^ 

Although Randolph's ans^ver is not recorded, it is presumed that Bar- 
bee's resignation \vas quickly accepted by the Confederate War De- 
partment. 

On October 29, Hood's division inarched across the Blue Ridge 
and down to Culpeper Court Hous^/S^his movement was conducted 
in the usual "fog of war" atmosphere, at least as far as friends of 
the regiment back in North Carolina were concerned. A. \V. Man- 
gum wrote his father on November 7: 

Tell Mr. Webb (a relative of Major R. F. Webb) that Long- 
streets forces are ordered to Petersburg & are probably arriving 
there now. ... I think we are to pass an a^\-ful ordeal this 'Winter. 
I do dread the test but I hope we may keep the enemy from the 
interior, f^o?) 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 101 

The regiment reached Culpeper on November 1, and went into 
camp on the old battlefield of Cedar Run on the 7th. Here the men 
remained until Xo\ember Jil ^vhen they were marched out in the 
direction of Fredericksburs^iiS^ining the stay in camp near Culpeper, 
Colonel Avery attended to a matter ^vhich is as old as histoi7. It 
seeins that Private AVilliam Buchanan of Company E had been given 
a furlough of thirty days on February 16, 1862, "by order of Brigd. 
Genl. \\'hiting." After his leave of absence \vas concluded Buchanan 
failed to return to the Sixth Regiment, then encamped at Camp 
Bartow near Fredericksburg. When "steps were taken for his arrest," 
he fled into the mountains of western North Carolina. Later, he 
joined Captain Blalock's company of Colonel Robert B. Vance's 
regiment. This outfit, the T^venty-ninth North Carolina Infantry, 
was stationed at Cumberland Gap in the District of East Tennessee 
Aven' Avrote Vance: 



e.@ 



I am sure Colonel vou are not a^vare of this fact, or I know 
you would not only have had him arrested 8: sent back, but would, 
also, have dealt with Cajjt. Blalock, ivho has certainly laid him- 
self liable to be cashiered, if he has allowed this man to join his 
company, knowing him to be a deserter. If Buchanan is now a 
member of yoiu' Regiment, 1 have the honor to request that you 
cause him to be arrested 8: sent to Castle Thunder at Richmond 
as a deserter. (foT) 



Another incident, of a more routine nature, occuned on Novem- 
ber 1 1 Avhen Private Daniel Lail, through the proper channels, re- 
quested General Lee to "be relieved from military duty to resume his 
business as blacksmith." Lee sent the request back to General Long- 
street ^\'ho was instructed to refer it tOz-fail's company commander 



in the Sixth Regiment "for remarks. '<-Lrftlthough the record isn't 
clear, it is doubtful if Private Lail were "relieved from military duty." 

On November 19, the regiment left the camp at Cedar Run to 
begin the march toward Fredericksburg. The men marched through 
Rapidan Station, on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, and Spot- 
sylvania Court House, reaching their destination, "camp near Fred- 
ericksburg, Va.," on November 22. The distance marched was about 
fifty miles. (^ 

The Second and Eleventh .Mississippi Regiments had been trans- 
ferred from the Third Brigade to another imit on November 8. 
Their places were taken by two new North Carolina regiments: the 
Fifty-foiuth and Fifty-seventh North Carol inaClttrhe Forty-fourth 
Alabama had also been added to the brigade. This made the old 
Third Brigade a five-regiment outfit — the Fourth Alabama under 
Colonel P. D. Bowles, the Forty-fourth Alabama under Colonel C. A. 
Derby, the Sixth North Carolina under Colonel Isaac E. .\very, the 
Fifty-fourth North Carolina under Colonel J. C. S. McDowell, and 



102 The Bloody Sixth 

the Fifty-seventh North Carolina under Colonel ,\i-chibald C. God- 
winCii^he Fifty-seventh North Carolina is worthy of special mention 
since it was commanded by a man who will rank with some impor- 
tance in the later career of the Sixth Regiment. 

Godwin, a veritable giant of a man who looked like a Grecian 
god, was born in Nansemond County, Virginia, in 1831. He was 
brought up by a grandmother in Portsmouth, but left home in 1850 
at the early age of nineteen to participate in the California gold rush. 
After success as a rancher, miner, and Indian fighter in California, 
he decided to enter politics. Failing by one vote to secure the Demo- 
cratic nomination for governor in 1860, he returned to Virginia at 
the outbreak of the war to offer his sen'ices to the Confederacy. After 
an interview with President Davis, Godwin was quickly commissioned 
a major and became the assistant to the provost marshal in charge 
of Libby Prison in Richmond. Later, he was sent to Salisbury, North 
Carolina to construct and organize a militan' prison. It was here 
that he recruited the Jiftv-seventh Regiment durinsr the sprino and 
early summer of 1 863i!«overnor Henr)' T. Clark of North Carolina 
criticized Godwin's recruiting methods in a letter to Confederate 
Secretary of War George W. Randolph on July 21, 18f32. Clark ac- 
cused Godwin's men of joining the Fifty-seventh to "avoid the opera- 
tion of the Consaipt Act." This, Clark felt,^.^^4efeats the law and 
renders its operation more obnoxious to others.tiisiark wrote drearily. 

Having had no knowledge and no notice of this proposed 
Regiment till Maj. Godwin called on me for commissions for 
the Officers, I was compelled by due respect for the State authori- 
ties to seek some explanation before I refused or acquiesced. 

Major Godwin was sent to Salisbury to guard the Prisoners 
and I supposed under the law for local defence and special serv- 
ice could raise companies for that service. But I understand from 
him this was a regular organized Regiment for field service. /^/o 

Nevertheless, Godwin went to Richmond Avhere he procmed permis- 
sion to complete the organization of the regiment, in spite of Gov- 
ernor Clark's opposition. /7/fc) 

Oddly enough, there was little thought of war among some of the 
members of the regiment as ij--i?y in its camp four miles from Fred- 
ericksburg in early DecembeK--john K. Walker had just received a 
box of clothing from back home in Alamance County and was de- 
lighted. Everything had arrived as he had wanted, except the coats, 
a comfort, and a pair of suspenders. He had received a pair of 
pants, an over shirt, a jack&U t-ivo checked shirts, and two pairs oi 
drawers among other thingkii<He wrote to his father. Garrison Walker 
of Mebanesville: 



FRO^r Richmond to Fredericksburg 103 

. . . thank you all, dont send me any thing more if you please 
. . . dont send my overcoat nor close body coat neither, for I have 
got enough to last me plentiful. . . . (jj^) 

Obviously young Walker's thoughts were far from the battle- 
fields of Virginia. Nevertheless the regiment was still encamped near 
Fredericksburg where another battle w^s about to begin. 

On November 19, General James Longsueet, commanding the 
First Army Corps of the Amiy of Northern Virginia, had ordered 
Major General Lafayette McLaws' division to occupy the heights 
immediately behind Fredericksbing. Major General Richard H. 
Anderson's division :vas placed on McLa^vs' left, occupying "the 
heights as far as Taylor's Hill, on the Rappahannock." Major Gen- 
eral George E. Pickett's division was placed on McLaws' right, ex- 
tending the Confederate line to the rear "along the margin of the 
wood which skirts Deep Run Valley." Major General John B. Hood's 
division -svas entrenched near Hamilton's Crossing of the Richmond, 
Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad. Major General Robert Ran- 
som's division was placed in resen'C. Lon^street's artillei7 was 
placed in various positions along the \me(j^£) 

The Union Army, now commanded by Major General Ambrose 
E. Burnside, held "quiet possession" of Stafford Heights on the north 
bank of the Rappahannock until 3 o'clock on the morning of De- 
cember 11, but experienced great difficulty in laying their pontoon 
bridges across the Rappahannock, chiefly because of stiff resistance 
from BarkdaleV^teran Mississippi brigade posted in the to^vn of 
Fredericksbur^l^iVfter desperate fighting a lodgement was made in 
the town on the night of the 11th. Throughout the 12th, Union 
infantry moved across the river and deployed into formation of 
columns for an assault upon the Confederate position. Heavy ar- 
tillery fire was exchanged between the opposing armies throughout 
the day. Q}^ 

At 2 o'clock in the morning of December 11, Hood, "in obedi- 
ence to instructions from the lieutenant-general commanding," formed 
his command and took position along the crest of a range of low hills 
"stretching from Dr. Reynolds' house to near the railroad crossing." 
Skirmishers were thro^vn across the Bowling Green Road. Soon Hood 
moved a body of 100 sharpshooters forward "to harass the enemy," 
who were occupied in placing a pontoon bridge across the Rappa- 
hannock at the mouth of Deep Run. Hood's riflemen failed in their 
efforts to sjegv^the enemy, because the ground didn't offer them suffi- 
cient covetiZWhen Hood learned that the enemy had completed their 
pontoon bridge, he quickly reinforced the force stationed in the 
Bowling Green Road "and threw a line of skirmishers to the front." 
Union troops began crossing the river on the Deep Run Bridge at 
nightfall, and continued their movement throughout the night. Un- 



104 The Bloody Sixth 

ion forces also moved toward the sensitive Confederate right flank, 
immediately beyond Hood and "below Mr. Arthur Bernard's house. '(yj 
To counter this threat, Hood withdrew his troops from the Bowling 
Green Road and moved his line of skirmishers back to a position on 
the road. The situation was becoming extremely critical for the 
Confederates, (/ay 

Hood was relieved by Major General A. P. Hill's division of 
Jackson's corps at 10 o'clock in the morning of the I2th, but moved 
his division into position to relieve Ricketts' division "on my left." 
As Hood's men filed into position tliey discovered a troop of Union 
cavalry deployed along the line of the railroad. Hood quickly de- 
tached "tivo companies from Toombs' and one company from Law's 
Brigades" to dislodge them. The enemy suffered a loss, according 
to Hood, of two or three men killed and five horses. At nightfall 
Hood moved his command back to their original position, under 
orders to co-operate with A. P. Hill or any other troops of Jackson's 
corps, if necessary. (?^ 

The 13th dawned with both armies prepared for battle. Law's 
brigade was stationed in the second "or reserve" line, which extended 
along the low range of hills behind Hamilton's Crossing to Dr. Reyn- 
olds' house. Law described the scene which stretched before his 



men : 



On the plateau directly in front of the position occupied by 
my brigade, and about 500 yards distant, the skirt of timber bor- 
dering on Deep Rim from its confluence with the Rappahannock 
abruptly terminates. From this point to the river the channel of 
the run becomes gradually wider and deeper, its general direction 
being almost perpendicular to oin- own line and that of the 
enemy on the Bowling Green Road.(/_l/i) 

La^v had been ordered to support Hill's division, if it should be 
necessary, and had been directed by Hill to support Pender's brigade, 
which held a position to Law's left and front. (OX) 

The enemy advanced in force from the wood along Deep Run. , 
LTnion forces in line of battle assaulted Captain J. W. Latimer's 
battery of five riHed cannon, which was placed in a disadvantageous 
position on Pender's left "and supported by one of his regiments. "V 
Seeing this movement. Law detached the Fifty-seventh and Fifty- 
fourth North Carolina Regiments to meet it. The men of these two 
units promptly advanced and drove the enemy from the line of the 
railroad, which crossed the plateau directly in front of the position 
occupied by Latimer's battery. The Fifty-seventh continued to ad- 
vance^^eadily, to a point within 300 yards of the Bowling Green 
RoadQl^larence R. Hatton, later adjutant general of Godwin's bri- 
gade, wrote. 



From Richmond to Fredericksburg 105 

In order to get into line of battle it (the Fifty-seventh) had to 
go over a corduroy road through this swamp with front of fours 
under heavy artillery fire as well as the sharp rifle fire of the 
enemy, but the regiment moved fonvard, company after company, 
and fonned steadily in line front as accinately as if on parade; 
then at "quick step, right shoulder shift" it advanced. Soon the 
rifle fire from the cut became terrific: then double-quick, and with 
the Rebel yell, a sudden rush, it was at the railway with loaded 
guns. The enemy was driven out, killed or captured, and over the 
cut it rushed, never faltering, although attacked on its flank, until 
General Law sent orders for it to retire to the railway cut, Avhen 
it about-faced under a murderous fire and in true alignment 
marched back and took its position in the ciu ^vithoiu any con- 
fusion, the left company by a half wheel protecting the regiment 
from an assault on its flank. /^jT) 

^Vhile the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-seventh Regiments were engaged 
in the charge the Foiath Alabama was brought forward in front of 
Latimer's battery to act in support if needed. Law soon withdrew all 
his troops "ha\ing accomplished my purpose of driving the enemy 
from the \icinity of the battery." The Fifty-fointh and Fifty-seventh 
A\ere bodi withdrawn to the line of the railroad, which position they 
held until after nightfall when they were relieved by the Sixth Regi- 
meuN-^ri describing the charge. Law was lavish in his praise of the 
two North Carolina luiits: 

The conduct of the Fifty-seventh and Fifty-fourth North Caro- 
lina Regiments was admirable. I cannot speak in too high terms 
of their steady courage in advancing, and the coolness ^\ith ^^•hich 
they retired to the line of railroad -when orderecL/^TT^) 

Law also commended Colonel Godwin of the Fifty-seventh and Col- 
onel T. C. S. McDowell of the Fiftv-fourtli}li)iuino the battle. Law 

.1 JO 

himself had been "conspicuous upon the field, acting with grgfrts gal- 



lantry." He had his l,iorse killed under him during the charge/iHood 
was also high in his praise of his entire division, saying, 

I cannot in justice omit to mention the bearing and morale 
of my entire command during the time the enemy was in our 
front, as e\idenced by their earnest desire to be led to battle and 
their presence at all times, as, to the best of my knoA\ledge, not a 
single officer or man left ranks -(vithout proper authority. ^3^ 



Because of its unexposed position dining the battle, the Sixth 
North Carolina had not suflered as severely as some of the other 
regiments in the brigade. Total casualties for the Sixth were 5 
killed and 19 wounded, compared with 9 killed and 35 wounded for 
the Fifty-fourth, and 32 killed and 90 woimded for the Fifty-seventh. 



106 The Bloody Sixth 

The giaiid total for the brigade was 50 killed, 164 wounded, and 5 
missing(J3y"he only officer wounded in the Sixth was Lieutenant 
George N. Albright, who was subsequently fvuloughed home to North 
Carolina for sixty days beginning on December 20.(13?) 

The Sixth had gotten off easily at Fredericksburg, but its great 
days were still to come. Only time ivould reveal that the men were 
prepared to make the sacrifices which they woidd be called upon to 
make. They were veterans now, ready for the worst that fortune had 
to offer them. 






IX 



Into the Enemy's Country 



"This Regiment has had a reputatiun, you ktioxf, and I fear no 
harm can come to it while any are left, but it is due to the noble 
dead, as well as the living that these men be noticed in some way. . . . 
Such a fight as they made in front and in the fortificatio7is has never 
been equaled." 

Samuel McDowell Tate to Governor Vance, July 8, 18(53. 



After the Battle of Fredericksburg the Sixth Regiment remained 
in camp near the battlefield through the month of DecembeiSMDuring 
this time an interesting incident occurred to Wallace H. Alexander, 
assistant commissary sergeant of the regiment. Alexander had been 
a student at the North Carolina Military Institute in Charlotte under 
General (then Major) Daniel H. Hill. Upon the outbreak of the \\ar 
Alexander was appointed commissaiy with the rank of first lieuten- 
ant. This appointment was done under authority of the state of 
North Carolina. When the regiment was stationed at Camp Jones, 
near Manassas on August 20, 1861, the offices of assistant quarter- 
mastei-, assistant commissary sergeant, and adjutant became vacant 
because of the transfer of North Carolina troops to the authority of 
the Confederacy. The company and field officers of the regiment 
"unanimously" recommended that Alexander, then a captain, be 
promoted to assistant commissai^ sergeant. This was done. Alex- 
ander attempted to get a leave of absence to return to North Carolina 
and arrange Ms bond, an action which was required of all Civil War 
commissarie^^-Vccording to regimental records, 

. . . the acknowledgment before a judge was omitted, & 
since Capt. Alexander has had no opportunity of attending to 
it. ^Ve take pleasure in adding that we are satisfied that the 
faihne to give bond was not intentional on his part, but pre- 
vented by force of circumstances, R: we respectfidly recommend 
his reappointment as A. C. S. in this Regt. (§} 

107 



108 The Bloody Sixth 

This letter was signed by the following company commanders: Rich- 
ard Watt York, Company I; M. W. Page, Assistant Quartermaster; 
James S. Vincent, Company K; James A. Lea, Company H; D. C. 
Pearson, Company D; R. P. Smith, Company G; William K. Parrish, 
Company B; W. G. Guess, Company C; and J. Calder Turner, Com- 
pany A.@ 

Alexander himself had gotten a friend, Lieutenant A. P. Hill, to 
represent him before a judge in North Carolina. Since the judge 
would "not pennit it to be acknowledged before him," the bond was 
sent to Alexander, then in camp near Dumfries. In April, 1862, when 
the regiment reached Fredericksburg, Alexander appeared before a 
judge, but could not persuade the magistrate to act upon the bond 
since the necessary witnesses were not present. Alexander, frustrated 
at every turn, then appeared before General Whiting, told him all the 
facts, and was directed to write to the secretary of war explaining 
that it i\as a question "he (Whiting) could not answer." Alexander, 
still not receiving any satisfaction, applied to Whiting for pennission 
to go to North Carolina to have the bond arranged. This request 
was refused, probably because of the military exigencies of the mo- 
ment. During the regiment's retreat from Yorktown the bond was 
sent to Richmoncljvith other baggage "8: until this day have I been 
unable to get it.'C^Alexander, by then desperate, went to Richmond 
shortly after Fredericksburg to settle the matter. On December 22, 
he ^vrote to James A. Seddon, then Secretary of War: 






I have been in the service 21 months and am 26 years old and 
most respectfully ask that I may be reinstated and j>ermitted to 
go to No. Ca. to have the bond, or an other one arranged. Since 
my entrace I have never (been) off duty. Enclosed you will find 
a recommendation from Col. L E. Avery of the 6th N. C. Rgt. 
and also from all the captains of the regt. present. Also from our 
brig. genl. Law & Maj. Amzie Bobbitt om- brigade commissary. 
Also a statement from the firm of Hill & Norfleet of this city 
(Richmond merchants) testifying the validity of the suritiesY^ 

Alexander determined to remain in Richmond until he received 
an answer from Secretary Seddon. Shortly after he wrote to Seddon 
Alexander went to the secretary's office and was directed by a clerk 
to go and have the bond "acknowledged" before a judge. This was 
done and Alexander's problem was finally solved(^ 

Christmas, 1862 came in with fog and rain, but the ^seather soon 
cleared and the day became "pritty." It was, in part, a bormg occa- 
sion, however, since there were "no young ladies to talk too.'^On the 
last day of the year the regiment had muster inspection. That night 
Company H was placed on picket duty on the bank of the Rappahan- 
nock. The men were within 100 yards of the Union pickets. 



Into the Enemy's Country 109 

but the officer in command would not let them converse with the 
enemy. The Union troops came down to the river and called to the 
men of Company H and "say if we would bring the boat over that they 
would come over on our side and have a talk." The "talk" didn't 
occur, at least not at that time.Qy 

On January 10, North Carolina .Adjutant General James G. Mar- 
tin wrote Confederate Adjutant General Samuel Cooper regarding 
the matter of vacancies among the "Senior Second Lieutenants" in the 
Sixth Regiment. Colonel Avery had requested that the Confederate 
government fill up some vacancies which had recently occurred in 
the Sixth. This had been done by appointing brevet second lieuten- 
ants. Martin angrily wrote Cooper: 

I am directed by His Excellency the Governor to say that 
he claims the right to commission all officers (except the staff) 
in the N. C. Reaiments except those reorganized under the Con- 
scription Act. uo) 

The governor wished to know "by what authority" the brevet ap- 
pointments had been made. North Carolina officialdom ^vasjealous 
of its authority over the first ten regiments of State Troops, ^/j 

During the month of January an event occiured which had mo- 
mentous implications for the Sixth. The regiment was transferred 
from Law's brigade. Hood's division, Longstreet's First Army Corps 
to Brigadier General Robert F. Hoke's brigade, Richard S. E^vell's 
division, Jackson's Second .\nny Corps. The Fifty-fourth and Fifty- 
seventh Regiments were transferred with the Sixth. Under the same 
orders Hoke was made a brigadier general and given command of 
General Isaac Tremble's brigade. The orders. Special Orders Number 
19, created, in effect, a new general and a new brigad^SiThere w-ere 
mixed feelings over the transfer. Genral Law wrote about the Sixth in 
terms of sadness: 

The Brigadier General commanding cannot refrain from the 
expression of his deep regret at the reception of General Order, 
No. 19, Headquarters of the Army, transferring the Sixth, Fifty- 
fourth and Fifty-seventh North Carolina Regiments from this 
command. . . . 

Disruption of all those pleasant and cordial social relations 
which exist between himself and them, is not the only cause of 
sorrow: their gallantly on the battle-field has taught him to 
value them as soldiers, no less than as comrades. 

To the Sixth he has only to say, that inspired by the mem- 
ories of the First Manassas, Eltham's Landing, Seven Pines, 
Gains' Farm, Malvern Hill, Freeman's Ford, Second Manassas, 
Boonsborough, Sharpsburg and Fredericksburg, it can never 
in the future prove unworthy of its well-earned and glorious 
reputation, /n) 



110 The Bloody Sixth 

Law wished success to his three regiments, and hoped that in the 
new position which they \voidd occupy, they would "contribute much 
to the success of our arms and the triumph of our sacred cause. "^i^ 

General Hood was no less enthusiastic in his praise of the Sixth. 
He wrote, 

The Sixth was one of the first regiments that came to Vir- 
ginia to assist in driving the foe from her soil, and as one of the 
celebrated Old Third Brigade it has gained a reputation second 
to no regiment in the army.(i^ 

Mentioning the same list of battles as Law, Hood declared that the 
Sixth Regiment had "amply sustained the reputation for courage and 
patriotism for which the sons of the Old North State, since the days 
of our first Revolution, have been so justly celebrated." ds) 

Others felt sadness in makine the chanoe, but for different rea- 
sons. Colonel Avery felt that he :vas "nothing but a part of the gieat 
machine that old Uncle Robert Lee is at the head of." Still, he was 
"a very little put out" -(vith the breaking up of the brigade. Orders j 
directing the Sixth, Fifty-fourth and Fifty-seventh Regiments to 
march "a distance of over 20 miles" had been received on Januai^ 
23. Avery was also hurt by the fact that three Alabama reginients 
were to take the place of the North Carolinians in Law's brigadexlZBut j 
there were other reasons for Avei"y's discontent: 

Bob Hoke was appointed a Brigadier a few days since. I do 
not want to leave this tent, I do not want to leave this Brigade 
(to go there) & I am dead against leaving this Division, and I 
must say I do not care to join "old Jacks foot cavalry."^ 

Avei-y had recently gotten his camp comfortably established and 
had no wish to march in bad weather "over 20 miles thro' the mud." 
The regiment was encamped only a few hundred yards from a sta- 
tion on the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad where 
Avery was able to "get the newspapers regularly." At the new loca- 
tion the regimem would be fourteen miles from the nearest point 
on the railroadi^Avery had another reason for not wishing to leave 
Hood's command. He wrote, 

Genl. Early may be a very good man, but I woidd not give 
Hood for any of them. And besides I think that \ve all fare much 
better in Longstreets than in Old Stone^valls Corps. I have 
formed some very pleasant associations in this Division & I do 
not like to break them up to go down there. I like Genl. Law 
very much indeed. I know I never will meet ^\ith a commander 
who I can get along more pleasantly than I have with hira.Q^) 

Avery felt that Hoke was a brave officer, "but he is so young.' 
It would be difficidt to go into a brigade under the command of an! 



til 



Into the Enemy's Country 1 1 



officer whom "we 'ranked' a few days since."^=T*Jevertheless, Avery, 
like any obedient officer, was forced to accept the inevitable. The re- 
mainder of his letter was devoted to routine things: a visit of Major 
Tate to General Pender's headquarters: a possible meeting with his 
brother Alphonso, recently transferred to Pender's brigade; the hope 
that he would soon receive additional pairs of socks because "Albert 
has lost some & s^vaped oft & mismated others in taking them to 
wash:" the fact that furloughs had been temporarily suspended be- 
cause of another crisis — "It is the thought the enemy will cross at 
'two points, one above' the other below Fredericksburg." (Si) 

What manner of man was the commander of the new brigade in 
which the Sixth found itself? Brigadier General Robert Frederick 
Hoke was born at Lincolnton, Lincoln Coimty, North Carolina on 
May 27, 1837. A tall, handsome man with an impressive dark beard, 
he had been educated in the local public schools and at the Ken- 
tucky Military Institute. He worked for the Federal government in 
a minor position for a time and later managed his family's business 
enterprises including a cotton mill and an ironworks.'^sioke entered 
Confederate service as a second lieutenant in the First North Caro- 
lina Regiment. Taking part in the Battle of Bethel Church, June 10, 
1861, he was subsequently promoted to the rank of major and then 
lieutenant colonel of the Thirty-third North Carolina Regiment 
(which ^vas commanded by Colonel Clark Moulton Avei7, older 
brother of Colonel Isaac E. Avery) . Soon, Hoke was promoted again, 
this time to the rank of colonel in the Tiventy-first North Carolina. 
He performed gallant service on all the battlefields of northern 
Virginia, from the Seven Days through Fredericksburg. His promo- 
tion to the rank of brigadier general came, as has already been noted, 
at the same time that his new brigade was created(i!£\ccording to a 
contemporary description. 

Gen. Hoke is nearly six feet in height, stands erect, has dark 
hair and dark eyes, and is noted as a high-toned christian gentle- 
man, having been for several years a communicant in the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church. He is a pious, praying man. We 
record this fact with pleastne, and on it we woimd our hope of 
his rising still higher, and endearing himselfjo the people of 
North Carolina and the whole Confederacy, (ay 

On January 25, the regiment marched from its camp near Ham- 
ilton's—Crossing to the vicinity of Port Royal, a distance of twelve 
mile^Cirhe morning of the 25th was cloudy with some rain. As the 
men arrived at Hoke's camp, aboiu 11:00 .\.M., there Avas a feeling 
of bad :\-eather in the air. This feeling was justified on January 28, 
when "it snowed all day long." By the following day there were ten 
inches of snow on the ground. Winter held its grip on the Rappa- 
hannock and upon the men encamped along its banks. 1^ 



112 The Bloody Sixth 

Some routine matters occupied the regiment throughout the 
month of Februan^ 1863. Beyond the usual picket duties on the 
banks of the rivei2*tiere were other incidents of an interesting na- 
ture. On the second day of the month, former Captain Dimcan C. 
Pearson of Company D applied to Commandant of Conscripts in 
North Carolina, Colonel E. S. August "for the position of enrolling 
officer of the 7th Congressional district in this state." Pearson's rea- 
son for his request was that he was "incapable of performing active 
duty in the field." Pearson had resigned his commission in the regi- 
ment, but explained that he would not have done so if he had known 
that disabled officers "coiUd be detailed for such purposes." ^J* 

Colonel August answered Pearson's request ^\•'nh the statement, 
"Enrolling officers are much needed in this state at this time, in con- 
sequence of the failure of officers to report for duty at this office." 
Five of the ten congressional districts in Nortli Carolina were ^vith- 
out enrolling officers at the moment. Colonel August felt that if 
Pearson had seen an order, recently issued, which required disabled ; 
officers to apply for conscript duty, "he woidd not have resigned, 
but woidd have reported here.'QSAtigust continued with a strong rec- 
ommendation that Pearson be appointed; 

Personally I am unacquainted with Capt. Pearson but rec- 
ommend him upon what I have heard from Gov. Vance. If new 
appointments are to be made for this diuy it seems to me that 
the circumstances of Capt. Pearson's resignation gives him strong 
claims.(^ 

Shortly after this correspondence, General Lee wrote to Governor 
Vance, in answer to a letter ^vritten by Vance to Secretary of War 
Seddon: 

Details of officers and men have been made from all N. C. 
regts. to visit the State to obtain recruits 8: absentees. /?£) 

The war was beginning to work its inexorable process of attrition 
upon North Carolina. These steps were designed to combat it. 

Other events, revealing the tight-knit military organization which 
the Sixth Regiment had become, kept cropping up in February. 
Governor Vance sent two privates in Company K back from North 
Carolina in early February. The men, who had been absent without 
leave, carried a letter from the governor to Colonel Avei7 which 
explained that the men, 

... go on to report to you under my proclamation promising 
them a pardon except a forfeiture of pay &:c. (3^ 

Then, Vance requested Avery "to hear if they report promptly. "^ji^ 



\ 



Into the Enemy's Country 113 

Another matter of interest involved lir^i-strung Captain Richard 
Watt York of Wake County's Company iSllLieutenant Colonel Webb 
had written a letter to Avery concerning York "about the 1st. of 
Deer., 1862." York requested Avei^ to furnish him with a copy of 
the letter's contents since "it has placed me in a situation liable to 
be misrepresented to my injury." If the letter had been destroyed, 
York wanted a statement of its contents. No record remains of 
Avery's action. \3y 

On February 28, there ^^•as an execution in the regiment. Private 
Portland Baley of Company D "was shot to death to day at 2 o'clock 
with musketry." Another soldier, Private Stone of Company F, Fifty- 
se\enth North Carolina, was executed on March 16. (37/ 

March came in with \\arm weather. On the third the regiment 
marched from its camp near Port Royal back to the vicinity of Fred- 
ericksburg near its old camp at HaniiltonV-Crossing. The distance 
covered in the march was fourteen milesQMlie Jsaigade post office 
was located at Guinea's Station on the railroad. (jJ^ 

Colonel Avery wrote Secretary Seddon on March 1 1 to recom- 
mend First Sergeant John A. Johnston of Company H for the po- 
sition of brevet second lieiuenant to fill the vacancy created by the 
resignation of Second Lieutenant Monroe Oliver. Avery felt that 
Johnston should have the promotion because of "gallast conduct in 
action & for the faithful discharge of other duties. '(i^lthough the 
request was endorsed by General Hoke, \\ho ^vrote ". . . the vacancies 
in this Regt. have ahvays been filled by appointment," and by divi- 
sion connnander Early, General Lee and Secretary Seddon thought 
i otherwise. Seddon wrote. 

The 6th N. C. is one of those regiments whicli, the governor 
(Vance) claims the right to appoint officers to. Mj 

Secretary Seddon resolved the matter by directing that the^equest 
be sent to Governor Vance "asking whom he recommends." ^/;^ 

Dr. J. G. Hardy, regimental surgeon, asked a personal favor of 
Governor Vance on March 26. He wished the governor to appoint 
his brother-in-law, Dr. P. L. Archs, as "2nd Asst. Singeon of this 
regiment." Dr. Hardy argued that Dr. Archs was well fitted for the 
position, ;\'as deserving of it, and was even now in Compa»\' F of the 
regiment "to serve the Old North State as a private. "^lOr. Hardy 
pleaded: 

It will gratify me greatly to have him with me in the Medical 
Department; he will also assist me greatly, as this is a large 

Unfortunately, the Governor didn't fulfill Dr. Hardy's request. Vance 
said that he "would take great pleasure" in giving Dr. Archs the 



114 The Bloody Sixth 

appointment, but the office requested was "not permitted by law." 
Each regiment was pennitted to have only two surgeons. In any 
case, Vance explained that he was "only authorized to fill vacancies 
temporarily — my ajjnointees being subject to removal by the Surg. 
Gen. of the C. S."^ 

The month of March passed with still mofe picket duty, some of 
it at Barnard's House on the RappahannocU^The weather suddenly 
turned cooler and the air was still filled with a touch of winter. On 
the 20th it snowed in the afternoon, followed by a greater snowfall 
on the 21st. Bv^re end of the month three inches of snow remained 
on the ground.(|f;?y 

The men were given additional clothing and supplies on March 
31, at the end of the first quarter of 1863. Colonel Avery issued a 
special requisition for one pair of socks, one overcoat, seven pairs 
of sb«es, foiuteen jackets, sixteen pairs of pants, and one hospital 
temtifsAJl the companies received issues of clothing and other equip- 
ment. Because of the lack of space only three representative com- 
panies and their issties were to be given stipplies. Captain [eremiah H. 
Lea's Company H received one overcoat, t^^'enty-five pairs of pants, six 
jackets, two shirts, seven pairs of drawers, sixteen pairs of shoes, 
twenty-two hats, one^-klanket, four tents, one tent fly, and three 
skillets and skillet lidkiiCaptain Neill W. Ray's Company D received 
two overcoats, thirty-six pairs of pants, twelve jackets, forty-one shirts, 
twenty one pairs of drawers, forty-foiu" pairs of shoes, two pairs of 
socks, twenty-two hatsy two blankets, five tents, three skillets and skillet 
lids, and one boilei^S-First Lieutenant Thomas L. Cooley's Company B , 
received two overcoats, thirty-two pairs of pants, four jackets, nineteen 
shirts, t^venty pairs of draivers, twenty-five pairs of shoes, thirteen 
pairs of socks, twenty-three hats, one blanket, three skillets and skillet 
lids, and five tents. At the same time Lieutenant Cooley returned 
two greatcoats, four pairs of shoes,^ne blanket, "and 3 connnon tents' 
to the regimental quartermaster^^ 

On April 10, a ghost from the past was resurrected when S. T. 
Phillips, State Auditor for North Carolina, wrote to Richard A. Cald- 
well, a friend of Colonel Charles F. Fisher M'ho was working on the 
deceased colonel's regimental accounts. These accounts had not been 
settled at the time oi: Fisher's death in July, 1861. Phillips instructed 
Caldwell to prepare Fisher's accoimts "for furnishing and equipping 
his regiment," by establishing an account ciurent supported by 
vouchers of the type used by executors of estates. Phillips did "not 
know -ivhat evidence the face of these vouchers which yoti will present 
may give of the employment of the things purchased in the public 
service." In cases where vouchers were not available, a certificate or 
other proof had to be furnished. Phillips urged Caldwell to itemize 
Fisher's accounts "and not bare receipts for so much money upon 



da 



Into the Enemy's Country 115 

account o£ his regiment." An illustration of this could be fuiTiished 
in the case of feeding the men. Caldwell had to supply a list showing 
the numheK of men fed and the number of days during A\hich they 
were fedC^^ihe complications furnished by Fisher's tangled finances 
at the time of his death took many years to settle. Nevertheless, they 
furnish an interesting example-,of the organization of a typical North 
Carolina infantiy regiment. (^ 

While the men of the Sixth Regiment were sending along the 
Rappahannock their Avomenfolk back home in North Carolina \\ere 
suffering from hunger and general deprivation. A good example of 
this condition -(vas furnished by Mrs. Nancv Mangum, a soldier's 
wife from Mebanesville in the area \\here many men in the Sixth 
Regiment were recruited. She \\rote to Governor Vance on April 9, 
complaining of mistreatment in Greensboro ivhen she and other 
women went there "for something to eat." Instead of being given 
food, the authorities threatened to put her in jail, "and I had to come 
hom without anything I have G^^irttle children and my husband in 
the armv and T\'hat am I to do?'viJHer husband had been ffone with 
the army for two years and Mrs. Mangum was evidently destitute. 
She wrote plaintively, 

(I) f you dont take thes Yankeys nwcLy from Greenesborough 
we women ^vill write for our husbands to com home and help 
us we cant stand it the way they are treating us they charge 
Sll.OO per bunch for their thread and S2.50 for their calico (.) 
They threatened to shoot us and dra^ved their pistols over us 
that is hard/55?) 

Mrs. Mangum ■\\'as extremely bitter in her indictment of the men 
assigned to dole out food to soldiers' families, accusing them of being 
refugees from Ne-sv Bern ^vho were making fortunes "speclating evei7 
day." Edwin M. Holt, owner of the Holt Mill at Alamance, was mak- 
ing a fortune, according to Mrs. Mangum: ". . . if this war hold on 
2 years longer he ^vould own all of (A) llamance (C) ounty he has 
cloth and thread and wont let no body have it -^vithout \\'heat or 
corn or meet." The sad letter ended with a recital of prices paid for 
various staples such as corn, sugar, black pepper, and flour. ^^ 

Some of the men and their families weren't as unfortunate as Mrs. 
Mangum. John K. Walker had so many clothes, most of which were 
sent to him from home, that he couldn't earn- them all. His only 
alternative was to return some of them, such as the new shirts and 
"waiscoat" which he^^turned by way of Captain John Vincent, his 
company commandefcSZjohn wrote home on April 19 from the Sixth's 
"Camp near Fredericksburg." Even'one in his company (K, com- 
manded by Captain John S. Vincent) , except a friend of his, George 
Cheeks, was well and hardy. George was "verx poorlv," had been ill 



116 The Bloody Sixth 

with the fever for "some 8 or ten days," but would probably "mend." 
One of the company, George King, was planning to return home to 
Alamance County, North Carolina the next day. King would carry 
back all the company's extra baggage "that he can." Young Walker 
thanked his father for the things he had recently received from home: 
"2 shirts, 2 pr. drawers, 1 pr. pants and the ballance of my things 
all come safe." He was worried about some meat that hadn't ar- 
rived. The boy who was bringing it from North Carolina had fallen 
asleep in Richmond and the meat had been stolen along with "all 
of Fred Wyatt's clothing." Still, Walker couldn't blame the boy 
too much since "he was not use (d) to traveling and therefore I 
think he ought to be looked over."^) 

About mid-April Company K went down to the Rappahannock 
on picket duty diu'ing a snow storm. While there the Carolinians 
had "a fine time" with the enemy. There ^vas talking, the exchang- 
ing of newspapers, and the "sending over tobacco for pipes and 
coffee and canteens &c." In "Walker's opinion, the opinion of a 
young man who didn't hate his opponents, "they seem to be very 
friendly." Even though the regiment was doing fairly well in this 
camp. Walker didn't think they would stay there much longer. 
Rumors of a Union gunboat in the river at Port Royal and other 
Union land and navalmovements along the river seemed to point 
to an early movement. ^3) 

A good example of Walker's letter-writing throughout the war 
may be seen in a letter to his brother, written during the month of 
April, 1863. The brother, George L. Walker, later became a member 
of the Sixth Regiment. John \Valker hit many nostalgic chords when 
he put his pen to paper: 

Dear brother I got yovu" letter the other day and was glad 
to hear from you. You said that you had got the present that I 
sent you by Calvin Jones. I want you to read it and you will 
know somethings about oiu" travels during last summer (the 
summer of 1862) . I ^vas going to send you some more little songs 
before long. You said you woidd like to have some gim caps. I 
will get you some the first chance and send you but they are very 
scarce and our caps that we use are so large that they wont do 
you any good but you shall have some. Poor George Cheeks 
(sick with fever) sensho^wlie to you. I dont believe that I have 
anything more to write. . . .^3) 



And then came a line revealing all the sadness in a soldier's heart: 

... be a good boy and keep my mare fat until Lcome home. 
Write every no^v ancl then ancl give me the ne^vs. (Ll) 

Life in camp continued with the usual picket duty, reviews, and 
attendance at religious services. On the 18th, a beautiful spring day. 



Into THE Enemy's CoiNTRv 117 

Dr. Dabney, "Stonewall" Jackson's chaplain, preached in the cli- 
\ isional camps. His text was in Hebre\vs, Chapter Three. The theme 
of the sewnon was "Today if ye will hear His voice harden not your 
hearts. '^3^n the 23rd there was a scare, a party of Union troops 
( rossed the Rappahannock at Port Royal and took a wagorijai- two. 
Fortimately, the Sixth Regiment -wasn't called from camp. ie3j 

Early on the morning of April 28, a lone horseman rode through 
the regimental camp. Private Bartlett Yancey Malone heard him 
approach. Soon the messenger retiniied and notified the men that a 
l)attle was about to begin. Before young Malone had a chance to 
get his clothes on, the "Long Roll" beat its resounding staccato. The 
regimental adjutant ordered everyone to fall in under arms. The 
men of the Sixth were on the march to another battle. The Union 
forces, this time under General Joseph Hooker, -ivere crossing the 
Rappahannock in force. The Battle of Chancellorsville was about 
to begin. As the regiment marched for^vjml in the rain, men could 
hear heavy artillery fire in the distance. ^^ 

Jackson ordered Early to hold a position in the vicinity of Fred- 
ericksburg ^vhile the remainder of the army marched iipriver to deal 
with the bidk of the Union Army which ^vas crossing the river in the 
vicinity of Chancellorsville. Part of the Union Amiy crossed in force 
at the mouth of Deep Run and near Pratt's House, below Deep Run. 
Early quickly moved his division to the line of the Richmond, Fred- 
ericksburg, and Potomac Railroad. His right was posted at Hamil- 
ton's Crossing, his left at Deep Run. The River Road, ninning along 
the line of the Rappahannock, was occupied by three regiments. The 
object of this forward movement was to keep "the enemy from ad- 
vancing to that road.'uS) 

Early faced Union troops imder General John Sedg-ivick with his 
division, one brigade from McLaws' division, and Barksdale's; General 
Pendleton remained behind with part of the reserve artillery; "and 
Lieutenant Colonel (R. S.) Andrews, with his battalion of artillery, 
was also left behind." Early wrote. 

My division and Andrews' artillery occupied the lines on 
the right, and Barksdale's brigade and Pendleton's artillery oc- 
cupied Fredericksbing and the heights in rear. uZ) 

Early received orders from Lee at II o'clock on the morning of the 
2nd to leave a brigade behind as a rear guard and move with the 
rest of his men to Chancellorsville. Early thereupon directed Bri- 
gadier General Harry Hays to hold his brigade along with one of 
Barksdale's regiments in position facing the Union troops near Deep 
Rim. Part of Pendleton's artillery was immediately sent toward 
Chancellorsville. Actually there had been a mistake in the transmis- 
sion of the order. Lee had wanted Early to move "in the event of 



118 The Bloody Sixth 

the enemy withdrawing from his front and moving up the river." 
Because of a mistake made by the officer conveying the message, Early 
thought that he had been directed to move "unconditionally." As 
soon as Early's column had moved up the Plank Road about a mile, 
news reached him that the enemy in his rear was showing a dispo- 
sition to adyajice. The division was immediately returned to its 
former line.(^ 

At daylight on the morning of the 3rd, Barksdale informed Early 
that the Union forces had bridged the Rappahannock at Fredericks- 
burg and were crossing the river. Hays was ordered forward from 
his position on the right to support Barksdale's Mississippians. Soon 
the enemy began to demonstrate from the Deep Run area and from 
Fredericksburg. Early's right flank held under the Union attacks, 
while one assault on Marye's Hill was repulsed. However, bad luck 
began to come to the Confederates. Early reported. 

The enemy . . . sent a flag of truce to Colonel (Thomas M.) 
Griffin, of the Eighteenth Mississippi Regiment, who occupied the 
wrks at the foot of ]Mai7e's Hill with his own and the Twenty-first 
Mississippi Regiment, which was received by him improperly, 
and it had barely returned before heavy columns were advanced 
against the positions, and the trenches were carried and the hill 
taken, a large portion of the Eighteenth Mississippi Regiment 
and a part of the Twenty-first being taken prisoners, and a 
company of the Washington Artillery, with its gims, were 
captured. (||) 

This sudden attack forced the artillery on Lee's Hill, the re- 
mainder of Barksdale's brigade, and one of Hays's supporting regi- 
ments to fall back to the Telegraph Road. Hays, with the remainder 
of his brigade, was forced to withdraw up the Orange Plank Road, "as 
he was on the left." Early rode forward rapidly, and stopped the 
retreat. The enemy was temporarily checked while the brigades on 
the right were moved back into a second defensive line. Gordon's 
and Hays's brigades were formed into a line across the Telegraph 
Road at Cox's House, "about 2 miles back of Lee's Hill."(23' 

At this juncture McLaws arrived with his division from Chan- 
cellorsville. Early informed McLaws of his intention to attack the 
enemy on Mai-ye's Hill the following morning (May 4) . In ac- 
cordance with this plan Hays's and Hoke's brigades were thrown 
across Hazel Run to attack the enemy's left early in the morning of 
the 4th. Smith's and Barksdale's brigades followed in the second 
line of assault. Gordon captured Marye's Hill "with ease," and with 
the assistance of Andrews' artillery battalion. Barksdale's men were 
moved into the trenches at the foot of the hill; Smith's brigade was 
advanced across Hazel Run. The Confederates then fonned a line 
facing up the Orange Plank Road, on a plain between Maiye's 



Into the Enemy's CouNiitY 119 

Hill and the heights along the Plank Road, "and at Taylor's House." 
Early then waited to hear the sound of McLaws' guns as he advanced. 
But, hearing nothing from the direction of McLaws' advance, Early 
demonstrated against the enemy's lines with Smith's brigade, but 
was forced to retire when he learned that the enemy had artillery 
"on the heights in front of my right." Again, Early requested Mc- 
Laws to advance. Then Early was notified that Anderson's division 
was moving forward "and that an attack ^\as to be made at a given 
signal."@ 

Early was anxious to attack the enemy and dislodge him before 
he had an opportunity to bring reinforcements up. Therefore, he 
ordered the brigades of Harry Hays, Robert F. Hoke, and John B. 
Gordon to immediately attack upon hearing the agreed-upon signal. 
Hays advanced in the center of the line at the foot of Mar^'e's Hill, 
opposite a mill on Hazel Run. Hoke advanced on the left, moving 
aa-oss the hill, opposite the mill on Hazel Run and past Do^vnman's 
House. Gordon moved fonvard on the right, "up the hills on the 
right of the Plank Road."(^ 

The men of Hoke's brigade moved fonvard at a determined pace. 
Hoke, on horseback, led them against the enemy's earthworks. At 
the last moment the Carolinians gave the enemy a roimd of musketry 
and then charged fonvard, "resorting to the bayonet." A loud roar 
of cheering rose up from the Confederates, ivhile the enemy was 
literally pushed from the \vork. The Lhrion forces in the rear ^vere 
"broken and confused with the pressure of their own men." Soon 
a general rout occurred upon that part of the line. (^ 

Hoke was shot off his horse with a dangerous wound in the 
shotdder, still luging on his men who ^vere attacking the LInion lines 
with the bayonet. According to one accotmt, 

In his ardor, he knew not the injury he had received, but 
remounted, pushed on Avith his ^vork, and when it was done, 
he foimd himself far in advance of any other Confederate troops, 
■\veak Avith loss of blood, and he became aware of the seriousness 
of his wound. ^ 

Hoke fell heavily to the ground, part of his shoulder bone broken 
by the force of the minnie ball. He -would be disabled for many 
months. @ 

The brigade ivas thro^vn into some confusion by mingling with 
Hays's brigade after both units had crossed the Plank Road below 
Guest's House. Hoke's brigade A\as placed in line of battle on the 
left of Gordon, in rear of the enemy's right flank near Taylor's House. 
Hays ivas ordered to form his men in the earth^vorks on the right of 
Marye's Hill. Smith's brigade took position on the left of the hill.(;7iy 



120 The Bloody Sixth 

The Confederates, while not being able to completely drive the 
enemy from the field, had been able to hold their own. The price 
had been, as usual, extremely high. The Sixth Regiment had-\ lost 
eight killed and twenty-one wounded, for a total of twenty-ninet23Liap- 
tain Guess of Company C was woimded, along with Captain Vtscent 
of Company K and Cornelius Mebane, the regimental adjutan&^^ieu- 
tenam John S. Lockhart of Company B was badly wounded in the 
foo(^6ne of the dead soldiers, Private John Heni-y Marcom of 
Company C, was honored by a sad epitaph in the Hillsborough 
Recorder. It said, 

The deceased was not only endeared to his company, but 
also to the entire Regiment. He was a faithful soldier, and al- 
though he has been numbered with the gallant dead of the 
noted 6th, his comrades will ever remember him. nj) 

The brigade lost a total of 35 killed and 195 Abounded for a grand 
total of 230. Early's division suffered a total of 136 killed, 838 
wounded, and 500 missing; the total loss was 1,474 men ^vho could 
not be replaced because most of them were veteran soldiers. (|^ 

The most serious loss, at least as far as the Sixth and the rest of 
Hoke's brigade was concerned, was General Hoke himself. Colonel 
Avery, being senior colonel of the brigade, was automatically ele- 
vatecl to the position of brigade commander, but -(vithout the corre- 
sponding rank of brigadier general. Robert Webb, who had re- 
turned from home and recovei^ of his Sharpsburg wound on March 
1, was given command of the Sixth. Later he was promoted from 
lieutenant colonel to full colonel (July 2, 1863)yciThe regiment had 
received its fourth colonel, and the end of the war was still far over 
the horizon. Men would see much suffering and death before it was 
over. 

North Carolina Surgeon General Edward Warren wrote of death 
when he said, 

A great number of our soldiers have been killed and 
wounded; for, as usual. North Carolina bore the brunt of the 
fight. You may rest assured that every attention shall be given 
them — that each one shall be visited and cared for to the extent 
of his necessities. I am resolved that they shall all feel that their 
state has a personal interest in them. I find it unnecessary to 
visit the army as all the wounded are being forwarded to this 
city(g) 

And then came an even grimmer note; "Dr. Grissom returned to day 
in charge of six hundred wounded men."(0 

Life continued with seunons, picket duties, and general reviews 
for the men in the Sixth(Jjrhere was sadness when General Jackson 



Into the Enemy's Country 121 

died of pneumonia on May lO.^Sergeant J. A. Johnston's appoint- 
ment to the office of "Junior 2d Lieutenant" was brought to the at- 
tention of Governor Vance on the 13th. In his letter to the governor, 
Secretan- Seddon wrote, 

I send the paper to you because the 6th Regiment is one of 
those in ^\hich the power of appointment has been exercised by 
you and yoiu' predecessor. (^ 

On May 20, much equipment ^\as turned o\er to the regimental 
quartermaster, possibly in preparation for the coming campaign. 
Captain Benjamin F. \Vhite of Company B returned one wall tent;(£^ 
Captain Rich3«l \V. York of Company 1 returned one wall tent and 
fwo tent flie{:3Eaptain W. H^^lexander, Assistant Commissary Ser- 
geant, returned one wall tentttfeaptain Jeremiah A. Lea of Company 
H returned two wall tents and one tent fly. Q0 

Isham Sims L'pchurch ^vrote his Ijrother from Camp Gregg on 
June 1 concerning the expected movement of the regiment against 
the Union forces. After discussing an expected crossing of the Rappa- 
hannock by. Union forces on May 30, and regimental efforts to 
counter itiit^pchiuch lamented: 

(M) y mind being on my Dear "Wife Sc little sons at home. 
I dream of them often, of being with them, you do not draw 
any id (e) a how I feal being complld to stay from them. S5.00 
chances to 1 wether I ever shall see them again on eartli. (I) f 1 
do not I feal that I shall meet them in heaven (.) /O 

Upchiuch pointed out that the regiment ivas ready to march "at a 
moments notice." It all depended on General Hooker. If he made 
a move the Confederates ^\'oulcl ha\e to move fonvard to meet him, 
"let it be ^vhere it may." Upchurch had "little fears if he crosses the 
river at this point, we are tolerable well fortified at this place 10 or 15 
miles up &; down the River. 1 do vmi think he will attemp a crossing 
here, for he knows our situation. 'C^he L^nion commander was send- 
ing up balloons to view the position of the Confederates and to dgr 
termine whether or not they would attempt a possible movement. (Jy 
Even as the Army of Northern Virginia \\'as preparing to move 
against the enemy, a general review was held (on May 27) with Gen- ^-^ 
erals Lee and Early watching intently as the division marched by. ^£? 
Upchurch described the scene in quaint language: 

. . . each Regt. was divided into two divisions &: dra\\'n up 
in line one in rear of the other about half -wheeling distance. 
(I) t formed a line of Regimental divisions about one mile long 
each Regiment marching one after the other marched square 
up & left wheeled marched about 150 or 200 yds left wheel again 



122 The Bloody Sixth 

back in front of the extreme left, left wheeled & took oin- first 
position.^ 

After mentioning that General Lee was present with Generals A. P. 
Hill and Henry Heth, Upchurch continued: 

(I) t was a grand thing to a spectator our Regt (the Sixth) 
was on the extream left so I had a tolerable chance to see the 
ivhole Division the most men I ever saw at one time before. Ry 

As June began there was a tension in the air. A move was soon 
expected which might take the regiment into the enemy's country. M 
Private G. T. Beavers wrote, 

(T) here is no sickness in camp ivorth talking about (.) I 
can say there is a beter time a coming but I cant tell ho^v far off. 
(N) either how will live to see it but with the will of God I 
hope I will be spaird to see that time (.) ^2) 

On May 31, the regiment received marching orders. The time 
to fight for "a beter time" had arrived. The men marched from 
Hamilton's Crossing near Fredericksburg at 11:00 P.M. on the night 
of June 4. On the 5th, Spotsylvania Court House was reached; the 
men splashed across the muddy Rapidan at Raccoon Ford at noon 
on the 7th. By 4 o'clock that evening the regiment was encamped 
within five miles of Culpeper Coiut House. (]£2) 

Marching into Culpeper on June 8, the regiment cooked rations, 
and left for Brandy Station on the 9th. Heavy cavalry fighting 
had been going on east of Brandy throughout the 9th, but had ended 
by the time the Sixth arrived in the area. On June 10, the regi- 
ment marched back through Culpeper towards Winchester, but got 
only as far as Hazel River by nightfall. Things began to assume a 
holiday air as the regiment neared the Blue Ridge Mountains in 
the Shenandoah Valley. As the men marched through Woodville in 
Rappahannock County, its brass band played the popular song "The 
Bonnie Blue Flag." At 1 1 o'clock the men marched through Sperry- 
ville, some five miles northwest of Woodville, and at 2:00 P.M. the 
column reached Washington, Viiginia. Here the streets were lined 
with pretty girls who passed fresh water to the thirsty men. Fortified 
by this relief, the regiment camped a few miles beyond Washington 
after covering twenty miles "that day." (L£p 

The men were on the move again before sunup on the morning 
of June 12. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon the Blue Ridge was crossed 
near Front Royal. After crossing the Shenandoah River, a mile be- 
yond Front Royal, the regiment camped on its northern bank. Early 
on the morning of the 13th, the men started for Winchester. It was 
soon learned that the enemy was at Newtown on the Valley Pike, 



Into the E^■E^n 's Country 123 

some seven miles from Winchester. The cohunn turned and attacked^ 

the enemy, driving him about a mile in the direction of Winchester.^£3) 

The Sixth Regiment, as part of Hoke's brigade (now commanded 
by Avery) , was moved to the right and left of the Valley Pike in the 
direction of Kernstown. This movement was made as other brigades 
of Early's division ^vere advanced directly to-^vard Winchester, gar- 
risoned by a 3,000-man Union force under the command of Major 
General Robert H. Milroy. Hoke's brigade -svas it^d as a resen'e in 
support of the brigades making the actual attacks-,%cording to Early, 

. . . Hoke's brigade, under the command of Colonel (I. E.) 
Aveiy, of the Sixth North Carolina Regiment, which had been 
ordered up to the support of the other brigades, was ordered 
back to Kernstown, where it was placed in position to protect 

the ambulances, ■wagons, and artillery, ■\vhich had been brought 

up to that position, from an attack from the left and rear. . . .(lO^ 

Early on the morning of June 14, Early ordered Gordon and Hays 
to advance some of their troops against Bovvers' Hill, then occupied 
by Union skimiishers. The Union artillery had been Avithdra^vn 
during the night in the direction of Winchester. Elements of Smith's 
brigade were ordered to advance to the left of Hays and Gordon. (i£^ 

By this time General Ewell, commander of the Second Army 
Corps and Early's commanding officer, had amved upon thp^ene. 
Together the t^\'o officers reconnoitered the Union positiorvi^^Vhat 
followed is described by General Early: 

After receiving final instructions from General Ewell, I re- 
placed the skirmishers of Hays' and Smith's brigades by others 
from Gordon, \v\ih his brigade, the Maryland battalion and two 
batteries of artillery [the Maryland battery and (A.) Hupp's 
batten', of Bro^\TT's battalion] to amuse the enemy and hold 
him in check in front, I moved ^\ith Hays', Hoke's, and Smith's 
brigades, and the rest of Jones' and Broivn's battalions of ar- 
tillery, to the left (^\'est) , follo^ving the Cedar Creek Turnpike 
for a short distance, and then leaving that and passing through 
fields and the woods, which I found sufficiently open to admit 
of the passage of artillery, thus making a considerable detour, 
and crossing the macadamized road to Romney about ?> miles 
west of Winchester and a half mile from a point at which the 
enemy had had a picket the night before. (joT) 

When Early's column crossed the Romney Road the Fifty-fourth 
North Carolina Infantry, part of Hoke's brigade, was detached to act 
as a picket guard. Early continued to move the rest of his men until 
they approached the Pughto\vn Road where a position "proved to be 
a wooded hill, a part of the range of hills called Little North Moun- 
tain, close to the Pughto^vn Road." To the south -(vas an old orchard 



124 The Bloodv Sixth 

and the ruins of a home, locally known as "Folk's Old House." To the 
north was a cornfield, part of the farm of a Mrs. Brierly. These open 
places offered excellent opportunities for the emplacement of artillei"y 
within easy range of the Union lines "on the hill overlooking his 
main fort."(7^ 

Early massed his troops in some woods in the rear of the selected 
assault position "as the day was excessively hot, and the men had 
marched a circuit of some 8 or 10 miles ^vithout meeting Avith \\'ater 
to drink, and were very much fatigued. "(T£5) 

While his men were resting Early personally reconnoitered the 
Union lines, especially the ground over ^vhich his men ^^'Oldd have to 
make the intended assault. He observed that the numerous woods in 
the area would afford his assaidting column an excellent cover to 
advance "to within a short distance of the foot of the hill I wished 
to carry by assault." Early also noticed that the Union forces on the 
hill in his front Avere not alert to the danger in their front, but ^vere 
studying the Union and Confederate movements in the direction of 
Gordon's advance to the south of Winchester.(ii£) 

As soon as Jones's artillery had been placed in position, and ob- 
serving that his infantry had "rested as much as possible under the 
circumstances," Early ordered General Hays to move his brigade 
to the edge of the woods which faced the line of Union defenses, but 
to keep the men under cover of the woods imtil Jones's artillei-y had 
begiui to fire. As soon as the artillery opened, Hays's brigade was 
directed to advance as "rapidly as possible to the assault." The as- 
saulting columns should be arranged to have three regiments in 
front and two regiments in the rear, following the first three at a 
short interval. Jones's artillery was broken into t^\o sections. Twelve 
pieces were placed in the orchard to the south of the Pughtown Road, 
while eight pieces were placed at the edge of the cornfield to the 
north of the road. The Fifty-seventh North Carolina Infantn', com- 
manded by Colonel Archibald C. Gochvin, was detached from the rest 
of Hoke's brigade, "so as to protect these latter pieces from an attack 
in the direction of the Pughtown Road, near which they were 
posted." The remainder of Hoke's men were placed in line of battle 
a quarter of a mile in the rear of Hays's brigade. Smith's men were 
placed with Hoke's. Both brigades were directed to support Hays, if 
necessary. (TjT) 

The works which Early was about to assaidt consisted of a bastion- 
type fort on the highest hill, a smaller breastwork between the hill 
and the Pughtown Road, and an extensive but incomplete ivork to 
the north of the Pughtown Road. It seemed strange to Early that 
the enemy had "been making recent preparations against an attack 
from this quarter, but . . . on this occasion failed to keep a lookout 
in that direction. "(Mi) 



Into the Enemy's Country 125 

About an hour before sundo\vn Jones's artillei-)' began firing upon 
the Union lines, ahnost before the enemy "was aware of our vicinity." 
This firing ^vas continued for three-quarters of an hour, \\lien Hays 
advanced his brigade up the steep slope of the hill toward the Union 
position. The men advanced rapidly through piles of brushwood 
^vhich had been placed to serve the purpose of an abatis, "and drove 
the enemy from his works in fine style." Six rifled cannon were cap- 
tured in the assault; two of them were immediately turned upon the 
enemy. This rapid movement prevented any effort to recapture the 
position before Confederate reinforcements coiUd arrive. When 
Early saw that Hays's brigade had stormed the position, he ordered 
Smith's men forward in support. Jones was ordered to bring his 
artillerv forward, leaving Averv ivith Hoke's brigade "to look out for 
the rear."(nj) 

When Early reached the captured position he noticed that it 
overlooked and commanded the enemy's main work, "as had been 
anticipated!! All the Union positions to the left of the hill had been 
evacuatecLtiXarly wrote. 

The enemy was in evident commotion, but by the time the 
artillery and Smith's brigade reached the captmed hill, it was 
too late to take any further steps for the capture of the main 
work, which was vei-y strong, and to accomplish which would 
have required the cooperation of the other troops around Win- 
chester. I contented myself, therefore, with directing an ar- 
tillery fire to be kept up until near dark on the enemy's position, 
which was returned from the main %\ork and the redoubt spoken 
of, but with little effect. (//^ 

Early quickly made arrangements during the night for the battle 
that had to be fought on the morro^v. He ordered the captured works 
tinned and openings cut for the artillery, to enable it to begin firing 
on the enemy's main work "at early light." Godwin's Fifty-seventh 
North Carolina was directed to occupy the small fort to the north of 
the Pughtown Road. Hays's brigade was placed in the fort which it 
had captured, while Smith's men were formed in Hays's rear as a 
supporting unit. Colonel Avery was placed with the Sixth and 
Twenty-first North Carolina Regiments "in the rear to prevent any 
surprise by the enemy in that direction." The Fifty-fourth North 
Carolina was kept in position as a picket on the Romney Road. After 
these dispositions hacl been made, the troops slept on their arms all 
night. Early, however, did not sleep. He sent his aide. Lieutenant 
William G. Calloway, with a message to General Gordon directing 
him to advance upon the main Union fort at daylight. General Ewell 
was notified that a lodgment had been made in the enemy's lines, and 
was cheered by Early's optimistic opinion that "the enemy Avould 
evacuate before morning. "(^Z^) 



126 The Bloody Sixth 

Early on the morning of June 15, it was obsened that the enemy 
was in full retreat, following the road northeast toward Martinsburg. 
Soon firing was heard on the Martinsburg Road. General Edward 
Johnson's division, sent by Ewell to cut off Mihoy's retreat, had 
made contact with the retreating Union forces. Early immediately 
ordered his entire division to pursue the enemy, "having detached the 
Thirteenth Virginia Regiment, of Smith's brigade, to guard the 
abandoned wagons and property." Gordon's brigade entered the 
deserted Union fort, pulled down the flag, and advanced in pursuit 
of the enemy ahead of the rest of the division. When Early reached 
the point where Johnson's men had encountered-tJie enemy he found 
most of Milroy's force had been taken prisonersJi^arly glumly stated, 

It was evident, then, that further pursuit on foot was use- 
less, and I therefore halted my command, and encamped them 
near this place (near ^Vinchester) .(fp 



The prizes won by the Confederates at the Battle of Winchester 
were numerous. Twenty-five pieces of artillery with their caissons, a 
considerable quantity of artillery ammunition, many wagons, and "a 
considerable quantity" of public stores were secured. Unfortunately, 
nuich of the artillen' ammunition had been damaged. One hundred 
and eight officers and 3,250 enlisted men were listed as prisoners, to- 
gether with several hundred sick and wounded prisoners captured in 
the town of Winchester. Most of the prisoners had been captured by 
Johnson's division "while attempting to make their escape after the 
evacuation. '(m^ 

Early praised the brigades of Hays and Gordon for their part in 
driving the enemy from his fortified positions about Winchester 
saying. 

The diarge of Hays' brigade upon the enemy's works was 
a most brilliant achievement, and the affair of the day before, 
when General Gordon drove the enemy from the position he 
occupied to the left of Kernstown, reflected equal credit upon 
himself and his brigade, (l^ 



Jones's artillen-. Lieutenant Colonel Herbert, Major Goldsborough 
of the Maryland Line, and their troops were also praised; but Early 
reflected, 

Hoke's and Smith's brigades did not become engaged on either 
day.(^ 

Early's division, despite its successful assault, suffered few casualties 
at Winchester. The number listed is 30 killed, 143 -ivounded, and 3 
missing. Unfortunately "some gallant and efficient officers" were 
niunbered among the killed and ^vounded./f^^j 



Into the Enemy's Country 127 

General EweU asked the officers and chaplains of the Second Army 
Corps to give thanks to God for the victory won at W'inchester. He 
wrote, 

In acknowledgment of Divine favor. Chaplains will hold 
religious services in their respective regiments at such times as 
may be most convenient. ^\'ith A\onderiully small loss — less than 
300 killed, wounded, and missing — we have carried strong ^^'orks 
defended by an abundance of superior artillery, capturing over 
3,000 prisoners, and large quantities of militaiy stores and sup- 
plies. Such a result should strengthen the reliance in the right- 
eousness of our cause which has inspired evei7 effort of oin- 
troops.^75|) 

The Sixth didn't lose a man in the victoi^ at-VV^inchester. Godwin's 
Fifty-seventh Regiment "lost but one man.'VStli mid-June Colonel 
Avery wrote his parents, back home at Swan Ponds: 

I do not know where Hooker is or where any of our army 
is, except our Corps. We are kept in the dark as to even' thing 
that is going on. It is getting too late to ^^-rite any more. ijl£) 

On June 15, General Early was temporarily placed in command 
of the Department of Winchester, an area which included all the 
Shenandoah Valley to the solLrf^^as far as Woodstock and north as 

J I Mil 

far as "the lines of the army.tl2?il captined military equipment was 
to be tinned over to the proper authorities, except siqjplies needed 
to revictual the Second Army Corps. These \\ere to be given to the 
men at once. Since there had been some pillaging of capttned prop- 
erty, strict orders were issued "to prevent individual appropriations 
of what belongs to all." Clothing was to be issued to the command 
under the rules of the quartermaster's department, on special requisi- 
tions issued by General Ewell. All the divisions in the Second Corps 
were to be furnished with equipment "in proportion." Horses and 
supplies would be furnished for individual ivants only when abso- 
lutely necessary, applications being approved at General Ewell's head- 
quarters or by General Early. Even the Union garrison flag was ac;. 

counted for. It was carried to Richmond by General Early's order.Qj^^ 

While in Winchester, Early detached the Fifty-fourth North Caro- 
lina of Hoke's brigade and the Fifty-eighth Virginia of Smith's brigade 
to guard prisoners who were being marched to Staunton, The Thir- 
teenth Virginia of Smith's brigade was left on duty in ^Vinchester, 
On June 18, Early left Winchester with the remainder of Hoke's bri- 
gade and Jones's battalion of artillei-y. This column rejoined Gor- 
don's, Hays's, and Smith's brigades in Sheperdstown on the 19th. 
Their destination ^vas Pennsylvania, the enemy's country! (fzJ) 



128 The Bloody Sixth 

Early's division crossed the Potomac at Sheperdstown on the 22nd, 
and marched rapidly through Sharpsbiirg and Boonsborough. The 
men camped on the Hagersto^vn Road about three miles north of 
Boonsborough, where the Seventeenth Virginia Calvary of Jenkins' 
brigade under Colonel William H. French reported to Early. This 
cavah-y unit wouLd-vaccompany Early's division during the march 
into PennsylvaniLLtfime 23 was a momentous day for the Sixth Regi- 
ment. It was on that day that Early's men marched into the North 
through Cavetown, Smithsburg, and Ringgold. The division camped 
for the night in the vicinity of Waynesborough, in southern Penn- 
sylvania. On June 24 the men marched through Ouincy and Altodale 
to Greenwood, "on the turnpike from Chambersburg to Gettysburg." 
Here the men remained in camp until the 25th. Early visited General 
Ewell at Chambersburg, and was ordered by the latter to cross South 
Mountain, proceed through Gettysburg, and then march to York. 
At York Early was instnicted to destroy the Northern Central Rail- 
road which ran from Baltimore to Harrisburg, and also burn the ' 
railroad bridge across the Susquehanna River at Wrightsville and 

Columbia. Early would then rejoin Ewell at Carlisle "by the way of 
Dillsburg.'t;7|S) 

The feelings of the Confederates in Early's command on the 
march into Pennsylvania might best be illustrated by quoting a letter 
written by Major General William Dorsey Pender, former colonel 
of the Sixth and now commanding a division in A. P. Hill's Third 
Army Corps. Pender ■s^ote, 

. . . This is a most magnificent country to look at; but the 
most miserable jaeople. I have yet to see a nice looking lady. 
They are coarse and dirty and the number of dirty looking chil- 
dren is perfectly astonishing. Great many of the women go 
barefooted & But a very small portion wear stockings. I hope 
we may never have such people, if they would make the counti7 
as rich as a garden. Nearly all of them seem to be tenants & 
at first I thought all the better people must have left. And such 
barns I never dreamt of. Their d^velling houses are large 8c com- 
fortable looking from the outside — have not been inside — but 
such coarse dorits (?) that live in them. I really did not believe 
that their was much difference between our ladies & these 
Federals. ... I have seen no ladies. We passed through Hagers- 
town . . . but I saw little Southern feeling displayed. The fact 
is the people in N. W. Md. are as much of the Dutch Yankees 
as these, & I do not ^vant them(j3p 

Early on the morning of June 26, Early's division prepared toj 
move against York. Rain fell in heavy torrents, delaying the march 
until 8 o'clock wlje»-Jhe column was ordered into the road. The rain[ 
continued all da'i'3^1onel E. V. White's battalion of cavalry joined 



Into the Enemy's Country 129 

Early before the march began. All the divisional trains were sent 
to Chambersburg except the ambulances, "one medical wagon for a 
brigade, the regimental ordnance ivagons, one \vagon with cooking 
utensils for each regiment, and fifteen empty -(s'agons to gather sup- 
]>lies with." No other baggage was carried. The column marched 
slowly toT\ard Gettysburg. At a fork in the road one and a half miles 
from Cashtown, Early sent Gordon's brigade and White's battalion of 
cavalry on the main road through Cashtown to Gettysbin-g. The re- 
mainder of the division was moved to the left, through Hilltown to 
Mummasburg. Early had learned that there was probably a force of 
the enemy at Gettysburg, "though I could get no definite infonnation 
as to its size." Gordon's orders were to engage this enemy force and 
skirmish '(\-ith it \vhile the main body of Early's division "should get 
on his flank and rear." Early hoped to capture the entire force. (JJ3) 

At nightfall the Confederates entered Mummasburg, a distance 
of fointeen miles from their starting point at Greenwood. Their 
cavalry had engaged in a heavy skirmish and had taken 135 prisoners 
shortly before the infantiy entered the town. ({J^ 

Upon arriving at Mummasburg Early learned that the enemy's 
force at Gettysburg was small. A company of French's Virginia cavalry 
had captiued some prisoners in the town. These prisoners stated that 
the advance of Gordon's brigade had i-otited a force of Pennsylvania 
militia near Gettysbing, "which fled at the first approach." Gordon 
ordered French's cavalry to pursue the militia. A quick melee ensued 
in which some prisoners were taken. Hays's brigade was immediately 
ordered to march to Gettysbing as soon as it anived at Mummasburg. 
The other brigades of the division, Hoke's and Smith's, were halted 
and placed in camp at Mummasburg,-«:arly described his movements 
on the evening of Jime 26: 

I then rode to Gettysburg, and found Gordon just entering 
the town, his command having marched more rapidly than the 
other brigades, because it moved on a macadamized road. The 
militia regiment which had been encountered by White's cavah7 
T\as the Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania Militia, consisting of 800 
or 900 men, and had arrived in Gettysbing the night before, 
and moved that morning a short distance out on the road to- 
ward Cashto-i\'n, but had fled on the first approach of AV^hite's 
cavaliT, taking across the fields bet\\'een Mummasburg and Get- 
tysburg, and going toward Hunterstown. Of this force, 175 
prisoners in all were captured and subsequently paroled. Hays' 
brigade was halted, and encamped about a mile from Gettysburg, 
and two regiments were sent to aid French (with his cavalry) in 
the pursuit of the fugitive militia, but could not get up with \\..{i^) 

Early ordered the authorities in Gettysburg to furnish his division 
with supplies, but the to^vn -ivas unable to comph with his request. 



130 The Bloody Sixth 

A careful search of public stores resulted in the requisition of a small 
amount of commissary stores, "and about 2,000 rations ^\ere found in 
a train of cars, and issued to Gordon's bria,ade." The train, which 
numbered ten or twelve cars, was burned, as was a small railroad 
bridge near Gettysburg. The Confederates discovered thaL^ere were 



no railroad warehouses of any importance in the towkJ^zrly ex- 
plained his failine to force the citizens of Gettysburg to furnish more 
provisions for his troops: 

The day was rainy and the roads vei-y muddy, and as it was 
late when I reached the place, and having to move upon York 
early next day, I had no opportunity of compelling a compli- 
ance with my demands in this town, or ascertaining its resources, 
which I think, however, were very limited. /7!^ 



Early then directed Tanner's battei-y of Jones's artillery battalion 
to report to General Gordon "during the night." A company of 
French's Seventeenth Virginia Cavalry was also ordered to accompany 
Gordon's brigade. Gordon was ordered to move against York at 
dawn the following morning. Colonel White was directed to march 
to Hanover Junction on the Northern Central Railroad, burning the 
railroad briclges on his route, and then move against York, destroying 
all the bridges on his way.C^TjJ) 

On the morning of June 27, the brigades of Hoke and Smith 
marched from Mummasburg to Hunterstown, New Chester, Hamp- 
ton, and East Berlin. Their objective was Dover, near York. After a i 
hard march of sixteen miles, the men made camp on tbe-sjoad just I 
beyond the town of East Berlin, t^velve miles from Yorlii^arly rode i 
to Gordon's camp on the York Pike, four miles west of that city, "to 
aiTange with him the manner of the approach upon York, if it should 
be defended." It was soon learned that there was no enemy force in 
York, and during the night a deputation of city officials surrendered 
the place to General Gordon. Early ordered Gordon to move through 
York and secure the Columbia bridge^across the Susquehanna River; 
between Wrightsville and ColumbiajQ|fp 

Gordon's men marched into York without opposition early on the' 
morning of June 28. The rest of the division, accompanied by Early, 
marched through \Veigelsto\vn, to the southwest of Dover. At Weigels- ; 
town. Early sent Colonel French, with most of the Seventeenth Vir- 
ginia, to burn two railroad bridges at the mouth of Conewago Creek 
"and all others between there and York." The Confederate general i 
was detemiined to destroy all the railroad bridges in York County. 
The infantry marched into York. (v\[^ 

Hays's and Smith's men were camped at Lauck's Mills, on the 
Northern Central Railroad two miles north of York. Hoke's brigade, 
including the Sixth Regiment, ivas quartered in "some extensive 



Into the Enemy's Country 131 

buildings put up for hospitals" in the city. As his troops moved into 
to^vn Early met again ivith General Gordon and repeated his instruc- 
tions directing Gordon to march to the Susquehanna Ri\'er, some 
eleven miles clistant, and secure the Wrightsville-Columbia Raijroad 
Bridge. Gordon's brigade promptly moved in that direction. (7^3) 

Early"' then turned his attention to the matter of supplies. He 
ordered the city officials in York to provide his men ^\ith "2.000 pairs 
of shoes, 1,000 hats, 1,000 pairs of socks, 5100,000 in money, and 
three days' rations of all kinds." Later, between 1,200 and 1,500 pairs 
of shoes Avere seized for the road-^veary infantry. The city ^\as able to 
furnish the hats, socks, and rations but had some difficulty in raising 
the S100,000 in cash. Only 528,600 was finally paid to Major C. E. 
Snodgrass, the divisional quartennaster. Early was satisfied that the 
mavor and other citv officials had "made an honest effort to raise the 
amount called ior."(l!t& 

Towards nightfall Early rode in the direction of the Susquehanna, 
hoping to hear news from Gordon. He had only ridden a short dis- 
tance east of York ^vhen he saw "an immense smoke rising in the 
direction of the Susquehanna, which I subsequently discovered to 
proceed from the burning of the bridge in question." Continuing into 
Wrightsville, at the Avestern terminus of the river bridge. Early 
learned what had happened. Gordon had arrived at the town only 
to disco\er a militia force of 1,200 men strongly intrenched in his 
front. He attempted to move aroiuid their flank to cut them off from 
the bridge, but was unable to do so "from want of knowledge of the 
locality." Confederate artillery was then opened upon the defenders 
of the bridge. This quickly routed the defenders, who fled across the 
bridge. But, since Gordon's men were ^vearied by their twenty-mile 
march on a hot day, "the enemy beat him rurming." Still, Gordon 
attempted to cross the bridge, his advance guard getting halfway 
across. The Confederates ^vere thwarted in their purpose when they 
discovered the bridge to be on fire in the middle. Since Gordon's 
men, armed only -with muskets and rifles, were unable to cope with 
the fire, their officers "sent back for buckets to endeavor to anest the 
flames." Before these could be procured the fire had destroyed so 
much of the bridge that it was impossible to control it. Gordon was 
forced to order his men back to the ^vestern side of the river. The 
bridge, a mile and a quarter long, was built of wood resting on stone 
pillars. It included a railroad bridge, a roadway for wagon traffic, and 
•a canal to^\■ path. ^hfS^ 

The bridge was soon completely destroyed, "and from it the town 
of Wrightsville caught fire and seveial buildings were consumed." 
.Gordon's men fought the flames and saved the remainder of the 
small to^vn. In spite of this. Early could scarcely conceal his disap- 
pointment at losing the bridge. He ruefully exclaimed. 



132 The Bloody Sixth 

I regretted very much the faikire to secure this bridge, as, 
finding the defenseless condition of the country generally, and 
the little obstacle likely to be afforded by the militia to our 
progress, I had detemiined, if I could get possession of the Co- 
lumbia Bridge, to cross my division over the Susquehanna, and 
cut the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, march upon Lancaster, 
lay that town under contribution (a favorite strategem of Early) , 
and then attack Harrisburg in the rear while it should be at- 
tacked in front by the rest of the corps, relying, in the worst con- 
tingency that might happen, upon being able to mount my 
division from the immense number of horses that had been run 
across the river, and then move to the west, destroying the rail- 
road and canals and returning back again to a place of safety. 
This project, however, was entirely thwarted by the destruction 
of the bridge, as the river was othenvise impassable, being very 
wide and deep at this point.^^^) 

Faced with a reverse. Early decided to concentrate his command 
in the York area. He ordered Gordon to march his brigade back to 
York on June 29, but not before he destroyed all the railroad cars 
available at that point.(J^ 

Early returned to York to learn that Colonels White and French 
had been fairly successful in destroying the railroad facilities at 
Hanover Junction and the mouth of the Conewago. White did not 
destroy all the bridges between Hanover Junction and York because 
"he reported that one or t^vo of them were defended by an infantry 
£orce.(lj« was decided to spare the railroad buildings, two railroad 
car factories, and the hospital buildings in which Hoke's brigade had 
been quartered. Early gave his reasons for this action: 

I was satisfied that the burning of them would cause the 
destruction of the greater part of the town, and, notwithstanding 
the barbarous policy pursued by the enemy in similar cases, I 
detemiined to forbear in this case, hoping that might not be 
without its effect even upon our cruel enemy.//T^ 



Bitterly, Early pronounced this policy a failure since his example had 
"been lost" upon the enemy. He had been "infonned that it has 
been actually charged by some of their papers that Gordon's command 
fired the town of Wrightsville, whereas the exertions of his men saved 
the place from utter destruction." (^^) 

Captain Elliott Johnston, one 6f Ewell's aides, brought a message 
to Early on the evening of June 29 which changed the course of 
events for the Confederates in York. The note that the courier car- 
ried was a copy of a letter from Lee, with additional verbal instnic- 
tions from Ewell that directed Early to move his division to the 
western side of South Mountain. Here he would rejoin the remainder 
of the Second Army Corps. In obedience to these orders Early placed 



Into the Enemy's Country 133 

his di\isioii-iu motion towards Heidleisburg, via \Veigelsto\\n and 
East Berliiftii^t Heidleisburg, Early 

. . . could move either to Shippensburg or to Green^vood by 
the way of Arendtsville, as circumstances might require. At the 
same time, I sent Colonel White's cavalry on the pike from York 
toward Gettysburg, to ascertain if any force of the enemy was 
on that road./'J5^ 

While Early's division ^\■ithdrew to the west, contacts with the 
enemy became more numerous. The Pennsylvania militia became 
more aggressive as Union cavalry approached the scene of operations. 
Early's cavalry attacked a force of Union cavah7 at East Berlin and 
forced it back. White reported that a cavalry and infantry force had 
been marching on the York Road at Abbotts' Ford, but had with- 
drawn south in the direction of Hanover. Soon a courier rode up from 
Ewell, bearing a message that directed Early to meet Ewell, march- 
ing with Rodes's division at Heidlersburg. Early placed his men in 
camp three miles from Heidlersburg and rode forward to meet Ewell. 
At the meeting Ewell told Early that Lee's object was to concentrate 
the Second Anny Corps "at or near Cashtown." Early received orders 
to move his division to that place. Rodes would march via Middle- 
town and Arendtsville. Early Avould move his division through Hunt- 
ersto-(\n and Miunmasburg. (T^) 

Early began moving his division towards Cashtown on the morn- 
ing of July 1. Their route lay through Heidlersburg to the Mummas- 
burg Road. After marching through Heidlersburg "a short distance," 
Early received orders from General Lee, "informing me that General 
Hill A\as moving from Cashtown toward Gettysburg, and that General 
Rodes had turned off at Middletown, and was moving toward the 
same place, and directing me to move also to that point. "(2^^ 

The men marched forward at a rapid pace. Soon the spires of the 
churches in Gettysbiug appeared to the south. Early learned that 
Rodes's division was already heavily engaged with the enemy north of 
the town. The Union Anny occupied a strong position in front of 
Gettysburg and was then attempting to flank the left of Rodes's line. ys'Sj ) 
Early 

. . . inmiediately ordered (his) troops to the front, and 
formed (his) line across the Heidlersburg Road, with Gordon's 
brigade on the right, Hoke's brigade (under Colonel Avery) on 
the left, Hays' brigade in the center, and Smith's brigade in the 
rear of the left of the Heidlersburg road, immediately in front 
of Hoke's brigade, so as to fire on the enemy's flank, and, as 
soon as these clispositions could be made, a fire was opened upon 
the enemy's infantry and artillery by (his) artillery' with con- 
siderable elfect. (J^ 



134 The Bloody Sixth 

The Sixth Regiment, comparatively free from combat operations 
in the march into Pennsylvania, was now commanded by Major 
Samuel McDowell Tate. Lieutenant Colonel Webb (he was promoted 
to that rank on March 1, 1863) had commanded the regiment at 
the Battle of^inchester but "was absent sick during the Pennsylvania 
campaign. vl3*ls men were brigaded with the Twenty-first North Caro- 
lina, commanded by Colonel William Whedbee Kirkland, and the 
Fifty-seventh North Carolina, commanded by the colorful Colonel 
Archibald C. Godwin. Unfortunately, the Fourth Regiment in the 
brigade. Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth M. Murchison's Fifty-fourth 
North Carolina, had been detached at Winchester to escort prisoners 
back to Staunton.(1^) 

A line of battle ^\as formed to the left of the Heidlersbursj Road 
with skirmishers advanced in front of the main line of infantry. At 
3:00 P.M. the order to advance was given. The line began to move 
forward toward the enemy who was deployed in line of battle on a 
hillside immediately north of town, "under cover of a strong fence, 
portions of which were made of stone." The brigade advanced slowly 
until the men approached a small, sluggish stream, about 200 yards 
in front of the enemy's position. Then Union batteries opened fire 
with grape and canister. Union infantry began firing with well- 
directed volleys. At this juncture Colonel Avery gave the order to 
move forward at a double-quick step. The men charged through the 
small stream and up the hill to the stone fence. The Union forces held 
their position until Confederate infantry had come into their midst. 
At this point the Sixth North Carolina captured two Napoleon 
cannons. Many prisoners were captured and sent to the rear. The 
LTnion line broke, falling back into the streets of Gettysbuig, "many 
of them being killed in the retreat." (7^) 

The men continued to advance into Gettysburg, but were moved 
to the left and "reformed on the railroad." They were now placed 
under a tenific fire from a Union battel^ placed in position on Ceme- 
tery Hill in their front. In order to avoid this fire, Avery moved the 
brigade by the left flank about 400 yards to a position where the 
railroad embankment gave them more protection. After being forced 
to march forward once again, the men -ivere finally halted behind the 
slope of a hill, "and . . ordered to lie down." Skirmishers were soon 
moved forward to engage the enemy. (fV^ 

While Hoke's brigade was heavily engaged to the left of the 
Heidlersburg Road, Gordon's men were moved forward on the right 
of the road to support Doles's brigade of Rodes's division which was 
being attacked "by a considerable force of the enemy, which had ad- 
vanced from the direction of the toi\n to a wooded hill on the west 
side of Rock Creek, the stream which runs northeast of the town." 
At this time Hays's brigade was ordered forward with Hoke's brigade. 



Into the Enemy's Country 135 

The divisional artillery, supjjorted by Smith's infantry, was ordered 
to follo^v Avery, Hays, and Gordon. QLf) 

Gordon routed Barlow's division of the Eleventh Army Corps, 
driving- it back "with great slaughter." Barlow himself was severely 
wounded and captured with many of his men. Gordon then quickly 
advanced his line over the creek to the hill on which Barlo^v had been 
stationed. The advance continued through the fields toward Gettys- 
burg, until Gordon came to a lo^v ridge, "behind which the enemy 
had another line of battle, extending beyond his left." Early ordered 
Gordon to halt here, and then directed Hays and Avery, who had 
halted their commands on the east side of Rock Creek, to move 
toward Gettysburg to the left of Gordon, "ivhich they did in fine style." 
The North Carolinians and Louisianians drove the enemy's second 
line into the to^vn "in great confusion." Both units soon found them- 
selves at the base of Cemetery Hill, which -ivas vei-y steejs and rugged 
at this point. (/£3) 

Early described other movements involving his division while 
Hays, Avery, and Gordon were pushing the enemy through Gettys- 
burg: 

... I sa^\-, farther to the right, the enemy's force on that part 
of the line falling back and moving in comparatively good order 
on the ri^ht of the town to^vard the ranafe of hills in the rear, 
and I sent back for a battei7 of artillery to be brought up to 
open on this force and the town, from which a fire ivas opened 
on my brigades, but before it got up, my men had entered the 
town, and the force on the right had retired beyond reach. I 
had at the same time sent an order to General Smith to advance 
with his brigade, but he thought proper not to comply with 
this order, on account of a report that the enemy was advancing 
on the York road, (fbf) 



After his troops had arrived at the base of Cemetei-y Hill, Early 
rode into Gettysburg to find Ewell and Rodes, or possibly A. P. Hill. 
Early wished to efiect a co-ordinated advance upon the enemy before 
the latter had recovered from the initial confusion of his repulse. He 
felt that it was important to gain immediate possession of the hill 
south of town to which the enemy had withdraivn. In spite of this 
feeling. Early was one of the first Confederate commanders to make 
a serious mistake at Gettysburg when he ordered Gordon to withdraw 
his badly-needed brigade from the base of Cemeten' Hill and assist 
Smith, who feared a Union advance on the York Road. The fact that 
Early sent Gordon to Smith's aipH^jjeculiar since Early himself wrote, 
"I had no faith in this report.vi^arly then met an officer of Pender's 
staff, and asked him to urge A. P. Hill to send up a division, and "we 
could take the hill to which the enemy had retreated." He soon met 
Ewell and informed him of the same hope. Ewell told Early that 



136 The Bloody Sixth 

Johnson's division was moving up to attack Gulp's Hill, a wooded 
eminence to the left of Cemetery Hill, "which it commanded." Un- 
fortunately Johnson didn't arrive until late that night, too late to 
launch an attack with any measure of success. Therefore, "no effort 
to get possession of the -(vooded hill on the left of the town was made 
that night. "(7^^ 

During tKe night Early ordered Hays to fonn his brigade from 
the streets of Gettysburg into a field to the southeast of the town. 
Here Hays's men would not be exposed to Union artillery fire and 
would be in a position to support Avery in an advance on Gemeteiy 
Hill when a favorable opportunity should occur. ^^ 

Lee determined to attack the Union left "and endeavor to gain a 
position from which it i\as thought that our artillery coiddn't be 
brought to bear with effect." Longstreet's First Army Gorps was 
directed to flank the Union left and drive it in. A. P. Hill's Third 
Army Corps was ordered to make a demonstration against the Union 
center to prevent need of sending reinforcements to outer flank. Part 
of Hill's troops would be used in Longstreet's attack. Ewell's Second 
Army Corps was ordered to make a simultaneous demonstration 
against the Union right, which would be converted "into a real 
attack should opportunity off^er." The time set for these movements 
was the early morning of July 2. (Tt?) 

The fateful morning of July 2 came, but no attack developed. 
During the course of the morning, Early and Ewell rode forward to 
examine a position for the corps artillery on the extreme left of 
Early's linil^he precious hours slipped by, and with them the 
opportunity for a successful Confederate assault passed. Early ordered 
Gordon to move his brigade to the line of the railroad immediately 
to the rear of. the position occupied by Hays and Avery: Smith was 
held on the extreme left with elements of Stuart's newly-arrived 
cavalry, to protect the York Road. Confederate artillery opened fire 
on both flanks of Early's division at 4:00 P.AL to pave the way for an 
infantry assault. Soon Ewell ordered Early to move Hays's and Hoke's 
brigades against Cemetery Hill when Johnson should attack Gulp's 
Hill. The advance was to be a general and co-ordinated one. Hill's 
Third Army Corps would also attack on Early's right. (X^^) 

At dusk ne^vs reached Early that Johnson had begun his assault. 
Hays and Aveiy were immediately ordered to attack the position in 
front of them on that part of Cemetery Hill known as East Cemetery 
Hill. This point, according to Union Brigadier General Adolph Von 
Stein^\-ehr (commanding the Second Division of the Eleventh Army 
Corps which occupied the position) was "the commanding point of 
the ^vhole position, and .^-^ had a decisive influence upon . . . the 
final result of the battle. 'v^he men of Hays's and Avery's brigades 
moved forward over the ridge in their front under a heavy artillery 



Into the Enemy's Country 137 

fire. They rushed across a holIoAv ]jlace between the ridge and Ceme- 
tery Hill, and then began to climb Cemetery Hill itself. In front of 
them were two lines of Union infantry, entrewched behind stone and 
plank fences. The fighting became desperatfti^cording to Lieutenant 
Colonel Tate, 

The enemy stood with a tenacity never before displayed by 
them and ^vith bayonet, clubbed musket, sword and pistol, and 
rocks from the wall, we cleared the heights, and silenced the 
guns. (7^ 



When the summit of the first hill had been reached Avei-y dis- 
covered that the massed Union batteries were "in front of Hays' 
brigade," far to the right of his right flank. The advance \vas con- 
tinued under a heavy fire of artillery. The brigade climbed a rail 
fence and moved forward through the bottom between the hill and 
Cemetery Hill. A heavy line of Union infanti-y was driven from a 
stone wall at the foot of Cemetery Hill. Sooji^Union batteries began 
to enfilade both Hoke's and Hays's brigades>— Colonel Godwin wrote, 

... a destructive fire was poured into our ranks from a line 
of infantry formed in rear of a stone wall running at a right 
angle with our line of battle and immediately below the bat- 
teries. ^7^) 

Avery shifted his line to the right, a dangerous maneuver to 
execute under heavy artillery and musketiy fire. Three stone walls 
were crossed, as well as part of the steep and rocky hillside. The men 
moved forward "with heroic determination," and took the last stone 
wall in a desperate encounter. It had by now become so dark that it 
was impossible to gather more than forty or fifty men at any point 
to continue the advance as a co-ordinated movement. (7^ 

Some seventy-five men from the Sixth, with a handftd from the 
Ninth Louisiana, succeeded in capturing a battery on the right of the 
line. The colors of the two units were placed upon the Union position 
in the darkness, on the very summit of Cemetery Hill, half a mile in 
advance of the other Confederate forces. Tate, realizing that the 
m.oment of decision had arrived, issued a desperate call for reinforce- 
ments. It was no^v all or nothing. The ultimate success of the Con- 
federate cause upon the field of Gettysburg seemed to hinge on that 
determined band of men from the Sixth North Carolina and the 
Ninth Louisiana ivho held their precarious position on top of Ceme- 
tery Hill. The moment passed and soon it was too late. General 
Greene, commanding the Union forces at this point, called for rein- 
forcements to be rushed at the double-quick to East Cemetery HiU.([2i) 
Colonel Samuel S. Carroll of the Eighth Ohio Infantrv, commandina; 
the First Brigade of the Second Division, Second Armv Corps, de- 
scribed the situation: 



The Bloody Sixth 

About dark, I received orders through Major Norvell, adju- 
tant general of the division, to move immediately to the assist- 
ance of part of the Eleventh Corps supporting batteries on Ceme- 
tery Hill, as they were being- driven back, and the enemy was 
charging those batteries, and that I would be conducted by 
an aide of General Howard's. Moved immediately with three 
regiments, the Fourteenth Indiana leading. We found the enemy 
up to and some of them in among the front guns of the bat- 
teries on the road (the Baltimore Pike) . Owing to the ar- 
tillery fire from our own guns, it was impossible to advance by 
a longer front than that of a regiment, and it being perfectly 
dark, and with no guide, I had to find the enemy's line entirely 
by their fire.f^r<pf) 



Carroll advanced his men against the salient held by Tate and 
his handful of men. The Seventh West Virginia Infantry changed 
front to charge the Confederates. (TtI^ 

Tate, "finding the enemy were moving up a line," ordered his 
men to ^vithdraw from the crest of Cemetery Hill to a stone ivall near 
the summit. Here they awaited the enemy. When the enemy came 
forward the Carolinians opened a well-directed fire upon them, forcing 
their withdra-vval a second time. Looking doAvn the hill Tate saw 
masses of the enemy in the hollow attempting to cut off his line of 
retreat. Reluctantly he ordered his men, imsupported and outnimi- 
bered, to ivithdraw down the hill toward the Confederate lines. Tate 
wrote later. 

There was a calm and determined resolve, never to sun-en- 
der . . . and under cover of the darkness I ordered the men to 
break and risk the fire. We did so and lost not a man in getting 

OUt.fTT?) 



The men of the Sixth withdrew, but they had nothing to be 
ashamed of. They had assaulted a strong position, created a near 
panic at Wiedrich's batter)', and fought hand-to-hand \\ith sponge- 
staffs and bayonets before they were forced back by a full brisade of 
infantry. History knows few examples of equal gallanti-yvi^olonel 
Godwin praised the men: 

In the desperate struggle through which we had just passed, 
the officers and men of Hoke's brigade fulfilled all the expecta- 
tions which their gallantry on fonner occasions had excited. No 
body of men of equal niunber could have accomplished greater 
results against such overwhelming odds. /]%{) 

During the charge on East Cemetery Hill the Sixth Regiment and 
Hoke's brigade lost one of its most valuable officers. Isaac E. Avery 
fell mortally woiuided with a bullet through the neck. Avery had been 



Into the Enemy's Country 139 

oat in front, leading his men on a white horse, the only mounted 
officer in the charge. A musket ball had hit him on the right side at 
the base of his necky^ccording to an historian of the Avery family. 

It had burrowed its way through the great blood \'essels and 
nerves that supply the upper extremity. He was stinined by 
the fall: his right ann went limp. Slow exsanguination set in 
. . . And there he died — Isaac Erwin Avery — a Citizen Soldier 
^^•ho bled to death on the field of battle and noAv rests in an 
unknown soldiers' grave. //o) 



As Aven' lay, slowly dying on a rocky Pennsylvania hillside, he 
remembered his parents, his birth]3lace at Swan Ponds, and the 
tradition from whence he came. Somehow the strength came to him to 
take out pencil and paper and write a message of pride and great 
relief to Major Tate, now the commander of the regiment and 
another Burke County man: "Major, tell my father I died with my 
face to the enemy, I. E. Avery." Many years later. Lord Bryce, then 
British Ambassador to the United States, read the message on display 
at the North Carolina Department of Archives and History in Raleigh. 
Bryce said, "The message of that soldier to his father is the message of 
our own race to the world. '(7^^ 

Godwin, who succeeded Avery as brigade commander, wrote. 

Here I learned for the first time that our brigade com- 
mander (Colonel Isaac E. Avery) , had been mortally wounded. 
In his death the country lost one of her truest and bravest sons, 
and the armv one of its most gallant and efficient officers. (jfSj 



Tate, althought more laconic in his mention of Avery, A\as no less 
appreciative of the colonel's record: 

Col. Avery, a gallant officer, fell in front of the heights, 
mortally ^^■ounded, he died 30 hoius afterwaid. /^^ 



When the exhausted survivors of the assaidt upon East Cemetery 
Hill retiuned to their own lines, Tate demanded to know why his 
men hadn't been supported "and was cooly told that it was not known 
we were^in the works." The lieutenant colonel was completely dis- 
gusteel^i'eeling that the Sixth had been slighted by General Early after 
the attack, and \vould later be slighted again in the official reports of 
the battle, Tate addressed an official account of the event directly to 
Governor Vance from Hagerstown, Maryland, on July 8: 

Such monstrous injustice and depreciation of our efforts is 
calculated to be of serious injiny, and then always to divide the 
honors due us among all our division is a liberalitv which is only 
shown m certain cases. . . . 



140 The Bloody Sixth 

... I look for no special mention of our Regiment, while 
it is the only one in the A. N. V. which did go in and silence the 
guns on the heights, and what is more, if a support of a bri- 
gade had been sent up to us, the slaughter of A. P. Hill's corps 
would have been saved, on the day following.(27^ 

Tate's letter was an official report, although it wasn't written in 
proper military fonn. It was "a simple story, badly told," in which 
Tate begged Vance's indulgence. The letter was written "as an act of 
justice" and because of a promise Tate had made to the men in the 
regiment. He was afraid he might fall in the next engagement and 
wanted to set the record straight. Tate concluded with the proud 
statement. 

This Regiment has had a reputation, you know, and I fear 
no harm can come to it while any are left, but it is due to the 
noble dead, as well as the living that these men be noticed in 
some way. I assure you it is no sensation or fancy picture. Such 
a fight as they made in front and in the fortifications has never 
been equaled. Inside the works the enemy were left lying in great 
heaps and most all with bayonet wounds, and many with skulls 
broken with the breeches of our guns. We left not a living man 
on the hill of our enemy. ({jj) 

Early explained that Gordon's brigade did not advance to support 
his two brigades on Cemetery Hill "because it was ascertained that 
no advance was made on the right." Early felt that even with the 
three brigades (Hays's, Hoke's, and Gordon's) together in the attack 
it would have been impossible to hold the position without assistance 
from Rodes's and Johnson's divisions. Sending Gordon to support 
Hays and Avei^ i\ould have been followed by "a useless sacrifice of 
life." Latter-day historians, using the power of hindsight, have bit- 
terly criticized Early for this statement and for his failure to come 
to the aid of Tate and his men on Cemetery Hill. It is certain that the 
Battle of Gettysburg might have been won if Tate had received ; 
proper support. (JJ^J ! 

It was 9:30 P.M. when the last of Tate's and Hays's men were 
back within the Confederate lines. They had held the summit of the 
hill for a short time, and had brought away between 75 and 100 
prisoners and four stand of captured colors. Beyond this, their sacri- 
fices had been made in vain^,^The Union Amry was still finnly en- 
trenched atop Cemetei-y HilKQjBefore dawn on the morning of July 
3, Hoke's and Hays's brigades were moved to the rear and placed 
in the railroad cut behind which they had started their attack on the 
evening of the 2nd. Later in the day Hoke's men, now commanded 
by Godwin, were moved back into Gettysburg and placed on High 
Street, the position formerly occupied by Hays's Louisianians. Here 



Into the Enemy's Country 141 

they were formed to the left of Hays's brigade. The position wasn't 
completely safe, since the men were exposed to a galling fire from 
both sharpshooters and artillery from Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill. 
The Confederates took it quietly, lying in line of battle throughout 
the day. They could hear the heavy firing which occurred during 
Pickett's unsuccessful charge over the Emmettsburg Road to the south, 
but Early's division was not called upon for further action. (7w 

At 2:00 A.AI. on the morning of July 4, the division moved a 
mile to the ivest to a position along Cemetery Ridge. Here Hoke's 
brigade ivas placed in line of battle to the left of Hays's troops. The 
men remained in position throughout the day. The position -ivas one 
of some safety, since it was in the resen'e line, behind Rodes's and 
Johnson's divisions, "which occupied the front lme."(j9}) 

The Confederate attacks at Gettysburg had been bloodily re- 
pulsed. In these futile efforts, 2 officers and 18 men of the Sixth 
North Carolina had lost their lives. Seven officers and 124 men had 
been wounded; 1 officer and 20 men were missing, presumably taken 
prisoners. The grand total of losses for the regiment at Gettysburg 
was 172. The total loss — killed, wounded, and missing — for the three 
regiments in Hoke's brigade was 345. The greatest loss was, of course, 
that of Colonel Averv, who had fallen on the evening; of the 2nd in 
the futile assault upon Cemetery Hill. (it€ > 

At dawn on the morning of July 5, Hoke's brigade joined the 
rest of Lee's army in the long march back to Virginia. The men 
marched down the muddy road toward Fairfield and Hagerstown, as 
the rain fell in torrents upon them. The war was not over yet, but 
their great opportunity had been lost./7?^ 



Rappahannock Station: 
A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 



". . . I found Genl. Hays by the road side who told me the enemy 
had stormed the works & captured nearly all his c!r Hoke's Brigade^ 
ir 4 pieces of artillery. He says he never saw men behave better than 
his did in his life." 

Peter W. Hairston's entov for Xovemher 7, 1863, in his war diarv. 



In the retreat toward Fairfield, Early's division constituted the 
rear guard of the Confederate Army. As the men retreated, Union 
artillery fired on them at long range, but little damage was done. 
Gordon's brigade constituted the extreme rear of the division, fol- 
loAved by ^Vhite's cavali7 battalion. Union cavalry constantly haras- 
sed the marching men, fiercely slouing down their march. The rain 
fell in torrents, adding to the miseiy of the infantry and the sadness 
of the day. When the division reached Fairfield, "which is situated 
in a wide and low plain surrounded by hills," Early found the wagon 
trains of the army blocking the road in front of him. Colonel White 
rushed up to tell him that Union cavalry was advancing in the rear, 
and urged Early to try to get the trains moving. As Early was pre- 
paring to fire a blank cartridge or two with his pistol to encourage 
the horses to move forward, the enemy's advance appeared on a hill 
in the rear of the division. A confederate battery -ivas hurried forward 
to engage the enemy, and was soon met by coimter fire from a Union 
battery. The noise of the artilleiy encouraged the horses to move 
forward and the trains soon cleared the road. One of Gordon's regi- 
ments, the Twenty-sixth Georgia Infantiy, was thrown forward in 
skirmish formation to hold the enemy back, "which it did effectually, 
driving back his advance." The division was quickly moved fonvard 
beyond Fairfield, and fonned in line of battle in a more favorable 
position. Gordon's skirmishers were called in to the main Confederate 
line. In this engagement the Twenty-sixth Georgia lost eleven \\'Ounded 
and missing. The men were soon placed in camp beyond Fairfield in 

142 



fori 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 143 

a position to protect the ^vagon trains which were parked in the 
vicinity .(p 

There was no more fighting that night, ahhough harassment by 
the Union cavah-y on the 5th had kept Early's division from march- 
ing more than six miles. At dawn on the morning of July 6, Early's 
troops were replaced by Rodes's division as rear guard. The retreat 
continued for mile after mile until the i\-eai-y men marched through 
Monterey Gap in the South Mountain near the Maiyland state line. 
Passing through Monterey Springs, on the top of the mountain, the 
division filed down the A\'estern side of the gap to Waynesborough, 
where they made camp for the night. They proceeded toward Hagers- 
town, ten miles south of Waynesborough, on the morning of July 7. 
Their roiue lay through Leitersburg. Throughoiu the 7th, Early's 
troops occupied a position in the line of march betiveen Rodes's di- 
vision in front and Johnson's division, \\-hich now constituted the 
rear guard. The men ^vere placed in camp one mile north of Hagers- 
town, on the Chambersburg Road. They remained in this position, 
helping in the ^s'ork on the Hagerstown fortifications, until July 10 
when the division was marched through Hagerstown and placed in 
line of battle on the Cimiberland Road (on the summit of a ridge) 
and entrenched, ^vith its right flank resting on the Hagersto^vn-'W'il- 
liamsport Road. Members of the Sixth North Carolina ^\-orked_\\ith 
the rest of the division, thro^ving up breast^vorks in the woods. (3-' 

The men remained in position here until the night of July 12, 
when they i\'ere moved farther to the right across the ^Villiamsport 
Road, behind the position occupied by A. P. Hill's Third Aiiny Corps. 
Here they remained in support of Hill's line, which faced the Sharps- 
burg Road -svhere a hea\y force of the enemy had been massed. At 
nightfall on the 13th the division ■was marched to AVilliamsport, 
bringing up the rear of the Second Army Corps. The men marched 
the six miles to the Potomac River across muddy roads and through 
a driving rain. At sunup on the 14th they waded the waist-deep 
Potomac at Williamsport. Hays's brigade, with Jones's artillei")' bat- 
talion, crossed the pontoon bridge at Falling ^Vaters, belo^v 'Williams- 
)ort. Early's division — including the Sixth North Carolina — was on 
he soil of Virginia again(3' 

The division marched about six miles, stopped to cook rations, 
ind made camp for the night in the \icinity of Hainesville. On the 
:olloT\ing day they proceeded through Martinsburg, a distance of seven 
les. After making camp immediately south of Martinsburg, the di- 
vision marched to Darkes\'ille on July 16. Here the troops remained 
n camp until the 20th, when they uere ordered to advance across 
»forth Mountain, at Mills's Gap, and across Back Creek. There had 
)een rumors that a force of Union infantry -svas moving against Hed- 
^esN'ille, and Early's division had been ordered to intercept them. That 



an jji 



144 The Bloody Sixth 

night the division encamped near Gerrardstown. The follo^\■ing 
morning the men crossed North Mountain and marched do^vn Back 
Creek. Reaching Hedgesville, it was learned that the enemy had 
"hastily retreated" on the night of July 20. Early then moved his 
men through Hedgesville and ^vent into canip.U7 

During the night of July 21, Early received orders to march his 
command up the Shenandoah Valley, "with a view to crossing the 
moimtains." The road--(\'eary men were accordingly marched to Bunker 
Hill, north of Winchester, on the 22nd; and then soiuh through Win- 
chester to the Opequon River on the Front Royal Road. At the Ope- 
quon. Early received orders from E^vell to tmn off the Valley Road at 
Cedarville and march farther do^vn the valley. In obedience to these 
instructions, partially influenced by the fact that the enemy had oc- 
cupied the counti-y east of Front Royal as far as the gaps in the Blue 
Ridge, the division marched to Strasburg, via Middletown, on the 
afternoon of July 24. The men camped near Strasburg, after march- 
ing a distance of t-jventy-three miles. On the 25th, the men marched 
all day in the direction of Staunton. They camped near Edinburg, 
below Woodstock, a day's march of eighteen miles. The day of the 
26th the division marcheii through Mount Jackson to New Market 
"and stopt for the nite."C^ 

During the long march from Gettysburg, Hoke's brigade had be- 
come reunited with the Fifty-fourth North Carolina Infanti-y under 
Colonel Kenneth M. Murchison at Hagerstown. All the regiments in 
Hoke's brigade ■\\-ere together again and still ready to give battle to 
the enemy. ^ 

On July 27, Early's division left the Valley Pike and took a road 
that led due east, across the Blue Ridge Mountains toward Gordons- 
ville. The men crossed the mountains at Fisher's Gap, and then passed 
through Madison Court House, Locust Grove, and Rapidan Station. ^ 
They finally filed into a somewhat permanent camp below Rapidan | 
Station at Clark's Mountain, "in the vicinity of Orange Court-House," 
on August iV^arly summarized his feelings toward his men by ^vriting, 

The conduct of my troops during the entire campaign, on the 
march as well as in action, was deserving of the highest commen-; 
dation. (p 

Some of the men didn't deserve this praise. Many of them were 
tired of the hardships they had faced and the results T\'hich their, 
sacrifices had produced. James Hicks of Pleasant Grove, Alamancei 
County, North Carolina wrote Governor Vance in behalf of a young] 
seventeen-year-old deserter from the Sixth Regiment. The soldier, left 
nameless in the letter, had deserted Avhen the regiment was passing 
through Winchester in mid-July, and he had arrived home in Ala- 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 145 

iiiance County "nearly clotheless & famished." All the boy now Avished 
to do ^vas to return to his company. His mother wished to have him 
pardoned "& released from any punishment" when he returned to 
the regiment. She was so mortified by her son's conduct that "she had 
rather seen her^n dead than that he should have forsaken the flag 
of his country. ''-Alany didn't desert, but they were almost equally 
discouraged. John Kerr Walker wrote his brother, back home near 
Mcbanesville in Alamance County: 

I will advise you not to come here if there is any other 
chance in the ^vorld, because you dont know the hardships you 
have no idea. And L^lont believe that you could stand it here, 
by no means. . . .(jy 

He advised his enlistment-minded brother to join a cavalrv com- 
pany being organized in the Alamance County area. After discussing 
the relative advantages which a cavaln'man enjoyed over a soldier in 
the infanti-y. Walker ^vrote, "I have told you enough to satisfy you 
not to come here ... I am confident that you cant stand it.''-T"o back 
Walker's argument up, a report was out that the enemy was crossing 
the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford, t^velve miles northwest of Fred- 
ericksburg. A battle could soon be expected. In preparation for a 
possible engagement the regiment was preparing cooked rations "to 
start this evening." The men marched to Orange Court House on the 
evening of the 2nd to counter a possible Union incursion. (^ 

On August 3, Walker wrote his mother from "Camp near Orange 
C. H." to reassure her that he was in good health, although completely 
worn out with continuous marching. The regiment was still waiting 
for a sho-w of force by the enemv. Even w\\h a battle pending there 
were other things for a boy to tell his mother. Walker described many 
of the Alamance County soldiers in the Sixth Regiment and life in 
his company (K) in ^vords reminiscent of better days: 

. . . Joseph Grinsted got to us yesterday he is -(veil and in good 
spirits. He stayd in my mess and I think that we will get along 
ven' well (.) I have a good mess 2 boys beside myself. . . I have 
a plenty of clothes we all got just anything that we wanted when 
we took Winchester. . . .(7^ 

He urged his mother to "tell Bill (his younger brother) if he can 
jet in cavalry not to come here because I know something about it, 
ind I dont have any idea that he could stand it any time at all." 
still, if his brother couldn't get into a cavalry outfit he should "come 
to our CO." All that was needed for a soldier in Company K of the 
Sixth was one suit of clothes, one shirt, one pair of drawers, one pair 
>r two pairs of socks (in all) , a coat, "a little light blanket," and one 



146 The Bloody Sixth 

pound of soap. It was impossible to carry more than that in the fast- 
moving Sixth. Other men in the company, John King and Edivard 
Hurdle, sent their regards to the home folks. Young Walker wanted 
"very well to come this winter sometime and help you all eat mo- 
lasses;" and then came a note oL«^stalgia — ". . . tell Levi to keep my ; 
mare fat until I come home." C^ 

The growing peace movement in North Carolina, as supported by 1 
Editor William Woods Holden in his Raleigh Standard "and a few 
exempts and non combatants in N. C," raised the scorn and indigna- 
tion of members of the Sixth during August. A mass meeting of the 
officers and privates in the regiment was held near Orange Court 
House on August 8. A study of the i-esolutions taken at this meeting 
reveals the fiei7 patriotism of the North Carolina soldiers in the 
Confederate Army, even after the debacle of Gettysburg. Captain 
Richard Watt York of the Sixth Regiment's Company I was asked to 
preside in the chair. He explained the reasons for the meeting "in a • 
clear forcible & eloquent manner." Sergeant Faucette and Corporal , 
Malone were appointed secretaries. On a motion by Captain Jeremiah 
Lea, a special committee of ten privates and three officers was ap- ' 
pointed to prepare resolutions for the action of the meeting. Members 
of the committee were Captain William K. Parrish; Lieutenant G. H. 
Albright: Lieutenant L. H. Walker; and Privates John C. O. Graham, 
David K. Silvers, J. G. Lunsford, James E. Lyon, C. L. Williams, J. P. * 
Dickson, J. H. Hall, J. A. Hamilton, D. H. Fritts, and J. H. Johnston. 
While the committee ^vas absent drafting the resolutions. Lieutenant i 
S. P. Hill addressed the meeting in "an eloquent fc pointed" manner. 
Finally, the committee returned with a series of strona^ resolutions 
Avhich were unanimously adopted by everyone presentr-TThe text of; 
the statement is worth mentioning: | 

Whereas, the officers & soldiers of the 6th N. C. Troops have 
■(vitnessed with regret & indignation the cause pursued by the 
Raleigh Standard and a few exempts and non combatants in N. C. 
in relation to the struggle that we are daily making for our free- 
dom & independence and whereas this cause is giving aid & com- 
fort to the enemy calculated to mislead the credulous, at home 
and tarnish the fair name of our good State in the eyes of the 
good wise & patriotic. Therefore be it resolved 1st. That we officers 
& privates of the 6th N. C. Troops greatly desire peace, but we 
scorn any peace that is not based upon seperation of the 
Confederacy from all political relation Avith the late. United | 
States, and a recognition of our Independence; And untill 
this is secured we are willing to continue the struggle as long as 
one of us is left to march against our barberous enemy 2nd 
That the cource pursued by the Raleigh Standard and its 
correspondents is whether actuated by (a) policy (of) humanity 
or patriotism deserving of the depest censure by the soldiers 



Ci 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 147 

in the field, and by the mothers fathers &: sisters of N. Carolinas 
slauohtered sons, calculated as it is to induce the North to believe 
that N. C. is desirous to return to the union. Resolved 3rd that 
■with pain & sorrow we have seen some of our noblest sons maimed 
for life & many fall to rise no more yet we see no reason to des- 
pond and no cause to despair of siicess in winning our freedom 
by the force of arms. Resolved 4th That we would respectfully 
suggest to the aoakers and despondents that if they are exempt 
from this struggle and are un\\illing to take arms in defence of 
their rights &: liberties that they remain at home produce pro- 
visionsiind preserve the name of our State untarnished by keeping 
si\ent.(20 

The fifth resolution resolved that the proceedings of the meeting 
should be published in all the newspapers in North Carolina "fa- 
vorable to the object in view. Sec." The meeting adjourned with ^-. 
three hearty cheers for President Davis and the Southern Confederacy. Civ" 

The regimental meeting was follo^ved by a "Convention of the 
North Carolina Troops in the army of Northern Virginia," ivhich 
assembled at Orange Court House on August 12. The officers of the 
Sixth were very active during this meeting too, more active it seems 
than the leaders of any other North Carolina unit. This meeting 
began ^vith some explanatoiy remarks by Colonel Bryan Grimes of 
the Fourth North Carolina. Then, Colonel J. D. Bany of the Eight- 
eenth North Carolina moved that a committee, consisting of one 
officer appointed from each brigade, should be appointed "upon the 
permanent organization of the Convention." This committee reported 
to the convention after a short intennission. Its members were Colonel 
Grimes, President: Colonel R. T. Bennett of the Fourteenth Regiment, 
Vice-President: Lieutenant Colonel \Vebb of the Sixth Regiment, re- 
cently returned from his illness-induced absence during the Gettys- 
burg campaign, Vice-President; and Major William Parsely of the 
Third Regiment, Vice-President. Ten secretaries were appointed to 
record the meeting. The delegates present then gave their credentials 
and their names were enrolled for the record. Brigades represented 
were Lane's, Pettigrew^'s, Iverson's, Ramseur's, Scales's, Davis', Daniel's, 
Stuart's, and Hoke's. Hoke's brigade was represented by Colonel 
Webb: Captain York: Captain |. C. Turner of Company A; Lieutenant 
S. P. Hill of Company H: Dr. F. Hardy, Regimental Surgeon for the 
Sixth Regiment; Lieutenant H. C. Jones, Fifty-seventh North Carolina; 
W. J. Justice, Aide-de-Camp to General Hoke; and Lieutenant Colonel 
A. Ellis, Fifty-fourth North Carolina. Some of the delegates from the 
Twenty-first, Fifty-fourth and Fifty-seventh North Carolina Regiments 
neglected to hand in their names. After selecting members of the 
committee and delegates the convention adjourned luitil 3:00 P.M. (^ 



148 The Bloody Sixth 

When the convention reassembled resohitions were passed similar 
to those passed at the earlier meeting of the Sixth. Captain York was 
called upon to make a speech, "and entertained the Convention in 
an eloquent address, and handling the traitors and reconstructionists 
without gloves." York ^vas frequently interrupted by his enthusiastic 
audience. The regimental bands of the Fourth and Twentieth North 
Carolina Regiments furnished music throughout the meeting. After 
appointing Dr. Hardy of the Sixth to a committee which would publi- 
cize the meeting in the North Carolina and Richmond newspapers, 
the convention finally adjourned ^vith much errtkusiasm, tendering 
a final motion of thanks to its presiding officers. ^^ 

There was some criticism by North Carolinians in the army over 
the proceedings of the convention. W. W. Gaither, a soldier in the 
Twenty-sixth North Carolina, wrote Governor Vance that the resolu- 
tions adopted (by the convention) "are supposed to embody the 
general opinions of the troops. Whether they do, admits of a doubt." 
Gaither criticized those resolutions that attacked Editor Holden by 
saying, "We thought it impolitic and contrai^ to the general object 
and character of the meeting to descend to the condemnation of any 
individual or organ., and that such a coiuse was contrary to the 
^v'ishes of many." Gaither felt that, although he was personally op- 
posed to Holden's position, he was also opposed to making him look 
so important by attacking him personally. However, he had "long 
thought the licentious liberty of the press one major cause of our 
political damnation." He personally reassured Vance that the North 
Carolinians in the army were behind the gubernatorial policies: 

Allow me to say that your course through all your admini- 
stration is highly approved by all persons of all partys without 
exception so far as I could learn. Many wishes were expressed 
for your presence, and you may not be surprised to receive an 
invitation or bequest to come and address the troops personally. I 
wish you would, (that) would do more good than forty meetings. * 

Others had their doubts as to the spirit of Cai'olinians in resisting 
the ever-present Union Anny. William J. Walker of Company K 
wrote his Uncle John Walker, "the boys are all tired of the war and I 
am in hopes that it will come to a close befor long." Still, all "the 
boys" weie doing well, except William Hurdle who was "veri^ porly." 
Young Walker admitted that the Sixth Regiment was "a hard old 
place." But he showed his personal feelings when he promised to try 
"and ckKthe best I can and if I am called on to fight I will do all I 
cane." (5^ 

Possibly the best feelings and the most noble sentiments that 
concerned a member of the Sixth Regiment during this bitter summer 
of hard fighting and disastrous reversals appeared in the obituary 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 149 

notice of Sergeant William G. Ray of Company B, \\'ho fell at 
Gettysburg: 

Thus has a noble youth fallen in defence of his country. . . . 
He was a consistent member of the Presbyterian church at Little 
River. The Church has lost a de\'Oted member, the anny a good 
soldier, and his mother an humble and submissive son. . . . 

. . . He fought with fiminess, bravery and detennination, 
never faltering from duty, in camp, on a march, or the battlefield, 
ever ready to bear his portion of the biu'dens of -ivarfare. He ^vas 
a gentleman, a Sfood soldier, and a de\oted christian. Ahvavs 
modest and unassuming, he seldom passed for his true ijxirth 
only with those with whom he was intimately acquainted. (23^ 

Other men did not share the patriotism exhibited by Sergeant Ray. 
Some even wanted to leave the regiment. Private M. M. Miller, a 
soldier in Company G and a "licensed minister of the Gospel of the 
Lutheran denomination, of N. C. Synod," Avrote Governor Vance re- 
questing an appointment as chaplain for the Salisbury Wayside Hos- 
pital, "or some other post or prominent place as chaplain; clerk, 
comesary &:c. in N. C." Private Miller had fought in evei7 battle 
the Sixth participated in except First Manassas. He had been recently 
wounded in the right thigh by a shell fragment in the night attack on 
Cemetery Hill at Gettysburg and had lost the use of his 1^. AV'riting 
in a style typical of educated soldiers in the Confederate^irmy when 
they wished to ask for a favor or special privilege. Miller explained, 

... I dont think I'll be able to endtire the hard marches, 
therefore if it please his Honor, ^vill he be so kind as to obligle 
his hinnble and most obedient ser\ant, as to assign him to post 
of Salisbun' ^Vayside Hospital, or some other station. By the -iv'ay 
my father (J. C. Miller) is a ^vealthy planter residing near 
Salisbury, X. C, Ro^\•an Coimty. Once more 1 appeal to your 
honor and majesty to remember me — as for references of my 
character &;c. apply to Baldy Henderson, Esq; John J. Shaver, 
Esq, Drs. \Vhitehead, and Summen'el and Hon. Burton Craige — 
all of Salisbui-y — and ask them of or about the son of J. C. Miller 
Esq., as there are many Millers about there. (^Sy 

Miller wrote his letter from a bed in Hospital Ninnber Ten at 
Petersburg, "Ward No. 2."_He "anticipated" getting home on a fur- 
lough in the near future, vi?' 

Others left for even less ^vorthy reasons. A private wrote to his 
father in early September that no one could blame men for deserting 
"from our regiment and from the brigade" while editors like W. W. 
Holden of the Stayidard printed disloyal editorials, or peace meetings 
were held in important North Carolina counties such as Wake. After 
all. North Carolina had been treated "ven' unjust" durine the war. 



150 The Bloody Sixth 

The writer felt that, "Her troops are looked on by many not to be 
loyal to the South." Puhikations like the North Carolina Standard 
didn't help the situatiort^olden 

. . . hints himself of being in favor of the Union and allows 
other pieces to come in the columns of his paper that are not fit 
to be printed. Just such as this is what has brought North Caro- 
lina to what she is at. If everybody was in my notion they would 
mob him and bum up his office. He makes nothing of boasting 
of having two-thirds of the soldiers on his side. This is but poor 
encouragement for North CaroHna soldiers to continue to fight 
on. ... If some steps are not taken to stop it, it is my opinion 
that North Carolina will be back in the Union in less than six 
months.(^^ 

The writer couldn't understand ^vhy the citizens of North Carolina 
allowed Holden to continue his disloyal writing. Maybe it was be- 
cause "they have not got foresight enough to see what will be the 
result." Perhaps they were with "Lincoln and his Administration." 
Whatever the reasons were, the North Carolina soldiers in the Army 
of Northern Virginia were deeply annoyed by HoMfin and the evident 
support that he ^vas receiving in North Carolina. (3^ 

The situation became serious enough to receive the personal 
attention of men like Governor Vance, Secretary of War Seddon, and 
General Lee. The final word on the problem came from Lee who 
wrote to Seddon after a fluny of correspondence between the latter 
and Governor Vance. Lee regretted "exceedingly" the sad conse- 
quences which resulted from the "crude misstatements" of newspaper 
correspondents who were unacquainted with the facts of the situation. 
Lee could "see no remedy for this." He wrote, 

Men seem to prefer sowing discord to inculcating harmony. 
In the reports of the officers, justice is done to the brave soldiers 
of North Carolina whose heroism and devotion have illustrated 
the name of their State on every battlefield in which the Amiy of 
Northern Virginia has been engaged.(_*^ 

Lee politely declined to grant Vance's request that a North 
Carolina soldier should be assigned to cover the activities of North 
Cai-olina troops. North Carolinians were always tieated equally with 
men from other states. Lee felt that "In the appointment of officers I 
do not think there is any ground for complaint. '^fter covering other 
causes of complaint he concluded: 

I need not say that I will with pleasure aid Gov. Vance in 
removing every reasonable cause of complaint on the part of men 
who have fought so gallantly and done so much for the cause of 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 151 

our country. And I hope that he will do all in his power to cul- 
tivate a spirit of harmony, and to bring to punishment the dis- 
affected who use tligse causes of discontent to further their 
treasonable designs. (^^7) 

Routine duties kept some members of the regiment too busy to 
grumble. Captain \V. K. Panish of Company B and Lieutenants W. G. 
Turner (Company E) and Louis H. Rothrock (Company G) were 
assigned to "a board of survey" to examine the condition of certain 
commissary stores on September 3. The board soon met and reported 
that "34 lbs. of bacon and 3 banels & 90 lbs. flour totally unfit for 
issue to troops. "C5^ 

■\Vhile his men were holding mass meetings, attacking the integrity 
of Editor Holden and inspecting meat, General Hoke, ^\ho had re- 
tinned to his brigade for a brief period in August, was ordered to 
Xorth Carolina to, capture deserters and maintain order in the -svestern 
])art of the stater-Governor Vance directed Hoke to "proceed to Wilkes 
and adjoining counties. . . and use every effort to capture the deserters 
and conscripts, and break up & disperse any organized bands of law- 
less men to be found there. . . ." By September 8, Hoke^|^ at High 
Point collecting troops to march into the ^vestern countiesTTN'ith Hoke 
gone the command of the brigade reverted once again to Colonel 
Godi\-in.(2^ 

The militaiy situation had been quiet along the Rapidan since 
both annies had marched into the area after the conclusion of the 
Gettysburg campaign. The Sixth Regiment had remained in its 
camp near Clark's Moimtain, recuperating from the hardships that 
accompanied the deback at Gettysburg. This peace and quiet was 
about to be shattered. (2^5^ 

In early September a "large force" of Union cavalry, supported by 
a column of infantry, occupied the town of Culpeper. Stuart's hard- 
riding cavalry resisted the unexpected advance, but was forced to with- 
draw after a sharp fight. Early's division, supported by Rodes's, was 
quickly moved up to the line of the Rapidan to prevent a crossing. 
The two areas of Union attack \vere at Somerville and Raccoon Fords.'— ^ 

The men in the Sixth were ordered to cook rations on Sunday 
night, September 13. Early on the following morning they were 
moved fonvard "to meat our enemy." After marching about five miles, 
the Sixth came under a severe artillery fire from Union batteries north 
of the Rapidan. Confederate artillery, quickly moved fonvard to en- -^ 
gage the enemy, soon forced the latter's ^vithdrawal from the fieldC—^ 
William J. Walker of Company K wrote later that he "was nolk do^vn 
by a bom &: struck on the waist of my pants by a canister but A\itliout 
taking effect ... a time I never seen before." Fortunately, no one in 
the regiment Tvas hurt/a?^ 



o 



152 The Bloody Sixth 

Throughout the 1 5th, the men lay in the woods, facing the enemy 
across the Rapiclan. No fighting ^vas done, but there was some heavy 
cannonading of Confederate positions by Union artillery. The Sixth 
Regiment was moved down to the Rapidan at Somerville Ford to 
picket in the evening. Early on the morning of the 16th, the regiment 
began to fire on the Union pickets. Skinnishing continued all day. 
At 10 o'clock in the morning Captain Neill W. Ray of Company D 
and Lieutenant Brown of Company E took eighteen volunteers aa-oss 
the river in "a littel Boat." The party crept up to some houses on the 
enemy's side of the river and began firing. About 200 of the enemy were 
driven out of their works. A horse, several rifles, and blankets were 
captured "and never get a man hirt.'" AboiU five of the enemy were 
killed; four of them were wounded and captured. The Sixth lost a 
total of two killed and four wounded. This compared very favorably 
with a total enemy loss of thirty — killed, wounded and captured. C 
William J. Walker described the action on the morning of the 16th in 
colorful language: 

... no sooner than it became light they began to come down 
on the (river) to wash we let them come down a (nd) Col. Webb 
told them to come over but they said o no and turned round and 
started to rim and our col. said give it to them boys and you just 
ought to have seen Yankees fall I dont think but ther are one got 
back to ther breastworks. I dont think that they can ctoss here 
for we hav got all advantage in the ground but I think from 
what I can understand that we will have to cross over on them 
but I am in hopes not for ther force is verry large (-Y^ 

The men had to contend with more than the enemy. It had been 
raining for three days ^vithout letup. The troops stood in knee-deep i 
mud and water in their breastwork. They had nothing to eat but 
w^heat bread, cold water, "and a little meat boilet on the fire." Walker 
felt that the life of a soldier "is a hard one." A man had to experi- 
ence it before he could believe it. His description of himself is worth 
repeating: 

... I am a (s) dirty as a boy and all most eat up with lice. . . .(^ n 

After thanking his parents for a recently-received letter and hoping 
that members of his family would come to visit him in camp, he con- 
cluded -ivith an unnecessarv "excuse bad writing and spelling under 
the present circumstances."^^ 

The Sixth was relieved of its uncomfortable position in the trenches 
by the Fifty-seventh North Carolina on the night of September 16; 
the skirmish was over and a minor victor)' had been won. The men 
had a rest on September 17; in fact, no fighting was done except 
for the pop-pop of a few shots, exchanged between the pickets down 



A Day of NIGHT^rARE and Disbelief 153 

at Somerville Ford. The lack of fighting became so pronounced that 
Peter Hairston of Davie County, North Carolina, a special aide to 
C.eneral Early, coidd write. 

Every thing here is quiet and the weather is veiy fine. Genl. 
Lee has ordered his troops to keep tivo days rations on hand 
ready cooked. This may either be indicative of a movement on 
his part or he may be expecting the enemy to make one.(^^/^ 

Nevertheless, a battle could begin at any time: it Avas too quiet; the 
opposing armies were too close for a lull in the fighting to be long 
maintainedv-so the annies faced each other across the narro^v' Rapidan 
as September, 1863 dreiv to a close. Colonel ^Villiam Gaston Lewis 
of tlie Forty-third North Carolina Regiment described the scene as he 
viewed it from his regimental headquarters near Morton's Ford, east 
of the position above Somerville Ford that the Sixth Regiment 
occupied: 

It is a beautiful view from just in front of my quarters. Away 
off to the right, as far as the eye can see, a long red line of earth 
Avorks extends & upon every knole bristling batteries loom up 
ready to deal death & destruction to any enemy ivho shall be so 
bold as to \enture to cross the little Rapidan Avhich separates the 
t^\-o hostile annies. There are our works. A few miles to the front 
& left & right upon a high ridge of hills, the white tents of the 
enemy spread out like flocks of sheep feeding on the hill sides. 
Just beneath us rtms the small muddy Rapidan, s-iveeping through 
the most beautiful lovely & fertile valley that the sun shines iq^on. 
Beautiful cotages dot every knole, S; the moving green corn covers 
the low lands \vith its rich verdure of great beauty. The only 
sight that mars the aspect of this lovely valley, is a long line of 
Yankee sentinels that stretch along^^its beautiful plains farther 
than the eye can distinguish them.^^ 

In spite of these visible features of war the Blue Ridge Mountains 
to the west continued to bask serene in the setting sun, "as if it wished 
to bathe its head in the fleecy clouds which are continually floating 
around & above, & belo'iv it." Lewis was saddened by the scene since 
it might be "rendered hideous" at any moment by "the bursting of 
hostile shell, by the shouts of victory & the gioaning of the ^\-ounded 
& dying, by the passing of many of oiu" noblest soids to another ivorld 
of mystery &; uncertainty.")^) 

As the Sixth Regiment faced the enemy in its position at Somerville 
Ford on the Rapidan it numbered 400 "battered and briused" men. 
One hundred of these men ^\ere ivithout blankets, coats or pants — a 
price the regiment paid for the gnielling marches of the Gettysburg 
campaign. The men had not been paid any wages at all for five 
months. To add to their discomfort the nights were "very cold:" winter 
was fast approaching in the hills of northern Virginia. In spite of 



154 The Bloody Sixth 

these hardships, the men did not grumble or complain. Webb, who 
was deeply concerned over the condition of his men, represented their 
sad condition to the proper authorities in Early's division. In spite ^ 
of these pleas nothing was done to alleviate the condition of the men.C. 
In a letter to Governor Vance, Webb petitioned. 

Do all you can for us and the soldiers will not only bless you, 
but it will nei-ve his ama in the hoiu- of battle, and he ^vill remem- 
ber with his dieing breath, when he yields Jiis life for the land he 
loves that he was not forgotten at home.^J' 

To support his request and procure supplies for his men, Webb sent 
the Sixth's quartermaster, Captain Thomas H. Brame, to North Garo- 
lina to file his bond and get what supplies he could in Raleigh.(£!v 

The quiet along the Rapidan continued as September passed into 
October. Lieutenant John S. Lockhart, formerly of Company B, entered 
upon ne^v diuies as enrolling officer for Orange County, North Caro- 
lina. Lockhart had been badly wounded in the foot at Salem Chmxh 
on May 4, 1863, and had been in North Carolina recuperating>-The 
men along the Rapidan weren't as fortunate as Lockhart. Their days 
were spent in brisk skirmishing, picket diuy, and diggin^in the earth 
to construct rifle pits and trenches for defensive action(£3) 

In early October some clothing was issued to the men, largely 
through the efforts of the indefatigable Captain Brame. Captain 
William K. Panish's Company B received eighteen pairs of pants, 
thirteen jackets, ten pairs of drawers, sixteen pairs of socks, and six 
shirts. More clothing — mostly jackets, drawers, socks, and pants — was 
issued to Lieutenant Louis H. Rothrock's Company G, Captain J. 
Calder Turner's Company A, and Captain Benjamin F. "White's 
Company F. 'Hy 

On October 7, John K. Walker described the regiment's situa- 
tion along the Rapidan: 

. . . our regt. is in good health at this time we are still in 
camp at the same place (.) we was verry much alarmed las Mon- 
day morning so nm our in line of battle and lay all day but no 
fight took place (.) we could see the Yankees a moveing about 
but they made no attemp to cross (.) we could see a great many 
wagonsjnoveing down the river in the direction of Fredericks- 
burg, (g) 

Walker felt that "if we had the old man Jackson" the Confederates 
would have crossed the Rapidan "before now." The river was, accord- 
ing to Walker, no larger than Stoney Creek back home near Mebanes- 
ville in Alamance County. Still, the Confederates were so well fortified 
on tire steep southern bank of the river that the "Yankees are a fraid 
to come over." The wej^ther ^vas cool, the nights even cold. An early 
winter was in the air.i 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 155 

Walker's letter contained more than mere militai^ information. 
He had, young as he was, found his God. His words reflected the 
mood of many other Confederate soldiers who were being affected by 
the great religious revival that swept the Army of Northern Virginia 
in the fall and winter of 1863-1864. Walker wrote his parents: 

Oh! I just wish that I could see you all so I coidd tell you 
that I love my savior Oh how happy I am I would give all this 
i\orld to see you all ... I had prayed and prayed time and again 
till I \\as almost ready to give up and say that ther was no rest 
for me but oh that sweet Jesus that stands ready and willing to 
take away the sins of the world came do\vn and whispered to 
pierce my weary soul, and oh what a joyfidl time I wish you could 
have been here to have rejoiced with nie mother I found my 
savior Sunday night between midnight and day oh you dont know 
ho^\' bad that I wanted to see you all but never mind I hope the 
time ^\-ill soon come when we can see each other. ^^ 

It ^\■as good to hear that Brother Levi had also found God and was 
beginning to read the Bible. It was fine to learn that a great revival 
was going on back in Alamance Coimty at Union Church; "I hope 
it will never clos till all may get religion." eP 

Unfortunately, not everyone in the Sixth shared Walker's con- 
tentment and serenity. Colonel Tate, who was beginning to have the 
same spiteful and jealous oiulook on life as Colonel Webb, now at- 
tacked ^Vebb as the latter had attacked the late Colonel Avei7. Tate 
felt that Pender had really wanted to promote him to the lieutenant 
colonelcy instead of Avery back in Jime, 1862! According to Tate, 
"I positively declined and insisted on Avery's promotion instead!" 
Pender had "finally . . . consented" under Tate's pressure. Tate 
wrote in a rather conceited vein: 

This self-sacrificing disposition of mine, tho unusual in these 
times, is well known in the Regiment and these facts familiar to 
its officers or at least some of them.(£X^ 

Tate felt that his "modesty" had been improfitable to him. After 
explaining that he harbored no thoughts of possible promotion, he 
attacked Webb savagely in a style that seems to have been all too 
common among officers in the Confederate Army: 

. . . now I find myself a subordinate of a man declared by a 
former Governor of North Carolina (Clark) , unfit for promo- 
tion, /fc) 

Nevertheless, Tate felt that Webb "ought to be Colonel," and that 
their personal relations were always "\ery kind." Still Tate's position 



156 The Bloody Sixth 

in the regiment "is not flattering to me." Like many other men he 
had hurt his personal affairs by hastily entering the amiy when war 
broke otit in 1861. Tate might have made "a forttme" by resigning 
his commission and taking advantage of his "legal exemption." Be- 
cause of his "patriotism" he had "scorned" this course of action. Still, 
these considerations must be )^en into account in the personal affairs 
of a highly ambitious officeii-Tate wrote Governor Vance asking for 
assistance: 

. . . while I never sought a place from state or Confederate 
Governments directly or indirectly, I woidd not be averse to 
changing my position to whatever it might be proper in me to 
asstmie, or accept. 

I must beg of you not to allow me to give you the least 
trouble about it, biu if at any time you need the services of one 
of my qualifications and you think I would do better than others, 
command me. Or; if any opportunity offers to reward me, ^vithout 
injury to YQur other friends, I would be very grateful to you for 
your aid. (t*:/ 

He ended his letter by informing Vance that "all" was quiet along 
the Rapidan, and asked the governor to assist him in sending a 
package from Nei^Vork: "My object is to get it through to Raleigh 
via Wilmington. "^^nce's reply was friendly, promising to bear Tate's 
request in mind and assuring him that "Any commvtwitation with 
N. Y. I can accomplish for (you) by way of Nassau. "L^ 

Life in Hoke's brigade and the Sixth Regiment wasn't all filled 
with preparations to meet the enemy, religious fervor, or rivalries 
among officers. On October 7, seventeen cavalrymen, always disliked 
by the infantry, were caught stealing corn. As the culprits were being 
led past Hoke's brigade they were met by cries of "Here's the mill 
to grind your corn — bring it on." One of the cavali7men answered , 
by asking Hoke's men "where were the chickens they stole last night." ^ 

Early in October Generals Lee, Hill, Ewell, and Early met on [ ib 
Clark's Mountain. It was a day of fine autumn weather, the air was 
"bracing." The generals discussed a possible move against the enemy. 
When Early returned from the conference he remarked "w^iave 
never had a battle in this month (October) but we may have.'^eter | 
W. Hairston -^^-rote his wife: 

The -(veather invites our Generals are willing and the men 
are anxious. They look with longing eyes upon the well filled 
knapsacks of the enemy & say they need blankets and do not 
know whete they will oet them unless they take them from die 
Yankees. \if>' 

The projected movement was begun early on the morning of 
October 9. Early's division was ordered to follo-(\' the road through 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 157 

Orange Court House. The men -ivaded the shalloiv Rapidan at a ford 
near the mouth of Roljinson River, and ^vent into camp a mile or 
two beyond. On the 10th, the division marched through Madison 
Court House, crossed Robinson River, and camped four miles beyond 

I he ford on the road to Ctdpeper. The rapid march continued on the 

I I th to^^•ard Culpeper. Hea\7 firing could be heard toward the Rap 
jjahannock. Stuart was having difficulty forcing the enemy's cavalry 
back across the Rappaliannock. The cohinin marched to within two 
miles of Culpeper on the 12th, but turned off to the left on the 
Fauquier Springs Road in an effort to^iirn the left flank of ^^eade's 
army, no\\' racing to^vard ^\'arrenton>-^arly reminisced, 

. . . our advance drove a body of the enemy's ca^'alry from 
the river and crossed over, a portion of the troops, including my 
division, remaining on the south side. On the 13th we crossed 
and proceeded to V\'arrenton, and ^feade's army, ^vhich \\'as on 
the Rappahannock below, commeiTc*^l its retreat on both sides 
of the railroad towards ^fanassas.Cj^^ 

The iveary men stopped at Warrenton only long enough to cook 
two days's rations. Then, it was march and march again. All through 
the day of the 14th, the men pushed on, sometimes at a double-quick 
step. The division accompanied the rest of Ewell's corps through 
Auburn and Greenwich toward Bristoe Station on the Orange and 
Alexandria Railroad. Early on the morning of October 14, Early's 
division moved to relieve Stuart's cavalry, then constantly skinnish- 
ing ^\•hh the enemy. The enemy was encoimtered in heavy force near 
Auburn. His position was vei7 strong along the precipitous eastern 
banks of Cedar Creek, "where a mill pond rendered the advance 
against him very difficult." Rodes's division fomied line of battle 
to oppose the enemy, ^vhile Early moved his division and Jones's 
battalion of artilleiy to the left. Early's object was to cross the creek 
above a milt^ond and cut off the enemy's route of escape by getting 
in his reai(2^arly ^\-rote in his Memoirs, 

After I had started Rodes, having been replaced by Johnson, 
moved to the right to cross the stream belou". The enemy's in- 
fantry in the meantime had moved oft', leaving only a cavali7 
force and some horse artiller\' to dispute the passage, and as I was 
moving up to attack this force in the rear and Rodes \vas coming 
up from the right, it rapidly made its escape to^vards the railroad 
passing between us./7T) 

The column turned off the road at Green^vich and marched 
"through some famis" to^vard Kettle Run. Hill's Third Army Corps 
follo^ved the direct road to Bristoe. The engagement that follo^\ed 
was fought by t^vo brigades of Hill's corps, Cooke's and Kirkland's. 



158 The Bloody Sixth 

and didn't involve Early's division. Early's men, having a longer 
distance to traverse than Hill's, didn't come up in time. Therefore, 
when Hill was repulsed by G. K. Warren's Fifth Army Corps at 
Bristoe, Early's division, unable to find the enemy on the railroad 
west of Bristoe, formed line of battle facing east. Early sent a courier 
to find Gordon "for the purpose of moving against the force (War- 
ren's) behind the railroad at the station, according to instructions I 
had received from General Lee." Word came back from Gordon that 
he was opposed by a heavy force of Union cavalry in the vicinity of 
Brentsville and could not "retire easily." Since Gordon's brigade 
contained more than one-third of his division. Early decided that he 
was not strong enough to advance against the Union's position at 
Bristoe Station. Another reason for Early's reluctance to advance was 
the nature of the giound between his troops and the Union lines, "a 
very dense thicket of young pines intervening." Darkness finally put 
a stop to further operations. At dawn on the morning of the 15th, 
Early advanced to find that the enemy had made good his escape 
during the night. He then halted his division and moved a single 
regiment forT\'ard to the old Manassas battlefield to reconnoitre. A 
few of the enemy, mostly stragglers, i\ere captured along the way. 
When he arrived at Manassas, six miles east of Bristoe, Early found 
the enemy dra^vn up in line of battle acioss Bull Run in the vicinity 
of Centreville, apposition too strong for the limited forces at his dis- 
posal to attack.C^B^ 

The follo^ving days were spent in tearing up the Orange and 
Alexandria Railroad from Cub Run Suspension Bridge, east of Ma- 
nassas through Bristoe and Wanenton, to Rappahannock Station on 
the east side of the Rappahannock River. The railroad bridge over 
the Rappahannock had been destroyed by the enemy in his retreat. 
The cross ties ^vere binned and the rails were bent by heating them 
and twisting them around nearby trees, a standard procedure in 
both the Union and Confederate^Vrmies when they ivished to hamper 
the movements of an adversary.C^ 

By October 18, Early's division ^\as l^fk across the Rappahan- 
nock in camp just east of Brandy StationM'Vhile the men were here 
General Hoke, still campaigning against deserters and other disaf- 
fected parties in western North Carolina, made efforts to procure 
suits for his ragged brigade. Hoke was concerned about this aspect 
of equipping his men since "CofrXiodwin (who is in command of my 
Brigade) will not think of it.'t^oke's actions were unknown to his 
men, who were busily engaged in picketing the Rappahannockj^^ill- 
ing and standing muster inspections as October drew to a closs^^n 
October 22, Lieutenant Thomas Grier, acting ordnance officer of 
Hoke's brigade, supplied the Sixth Regiment with 1,000 rounds of 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 159 

fifty-eight calibre ammunition and one ammunition box, a bitter 
portent of things to come.(^ 

At the end of October, Peter Hairston, still acting as a special aide 
to the eccentric and business-like General Early, wrote his wife: "We 
are all quiet here. . . >l<As if to support his own assertion that every- 
thing was "quiet here," Hairston assisted General Early in making a 
bedstead on November 3. The general called the finished product this 
"patent night cottage bed-stead and says whenever I go to pufcliase 
another one to remember the days when we made this one.'^-¥v^hile 
Early was making the bedstead, the men in the Sixth were receiving 
long-delayed issues of clothin&and other equipment, probably through 
the efforts of General HokeP<jn November 6, the men were finally 
paid. War then became the farthest thing from their minds. 

The military arrangements which were in effect along the line of 
the Rappahannock were makeshift and crude. Time would tell that 
they A\'ere sadly ineffectual. Rodes's division of Ewell's corps was 
j^laced in a position covering Kelly's Ford; Edward Johnson's division 
\\as placed in a position to the left of Rodes to support either the 
latter or Early. Early's division was placed in position to protect the 
important Confederate pontoon bridge over the Rappahannock at 
Rappahannock Station. Hill's corps was placed along the line of the 
Rappahannock to the left of Early. The tete^de-ponf on the river 
at Rappahannock Station ^\-as occupied by a single brigade from 
Early's and Johnson's divisions that was alternatively relieved by 
another brigade each day. The infantry was supported by a battery of 
artillery from the Second Amiy Corjas. Wagon trains from the Second 
C^orps Avere sent into the country north of the river to collect railroad 
iron, badly needed in the South. These parties, protected by infantry 
detachments, foraged through the devastated countryside as far north 
as Bealton, always certain of a ready sanctuary on the south side of 
the RappahannockCiA close study of these -(s-orks along the Rappa- 
hannock is necessary. 

The Confederate infantry occupied a line of earthworks north of 
the river that were, in Early's ^vords, "ven' inadequate." They con- 
sisted of a rifle trench on the right of the line that circled aroimd 
to the river; and an enclosed redoubt, that had been constructed by 
the Union forces for use against a force that approached from the 
soiitli side of the river. To the north of these -svorks was a short rifle 
trench; then, an open-face work, its rear open to the river, "the curtain 
and flanks of -ivhich were pierced with four embrasures near the 
angles, and with such nanoAv splays as to admit of a veiy limited fire."(^^ 
Early continued the description: 

It (the open-face fort) had been originally a lunette con- 
structed by our troops, and the enemy had cut off the angle and 



160 The Bloody Si.viii 

filled up the ditches and constructed an epaulement, which 
operated as a curtain, connecting the two flanks, and was so 
arranged as to place guns en barbette on the side opposite to the 
river, and a trench was made on the side next to the river which 
prevented gims from being mounted en barbette on that side. 
The consequence was that it ^ras of very little value, as the guns 
placed in the embrasmes had vei-y limited range, leaving dead 
angles at some of the most important points. (^) 

Beyond the open-faced fort a rifle trench stretched along the slope of 
the ridge beside the river, and extended through some woods along 
the river bank. The rifle trench was next to the pontoon bridge, in 
full view of and commanded by it. Early felt that "the enemy coming 
up to the trench could command the bridge and make use of the 
embankment as a protection." The rifle trench ■ivas, for most of its 
length, so far down the slope toward the river that the enemy could 
get close to the Confederate defenders before they were discovered. 
There was no protective ditch on the outside of the trench. To the 
right was the railroad embankment of the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad. Its steep slopes provided ample cover for the approach of an 
attacking force. A road had been cut through the lailroad embank- 
ment, forming a ravine that woidd protect an enemy who had taken 
the works to the right of the embankment. To partially remedy this 
defect, artillei7 positions had been constrticted south of the river, but 
these were left unoccupied in early November, 1863. To compound 
the difficulties faced by a defending force, a dam had been constructed 
below the works, making the river too deep for fording at the point 
of defense. A single pontoon bridge "afforded the only means of com- 
munication witlCjthe southern bank and the only avenue of escape in 
case of danger.'^-Early criticized the position in strong language: 

I am thus particular in describing the character of these 
works, in order that the difficulties imder which a part of my 
command labored in the strait to which it \\as subsequently re- 
duced may be appreciated. I had myself pointed out some of the 
defects of the works to the engineers having charge of them, and 
I had urged the necessity of having another bridge farther up 
the stream. 

The fact is, in my opinion, the position was susceptible of 
being made very strong, but in order to enable a small force to 
hold it against a large attacking force, the works ought to have 
been entirely inclosed and with a deep ditch on the outside, so 
that an attacking column could have had its progress checked; 
but the works were so constructed as to afford no obstacle in 
themselves to an attacking enemy, and only furnished a temporary 
protection to our troops. An attacking force could walk over the 
rifle trenches without difficultv, and even the works in ^\'hich the 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 161 

guns weix posted could be readily passed over \\hen once 
reached /s^ 

To the south, on the opposite side of the river, two hills com- 
manded the northern bank. One was cro\vned with a redoubt con- 
structed by the Union forces. This fort had been turned in the opposite 
direction. The other hill ^\as crowned by "sunken pits" for artillery. 
Graham's artillery batten' ^vas placed on the first hill, while Dance's 
battei-y was placed on the second. Both of these units belonged to 
Brown's artillery battalion. Two pits for artillen' had been con- 
structed on the river plain to the right of the raihoad embankment. 
These had been built for guns "for the purpose of enfilading the ^2^, 
east side of the railroad embankment on the north of the river." — 
Early felt that the defense of this position had not been entirely 
entrusted to him. He felt that he had merely been called upon to 
furnish a detail for "picket duty." This he had done, his men alter- 
nating with the other divisions of the Second Corps, "and latterly with 
Johnson's only."(£^ 

Early on the morning of November 6, Harry T. Hays's Louisiana 
brigade marched to the Rappahannock from its camp near Brandy 
Station. The men filed into the trenches on the north side of the 
river near the point where the raih^oad crossed the stream. As Hays's 
men moved into position, Walker's brigade of Johnson's division 
moved back across the river; their period of "picket duty" was over. 
Hays did not accompany fiis men, who ivere under the temporary 
command of Colonel D. B. Penn of the Seventh Louisiana Infnnti7, 
since he ^vas busily engaged in conducting a coiut-martial "in the case 
of Colonel Skinner, Fifty-second Virginia Regiment."^ 

Hays's men were placed in the earthworks with the Sixth Louisiana, 
Colonel William Monaghan, commanding, on the extreme right and 
about a quarter of a mile in advance of the fortifications. The Ninth 
Louisiana, Colonel William R. Peck, commanding, ^vas held in the 
works as a reserve. The Eighth Louisiana, Captain Gusman, com- 
manding, Avas placed in the center of the line, a quarter of a mile 
from the river, \\'ith Colonel T. M. Terry's Seventh Louisiana on the 
extreme left. The remaining regiment of the brigade. Captain J. G. 
.Ingell's Fifth Louisiana, i\as placed on the southern side of the 
river, on a picket line midway betiveen Norman's Ford and Ivappa- 
hannock Bridge. Angell's men were located half a mile from the 
bridgehead. The four pieces of artillery in the line belonged to 
Green's battery of artillery. T^vo of these were placed in the space 
bet^veen the Sixth and Ninth Louisiana Regiments. The remaining 
two pieces of artilleiy were placed in the center of the line held by 
the Ninth Louisiana. All foui-_guns were placed, therefore, to the 
right of the Confederate line./jT) 



162 The Bloody Sixth 

Throughout the 6th the enemy's skirmishers were seen "in advance 
of the woods bordering the open field." Although these men were 
only a mile away from the bridgehead, there was no firing between 
the pickets of the two amiies.(^ 

The Union high command was determined to secure the bridge- 
head at Rappahannock Station and force Lee's army to withdraw 
back across the Rapidan, which was not as difficult a stream to cross 
as the Rappahannock. Confederates along the upper Rappahannock 
constituted a continuous threat to the security of Washington and the 
North since they had easy access to the lower Shenandoah Valley 
and because the fogds over the upper Rappahannock were difficult 
to guard effectivelyvOrders were issued on the morning of November 
6, directing the Sixth and Fifth Amiy Corps imder Alajor General 
John Sedgwick and General George Sykes, respectively, to 

. . . move at early daylight tomorrow, and take position at 
Rappahannock Station, the left resting upon the railroad, the 
right toward Beverly Ford. The [Sixth] corps will move by way 
of Fayetteville, and so contract its march as not to interfere with 
the route of the Fifth Corps. 

The Fifth Corps . . . will move at early daylight and take 
position on the left of the Sixth Corps; it ■will move by way of 
Germantown and Bealeton, and will leave the route along- the 
Warrenton Branch Railroad clear for the Second Corps. ^^ 

Other sections of the circular directed the First, Second, and Third 
Corps to move against Kelly's Ford under the command of Major 
General French. General John Buford's cavahy division would 
operate on the right flank of the amiy, cross the Rappahannock on 
one of the upper fords, and "force the passage of Hazel River at j 
Rixeyville." Buford was to co-operate witti General Sedgivick in the i 
advance against Rappahannock Station. (2^ 

The Union corps were instructed to travel light. Only forty 
roimds of ammunition were to be issiied_^o the men. Most of the 
wagon trains were to be left in the reai'. ^^ 

As they prepared to move against the Confederate redoubt at 
Rappahannock Station, the Union officers knew that their task would 
be a difficidt one. One paragraph in the orders issued to General 
Sedwick reveals their anxiety: 

The contingency should be hekl in vie^v of your being with- 
drawn from Rappahannock Station and thrown across at Kelly's 
Ford, in the event of your not being able to cUsJodge the enemy 
from his position at Rappahannock Station. C^ 

Sedgwick was infonned that "The duty devolving upon you is to 
drive the enemy from his positions there on this and the other side 






A Dav of Nightmare and Disbelief 163 

of the river." The attack was to be made vigorously and in great 
force. It ivas evident, from a close study of the Union orders, that the^_^ 
key position to be taken ^vas the redoubt at Rappahannock Station.*^^ 

Brigadier General David A. Russell's First Division of the Sixth 
Corps, selected to make the assault upon the Rappahannock bridge- 
head, broke camp near Warrenton at daybreak on November 7, and 
marched rapidly toward Rappahannock Station on the Fayetteville 
Road. At 10:00 A. M. the command reached Fayetteville ivhere most 
of the Forty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry was thrown out as skir- 
mishers and flankers. ■Moving forward again the entire division 
reached a heavy ^voods in the vicinity of Rappahannock Station at 
12:00 noon. The woods where the division fomied line of battle ran 
parallel to the river at a distance of one and a quarter miles. The left 
of Russell's line of battle rested on the Orange and Alexandria Rail- 
road, the ri^ht connected with the Second Division of the Sixth 
Corps. The brigade alignments were — Third Brigade on^idie left. 
Second Brigade in the center, and First Brigade on the rights^ussell's 
description of the scene in front of him is interesting for t^vo reasons: 
(1) it described the Confederate works in an accurate manner; (2) 
it greatly overestimated the Confederate force in those ^vorks. 

The eneni) ivere found in strong force upon the northern 
side of the river, and were strongly intrenched behind extensive 
and carefully constructed rifle-pits, which ran along the river 
bank for nearly 2 miles. To the right of the enemy's center, and 
distant from the railway about 1,000 yards, ^vas a formidaisle 
earthern redoubt. To the right of this redoubt, and some 200 
yards distant, was another fort or redoubt of earth, and both of 
these works mounted several pieces of artillery. The rebel skir- 
mishers -were thrown out some three-quarters of a mile to the 
front of their position. |^ 

.A.t 2:30 P. M. the order for the Union skirmishei-s to advance was 
given. The Confederates were driven back into their rifle pits, ^\'hile 
the infantry was already deeply committed, the Union artillery, 
elements of Waterman's and Martin's batteries located on a hill three- 
quarters of a mile from the Confederate position, opened a destiaic- 
tive fire. At sundown, Russell, after carefully reconnoitering the Con- 
federate position, ga\e the order for his force to advance. (W) 

^Vhen Russell's line of battle had been moved for^vard slightly, 
the Fifth Louisiana, ^\ith the exception of "one company and 16 men, 
left on picket on this side of the river," were moved across the river 
to reinforce the remainder of Hays's brigade. The Fifth was placed 
in position on the right of the Seventh Louisiana. As the L^nion line 
advanced, Hays's Sixth, Eighth, Fifth and Seventh Louisiana Regi- 
ments were gradually ^\-ithdra-svn into the earthworks. At 3:00 P. M. 



164 The Bloody Sixth 

the Confederate skirmishers were ordered to fall back to a road about 
100 yards in advance of the rifle pits. They remained there for half 
an hour and were then "compelled to retire" into the works by a 
sudden effort of the enemy to flank them. When the Union ai-tillery 
began to bombard his position, Colonel Penn ordered the Confederate 
artillery on the south side of the river to open fire. This was done 
slowly and with poor effect. Notified that his command was under 
attack, General Hays anived on the field at 4:00 P.M. and took 
command of his brigade.(if5^ 

When Early heard of the attack he hurried to the south bank of 
the river, opposite the bridgehead occupied by his troops. When he 
saw the danger of the threatened Union assault, he ordered the 
remainder of the division to follow. Early explained his action later: 

... I regarded my brigade in danger, and I doubted not I 
was but anticipating the order ivhich would have been given as 
soon as the facts reached General Lee and Lieutenant-General 
Ewell. I carried no artillery with me because none was at my 
disposal (jfjy 

At 2:30 the "Long Roll" was beaten in the camp of Hoke's brigade 
near Brandy Station. Eveiy man who was fit for duty was called in. 
An observer summed up the feelings of the brigade when he ^\rote, 
"we knew not why, as we had no artillery, the day being quite \\'indy, 
and our camp being about six miles from the river." Early's entire 
division Mas moved forward at a dotible-quick. ^Vhen the head of the 
colinnn reached the river opposite the bridgehead, Hoke's brigade, 
under Colonel God^s^in, was ordered across. The men were placed in 
the rifle pits to the left of Hays's brigade. This movement was per- 
fonned under the fire of the enemy's artillery and skirmishers. Some 
men fell, among them Lieutenant Cornelius Mebane of the Sixth 
North Carolina who was badly wounded. (^^ 

Godwin's men were placed in line Tvith the Fifty-seventh North 
Carolina on the right, the Fifty-fourth North Carolina on the left, 
and the Sixth in the center. The fighting became heavy as the men 
opened fire on the enemy's skimiishers. As night approached the 
enemy assaulted the Confederate position in three lines. Hays's men 
fought "with great desperation." The enemy's first line was cut to 
pieces and scattered. Soon the enemy advanced again, reinforced by 
his second and third lines. The Union forces moved forward rapidly, 
but quietly, their anns at a trail. A colinnn moving along the railroad 
attacked Hays's right, driving it back from the redoubts on the right of 
the Confederate line. Hays immediately ordered the Ninth Louisiana 
to charge and retake the two gims captiu'ed by the enemy; "but our 
center having been broken and the two forces opposed to our right 
and center having joined, rendered the execution of my purpose 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 165 

impracticable." The enemy formed a new line, facing up the river, 
and assaulted the Confederate left. This attack sunounded Hoke's 
brigade and the Seventh and Fifth Louisiana Regiments and cut ofE 
their line of escape. Hays's men fought desperately and only yielded 
after the enemy hadjent their line in uvo and gained complete 
possession of the workL^-^ccording to Hays, 

. . . there \\as no effort made by any one in ni)- command to 
recross the river until nothing else remained but to stmender. 
Many then escaped by s^vimming or fording the river, and some 
ie\\' on the pontoon bridge/J^ 

Surrounded, ^^•ith little hope of escape, the Sixth North Carolina, 
together ivith the other two regiments of Hoke's brigade, fought on 
under the inspired leadership of Colonel Godwin. Their only chance 
o£ escape lay through the enemy's line or by swimming the river. 
God-^vin, determined on an obstinate resistance, quickly fonned a 
line perpendicular to the rifle pits. The Sixth and Fifty-seventh Regi- 
ments then charged the enemy in an effort to open the \\-ay to the 
pontoon bridge, but were driven back with some loss. God-win then 
made three further attempts to refonn his line, but -(vas unsuccessful. 
When his line was broken in several places Godwin fell back to the 
edge of the river with seventy-five men, still returning the,,^emy's 
fire, "and refused to surrender until fighting was useless. "^-oodwin 
rallied his small command in the darkness, determined to resist to 
the last. Someone cried out "Col. Godwin says surrender." Godwin 
promptly replied that "it was a d-d lie & if he repeated it he would 
kill him yet before the Yankees get you." The saJJant colonel was 
soon forced to yield with his sword in his hands.C^f^ 

Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton Jones, Jr. of the Fifty-seventh North 
Carolina acted ^\ith great gallantry in the last moments of the defense. 
Jones took his regiment's colors from the color sergeant and \\'alked 
back and forth along his line, exposing himself to the enemy's artil- 

len' fire. When escape became necessary he attempted to swim the ^^ 

river but ^vas forced to retiu-n because of the coldness of the water, (it^ 

Colonel God^\'in ordered his men to escape when all resistance 
proved to be useless. Lieutenant Colonel Tate, with a few men from 
the Sixth North Carolina, ran across the pontoon bridge under a 
hail of bullets and reached the end of it jtist before it was fired by 
the Confederates. Captains McPherson and Ray, and Lieutenant 
Mebane of the Sixth escaped in the same manner. Others Avho escaped 
were Captain Adams of Colonel God^\in's staff; Lieutenants Williams, 
Smith and Fitzgerald of the Fiftv-fourth Regiment; and Lieutenant 
Bro^\'n of i,hg; Sixth. Lieiuenant Bro^vn swam the river along ivith a 



few others.H?eneral Hays, on horseback, -jvas siuToimded and forced 
to surrender. But, because he had his sword drawn and could not 



166 The Bloody Sixth 

control his horse while he replaced it in its sheath, the frightened 
animal plunged forward through the enemy's line. Riding rapidly 
across the gauntlet of the pontoon bridge, Hays escaped uninjured. 
Many were killed and wounded both on the bridge and in the river. 
According to alLxoatemporai-y accounts the position became a veri- 
table death trap(^^^ 

The Sixth Regiment suffered terribly at Rappahannock Bridge. 
Three men were killed, 1 officer and 12 men were wounded, and 21 
officers and 286 men were captured for a total loss of 323. The total 
loss in Hoke's brigade was 928 — almost the entire hngade! Hays's 
brigade suffered a total loss of 702 officers and men.^i-^ 

Although the Sixth Regiment would continue as an active imit 
for the remainder of the ^\■ar, it would never be the same fighting 
unit. Colonel Webb ivas sent to Johnson's Island, Ohio, where he 
arrived on November 1 1 . He was held for the rest of the war, being^ 
released on July 25, 1865 after taking the oath of parole on July 6.^ 
Captains Abraham H. Miller and William K. Parrish were both 
captured. Parrish was held at Jebnson's Island and Point Lookout 
and released on June 12, >&()5. TTietitenant Colonel Tate had been 
wounded, but had escapedS-Captain Jeremiah A. Lea of Company H 
was captured and sent to Johnson's Island with Captain Wyatt B. 
Allen, Lieutenant George N. Albright, and First Lieutenant Hem^ 
C. Dixon. All these officers were held by the Union forces until 
the end of the war. Both Captain Allen and Lieutenant Albright 
were transfeiTed to Fort Delaware, Nej^Jersey in February, 1864, 
and released from that place in 1865S-T%ajutant Cornelius Mebane 
was severely i\'oimded in the right foreami and side. His wounds 
forced him to soon take a sixty-day Jeave to his home in Mebanesville, 
Alamance County, North CarolinaPCaptain Willie G. Guess of Com- 
pany C was captured^and sent to Johnson's Island where he was held 
until June 13,^B65C-Captain James Calder Tinner of Salisbury was 
also captured. 'nColonel Godwin, commanding the brigade, was cap- 
tured, sent to Johnson's Island, and exchanged in the spring of 1864(^1 

The lot of the enlisted men ^vas especially hard. On the morning 
of the 8th, they \vere marched back to Warrenton Junction, placed 
on trains, and moved to Washington City. After reaching Washington 
the men rested under guard until 3:00 P.M. when they were marched 
down to the Potomac docks and placed on the steamer "John Brooks" 
for the trip do\\n river to Point Lookout Prison Camp, near St. Mary's 
City, Mai^lancLJhey were disembarked at that uninviting place on 
November 10.(25^ 

The affair at Rappahannock Bridge, which so completely altered 
the future of the Sixth North Carolina, was a complete surprise to 
the Confederate leaders. Early, while not finding fault with the 
conduct of his men who "remained at their posts and fought the 



A Day of Nightmare and Disbelief 167 

enemy until overpo^vered," accurately blamed other factors for the 
defeat: 

The immediate causes of the disaster were the weakness of 
the position owing to the defective engineering, the want of 
sufficient bridges, the want of sufficient artillery in suitable posi- 
tions on the south bank of the river, and the superior force of 
the enemy, which consisted of two army corps under Sedgwick, 
as since ascertained, the attack of the enemy being favored by the 
darkness and the hish wind.^Oxc) 



After pointing out that his two brigades ^vere all that were sent 
into the action, he indirectly criticized General Lee, ^vho with Early 
had observed the action from the south bank of the river: 

... I must candidly confess that I did concur in the opinion 
of the commanding general that the enemy did not have enter- 
prise enough to attempt any serious attack after dark, as such 
attacks are so foreign to his usual policy, and I therefore was 
inclined to believe that the position would be safe until morning, 
though I felt diere would be vei7 great danger in a night attack 
if vigorously made. A different estimate, however, of the enemy's 
enterprise would have had no effect, as I had no discretion about 
^\•ithdrawing the troops, and, in fact, they could not have been 
withdrawn with safety after the enemy had gained their immedi- 
ate iront(j^ 

General Ewell had no opinion to express. He bluntly wrote, 

I received information that the enemy was moving on Kelly's 
Ford in force, and had turned my whole attention to that point, 
toward which two divisions were moving, knowing that both the 
general commanding and Major-General Early -ivere at the tete- 
de-pont, and as I heard no report jjf artillei-y or other indications 
of an attack, I did not visit it. ^^> 

General Lee called for an official report of the action, and blamed 
the Confederate defeat on "a strong wind (which) effectually pre- 
vented any movement from being heard," the darkness of the night, 
and "the fear of injuring oi*t own men (-(vith Confederate artillei^ 

fire) who had surrendered. "^^ne topography of the area north of the^ 

Rappahannock also had been favorable to the advancing Union iorces.Qj^^ 
There was great sadness throughout the array over the defeat. 
Chaplain John Paris of the Fifty-foiuth North Carolina Regiment 
wrote. 

This is a serious disaster, so far as om- feelings are concerned, 
but it does not shake our hopes as to success. (2f^ 



168 The Blood v Sixth 

General Early was so disturbed over the loss^Ti^his two brigades 
that he was ill for two or three days afterwards_-^ter \V. Hairston 
confided the feelings of other men to his diai-y: 

. . . A\hen we ^\'ere dra^vn up in line of battle near Culpepper 
Genl. Lee rode up to him (General Hays) 8; said "Genl. this is 
a sad affair, ho^\' do you feel to day." "I feel sir, as well as a man 
can feel Avho has lost so many men." "Well (it) is all over now 
and can xiot be helped the onlv thing is to try to get even with 
today."(^^ 

According to Hairston, Lee did not attach any of the blame for 
the disaster to the "officers or men ^\ho were in the fight," bjol felt 
that ^vhatever blame there was he "must attach to himself." dsi^ 

In bold contrast to Confederate feelings of despair there was 
jubilation in the Union camp. General Sedg^vick reported the capture 
of "4 colonels, 3 lieutenant colonels, many other officers, and over 
800 men, together with 4 battle-flags." General French, -(vho led the 
attack upas. Rodes's division at Kelly's Ford, captured over 400 
prisonerC.^S'eneral Meade congratulated Sedgivick for his successful 
assault: 

Your dispatch respecting the number and rank of prisioners 
you have captured is received. The major-general commanding 
is highly gratified at the brilliant manner in -ivhich your ojjera- 
tions have been commenced.,^^/3p 

No less a personage than President Lincoln telegraphed Meade 
on November 9: 

I have seen your dispatches about operations on the Rappa- 
hannock on Satin-day, and I wish to say, "Well done.'(££^ 

General David A. Russell, whose division had captured the position 
at the bridgehead, showered praise on his men "for their surpassing 
steadiness and bravery." Russell wrote, 

... I desire to call attention, and ivoidd respectfully ask that 
permission be granted all the regiments engaged to inscribe 
"Rappahannock Station" upon their banners. ^;^;^ 

The Second and Third Brigades of Russell's First Division, Sixth 
Army Corps bore the brrmt of the fighting. The losses of the Third 
Brigade were 265; the Second Brigade lost 63, for a grand total of 
328./^pt.a.\ Union loss (including losses in French's left wing) was 
419.^Lodes's loss at Kelly's Ford \\-zs 5 killed, 59 Avoimded, and 295 
missing, presmnably captured. /;^35y 



A Day of Nighimare and Disbelief 169 

The immediate result ol the Union victory- at Rappahannock 
Station was die retreat of Lee's army to "the only tenable line" of 
defense between Brandy Station and Culpeper. The Confederates 
held this position throughout November 8, covering the withdrawal 
of their trains across the Rapidan. On the night of the 8th, the amry 
began its withdra-ival to a favorable position on the south bank of 
the Rapidaiit_P^ter \V. Hairston, an aide to Early, described the 
withdraA\al in his diary: 

Nov. 8. I was up all last night — not sleeping a wink. About 
3 o'clock in the morning we withdrew our forces from the Ijattery 
on this side of the river & retired our forces to tivo miles this side 
of Brandy Station -ivhere -ive found a line of battle & availed until 
night for the enemy to advance. We ivithdrew 8: marched until 
12 o'clock at night leaving Culpepper Co. Ho. in the night. There 
was a cavalry skirmish ■(v'ith Lane's brigade & that of the enemy. 
We encamped for the balance of the night on the north bank of 
the Rapidan near Summeiville Ford. We were all very sleepy & 
tired. Maj. Hale Inspector of this division (Early's) sat clown 
by the road-side went to sleep & woke up, found his horse gone^'^ 
& the division left & he did not find his horse until next morning.'-^ — 

Early's division crossed Siimmerville Ford on the morning of the 
9th and went into camp bet^\-een that ford and Morton's Ford, 
covering the line of the Rapidan bet^\een those points^v£7) 

A soldier in the Twenty-sixth North Carolina Regiment explained 
the withcha-(val from the line of the Rappahannock to Governor 
Vance in slightly different temis: 

About 2 o'clock Sunday morning (November 8) we ^\-ere 
hunied out of bed and packing up everything took the back track. 
Our army was drawn up in line of battle, the most of Sunday, be- 
yond Culpepper C. H. but Mead Avould or did not attack. We 
traveled most of the night like half a million of men had been in 
pursuit of us, and reached the south side of tlie Rapidan on the 
9th just one month and one day from the time we left it. AVhat 
have we gained during these marches and countennarches? Noth- 
ing so far as I can see. "We may have taken a fe^\- more prisoners 
than we have lost, but many of them -were stragglers, men ^vho 
always do more hann than good on either side. Of four fine 
brigades we have had two badly cut up and t-(\-o almost annihi- 
lated, ^\-ith the loss of several pieces of artilleiy more than we have 
taken. Our late operations remind one very much of two bovs 
fighting. We first run the Yankees and they run us back in turn. 
Upon the whole I believe we have been worsted by the expedition. 
The men are anxious to meet the enemy in a fair fight. In the first 
place we lost a splendid chance at Bristo^v and again it seems 
if the advance of the enemy had been known in time at the 



170 The Bloody Sixth 

Rappahannock and proper measures adopted as to reinforcements 

&:c., we could have cut the advancing masses to pieces and in- i 

flicted a terrible loss upon them, to say nothing of whatjiiight I 

have been the result if a vigorous pursuit had followed. {/^P i] 

After deploring the loss of Jackson (a usual custom in Confederate 
correspondence after Gettysbiu'g) , the ^^•riter continued: n 

We are now again quietly settled down on the south side of 
the Rapidan. Whether Mead will press forward and by the Ger- ; 
manna and lower fords try the Wilderness about Chancellors- | 
ville, or go quietly into winter quarters about Culpepper, be- ' 
lieving his late slight successes will pacify his government and 
people, time will only show. I only hope if he do advance our 
eyes may be open in the right place and at the right time and 
that we may severely piuiish him for his insolence. Something 
must be wrong in the army of Northern Va. in some way, ^vhich 
I sincerely hope may be remedied for the future. Such move- 
ments as we have had lately, has, to say the least, a bad effect 
upon our army.^T^y' 

Rappahannock Station spelled the end of the Sixth Regiment as 
it was originally organized in April and May, 1861. According to a 
report prepared by Captain Richard Watson York, dien temporarily 
in command of the regiment, on December 20, 1863 Companies A, 
B, and G were neaite.all captiued. This grim total included all , j 
the company officerk-^evertheless, the Sixth still functioned as a [^ 
military unit, still had much of its original fighting spirit left, and 
fought to the bitter end at Appomattox Court House. But, after 
Rappahannock Station its heart had been destroyed — it was never 
really the same. 



f 



k 
k 
lilt 
k 



XI 



Plymouth: 
A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 



'■Dear Father: With gratitude I seat myself this morning to 
let you knoiu where 1 am. We left Kinston the 1-fth and came by 
the way of Goldsboro ir Tarboro, and marched to Plymouth 60 
mile from Tarboro and attacked the enemy on Sunday even- 
ing. . . ." 

John K. ^Valrer to his father in 
John K. Walker Papers. 



With the capture of Colonel Webb at Rappahannock Station the 
command of the Sixth Regiment fell upon the shoulders of its last 
colonel, Samuel McDowell Tate. Tate, the eldest son of David and 
Susan M. Tate, was born near Morganton, Burke County, North 
Carolina, on September 8, 1830. At an early age he went to Phila- 
delphia to prepare himself for a life of business. Returning to 
Morganton he became a prominent merchant. He journeyed to Texas 
in 1855 and 1856 and invested heavily in real estate. Upon his return 
to North Carolina he associated himself with Charles F. Fisher as 
agent and "managed [Fisher's] . . . large and varied financial inteiests." 
Young Tate was a secession-minded Democrat, and when the war 
broke out he joined Fisher's newly-organized Sixth Regiment as the 
Captain of Company D. He had played a prominent part on evei^ 
battlefield ^vhere the Sixth fought, especially the field of Gettysburg. 
Upon the death of Colonel Avei7 in that battle he was jaromoted to 
lieutenant colonel. He became acting colonel in November, 1863, 
after Rappahannock Stationf-T"he regiment which he came to com- 
mand was badly ciu up, badly demoralized, and almost without 
clothing. In fact, there were so few men left in Hoke's entire brigade 
that it was placed under the conunand of Tate, the senior officer left 
with the command, and then combined in a temporary brigade under 
the general command of General Hays. The total strength of the 
combined units numbered 275 men.(y 

171 



172 The Bloodv Sixth 

Worried over reports that his brigade had been wiped out, General 
Hoke expressed his concern for the ^velfare of his men when he wrote, 
"What is reliable concerning my brigadept*' 

Hoke returned to Virginia to check on his men on November 23. 
He reported to Early that things were working favorably for the 
Confederate cause in North Carolina and then began to discuss his 
decimated brigade. Hoke planned to reorganize his men using con- 
scripts from North Carolina. Then he admitted that "those were 
good men whoin he lost." He remained with Early for several days, 
discussing the military situation in North Carolina and his plans to 
reorganize his brigade. He returned to North Carolina onJVovember 
26 to resume his command in the western part of the state.^ 

Colonel Tate, continuing his nebulous command over Hoke's 
brigade, became dissatisfied when General Early ordered the brigade 
to camp with Hays's men. Because of his protests. Early relented and 
allo\\'ed the two units to maintain separate camps, although Hays 
continued in actual command. & 

November, 1863 was a cold and wet month, typical in northern 
Virginia. Plans for a review of Early's division had to be postponed 
repeatedly after the 21st. Meanwhile the Union Amry continued to 
probe the Confederate positions, especially the area around Raccoon 
Ford where the Sixth was camped. On November 26, Union infantry 
crossed the river east of the fortified Confederate line at Mine Run, 
but Avithdrew after several days of ineffectual skimiishing. The Sixth 
was placed in Early's line along the run in the vicinity of Rouse's 
Mill, but did little fighting. Most of the regimental "Record of 
Events" for November and December, 1863 merely states, "Partici- 
pated in operations at Mine Run from 27 Nov. to 2d Dec. '63." 
Several of the companies mention the fact that a slight skinuish was 
fought.^ 

By December 3, the Sixth had returned to its camp at Racoon Ford 
on the Rapidan. The t^vo armies resumed their by-now-familiar posi- 
tions on opposite banks of the shallow streamC' 

Life in the Sixth Regiment continued almost as usual in spite of 
the disaster at Rappahannock Station. On November 9, William A. 
Lyerly prepared to leave Salisbury, North Carolina ivith packages of 
clothing and provisions for the Sixth, Fifty-fourth and Fifty-seventh 
Regiments. All persons having supplies for the regiments were in- 
structed to mark their boxes in a legible manner. The familiar request 
to "bring nothing cooked" was in^'okecK'^Complaints -were still heard 
among the enlisted men. John K. Walker wTOte, 

... I am getting very tired of tliis war. It dont seem that the 
authorities are making any preparations for peace at all. This 
Avar is a fortune to some men, and slaves and days to others, but 
it is to be hoped that it Avill not ahvays last. There are fine 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 173 

meetings and great revivals & baptisings out here, but I am soiTy 
to say that I am not one of the ninnber^ 

Some men, like Private John McDaniel of Burke County, a soldier 
in Company C, were needed by their families — the beginning of a 
trend ^vhich. soon became dangerous to the Confederacy. ^fcDaniel's 
family requested Governor Vance to obtain a transfer for him to the 
Raleigh Guards, a militia outfit. Vance answered this sad request for 
the transfer of McDaniel and another soldier, Private R. J. Cloud, a 
member of Company A, Fifty-eighth North Carolina Regiment, by 
writing, 

The Gov. -ivould be glad to oblige them but has not the po^ver 
to transfer them. Application must be made to the Confederate 
authorities ^2?^ 

Colonel Tate had other chores. He had been slightly ^vounded at 
Rappahannock Station and felt that a furlough home to North 
Carolina ^\•as in order. Before he left in early December he certified 
that the Sixth Regiment had expended J, 800 cartridges in the 
skirmish at Mine Run in late Novemberv-v\nother chore involved 
the giving of the regimental command to Captain Richard \Vatson 
York, Captain of Company I and son of the famed North Carolina 
evangelist and foimder of Trinity College, Brantley York. Captain 
York, usually in l^oor health, ^vas nevertheless a keen obser\er and an 
excellent orator.G^ 

At the time that York took temporaiy command over the Sixth 
the men had just returned from their light engagement at Mine Run. 
The Sixth had suffered onlv t^vo men slightly ivounded, compared to 
a total brigade loss of two killed and eight woimded. Everyone wa.s 
in relatively good spirits. Meade was back across the Rapidan, pre- 
paring to assume his fomier position. The Sixth was in line again 
at Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan. The regiment's only visible con- 
cern was over its losses at Rappahannock Station. John K. 'Walker, 
whose brother Bill had been captured, mused: "I guess that bill will 
write soon if he is not hurt. "(3^ 

The men who were captured at Rappahannock Station -should 
write soon, as soon as the initial shock of being prisoners had passed. 
One of the first to break the silence barrier, common among all 
prisoners in all ^vars, was Captain Benjamin Franklin White of near 
Mebanesville, Alamance County. White wrote to Governor Vance, 
asking for "necessary clothing." E^appealed to the "generosity of the 
State to alleviate our condition. '''-The officers of the Sixth, held in 
the officer's prison camp at Johnson's Island near Sandusky City, 
Ohio, needed "fifty round jackets, fifty pairs pants, fifty pairs shoes, 
one hundred pairs dra^vers, one hundred shirts (cot.) , one hundred 



174 The Bloody Sixth 

woolen shirts and one himdred pairs socks size shoes from 7 to II. 
Jackets from 2 1/3 to 5."^Vhite hoped that these items coiUd be sent 
to Johnson's Island as quickly as possible since "the Federal authori- 
ties will take pleasure in delivering whatever may be sent." The need 
might have been urgent, but White had not reckoned with the Con- 
federate bureaucracy at Raleigh; and, thereupon, Pierce sent the 
letter to the Confederate quartermaster general's office at Richmond 
with the comment, 

These articles can be furnished immediately but the order 
must be accompanied by an order from higher authority than . 
Capt. White to sustain the issue on my accounts. I ask instruction. C 

Major William B. B. Cross, in the quartermaster general's office, 
asked Colonel Robert Ould, Confederate Agent of Exchange, for his 
opinion. Ould wrote, on January 27, 1864, 

They [the articles requested] had better be sent as individual 
contribiuions. I am afraid the Federals ^vill not allow any other 
kind to be delivered. (7?) 

Then Ould returned the request to Major Cross, who sent it back 
to Major Pierce at Raleigh with the suggestion that the articles be 
issued by the state aiuhorities of North Carolina and forwarded as 
donations "in view of the endorsement by Mr. Ould Commissr. for 
Exchange & the fact that there is neither regulation nor law that 
authorizes the issue of clothing to officers, by this Department."^ 

On December 20, Captain York prepared an interesting summary 
of the men in the regiment, using then-available company records 
and inter\'iewing company officers. York discovered that there were 
913 volunteers, 80 conscripts, and 12 substitiues originally on the 
regimental roll. Although companies A, B, and G had nearly all 
been captured at Rappahannock Station, the losses in the other seven 
companies from the beginning of the war ^\'ere 178 who died of 
disease; 35 who died of wounds; 60 killed in action; 81 discharged; 
25 deserted; 25 transfened; 9 resigned; 2 dishonorably discharged; 
1 shot for desertion; 13 missing in action — for a total of 429. There 
were 576 men remaining on the rolls. Of these, 226 were from Ala- 
mance County; 175, from Orange; 59, from Wake; 143, from Caswell; 
182, from Burke; 50, from Chatham; 24, from McDowell; 82, from 
Mitchell; 4, from Rowan [most of the Rowan men were captured 
with their Captain, }. Calder Turner, at Rappahannock Station]; 10, 
from Catawba; 2, from Davidson; 2, from Cumberland; 3, from Cald- 
well; 3, from Person: 5, from Yancey; 3, from Yadkin. Wayne, Edge- 
combe, Buncombe, Lincoln, Granville, Rockingham, Wilkes, Meck- 
lenburg, Surry, Iredell, Forsyth, Craven, Lenoir, and Nash Counties 



Hi 



Sis* 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 175 

had 1 each. Other states were represented, too. There were 7 Virgin- 
ians, 1 Marylander and 1 Georgian in the regiment. Even two 
foreign cx>iuitries \\ere listed: Italy, with 1; and Ireland, with 3. The 
total company strengths on December 20 ivere these: Second Lieuten- 
ant William S. Clinton's Company C, 67; Captain Neill W. Ray's Com- 
pany D, 72; Captain John A. McPherson's Company E, 63; Company 
F [commanding officer not listed], 77; First Lieutenant L. H. Walker's 
Company H, 72; Company I, 43; Company K, 69. Attrition had begun 
to set in, augmented by the severe losses suffered by the regiment 
at Rappahannock StationC-^t must be remembered that the company 
totals listed were not all present with the regiment. These men were 
still on the rolls, but not necessarily on active duty in the field. 

Toward the end of December, Colonel Tate attended to several 
regimental chores. On the 23rd, he received a consignment of ord- 
nance stores from Lieutenant Thomas Grier, ordnance officer for 
Hoke's brigade. These included eleven cartridge boxes, twelve cap 
pouches, eight waist belts, forty-eight bayon^ scabbards, forty-three 
knapsacks, and eleven canteens and straps. Ci^ 

A more interesting matter presented itself at the end of the montli. 
J. B. Feathery, an assistant to North Carolina Adjutant General 
Richard L. Gatlin, sent several commissions to Colonel Tate. These 
included Tate's own commission as lieutenant colonel. Lieutenant 
Hardin's commission as lieutenant, and Captain McPherson's com- 
mission as captain. The commissions had originally been issued on 
September 4, 1863, "& sent to Col. Webb." For some unknown reason 
they had never been received at regimental headquarters. They 
wound up in the Dead Letter Office at Richmond >ftd were then re- 
turned to the adjutant general's office at RaleighV-Peathei-y assured 
Tate, 

Lt. Turner's & Lt. Rothrick's was issued at the same time & 
will be fgr^varded if they are not prisoners. I ^vill keep Col. 
Webb's.^) 

Peathen' had recently seen the anxious Captain Yoik, on regi- 
mental business in North Carolina. At that time York had attempted 
to secure a colonel's unifonn for Tate but had been unsuccessful. 
Feathery had reassured York and "promised to secure you one as 
soon as practicable." The "Advance" was expected to make poKtvin 
Wilmington in a few days, and unifomis were part of the cargoS-The 
matter of Captain York's commission as major would also be attended 
to. Governor Vance, by whose authority commissions for the first ten 
regiments of^-$j;ate Troops were issued, had "no intention to over- 



stamp" YorkV^djutant Gatlin personally promised the officers of the 
Sixth, who had recently sent a petition asking for York's^ promotion, 
that "There is no disposition to pass over Capt. York.'(^^ 



176 The Bloody Sixth 

There ^\•ere also matters of sadness to be looked into. Private 
Thomas Ward, an Irishman who had enlisted in the Sixth in May, 
1861, desired a sixty-day furlough. He wanted to go home to North 
Carolina to help his ^\n.ie and four children who were "very poor and 
dependant" upon him. Poor Ward had been in the hospital "for 
sometime, unable for active duty and wishes a furlough to go home."^ 
As the war continued into the bitter year of 1864, there ^^'ere al- 
together too many requests like that presented by Private AVard. 

Fortunately, most of the private soldiers in the regiment ■were 
faring better than Ward, at least those ivithout famlies to support. 
John K. Walker ^vrote home on Januars' 19, 1864: 

There is no ne-\vs ivorth writing we jie fairing very Tvell 
nothing to do but to sit around the fire.(3^ 

Although the -iveather had been "rainy" for the past feiv days, most 
of die men in Company K were in good health. Walker didn't need 
any clothes or provisions froin home, but a letter or tiro would be 
welcome. It was imfortunate that Walker's fatlier was "thinking 
hard" of him for not coming home to Alamance Coimty during the 
late fall, but, as Walker expressed it, "we dont belong to ourselves. 
We cant come home i\-henever we ivant to, and so you need not look 
for me until you see me coming." Walker had no apologies for not j 
going home, since only one man from his company had received a 
furlough. (3* 

Early in January, 1864, General Hoke, ivho had returned to his 
brigade in late December, received orders from General Lee to move 
to North Carolina. An attack upon New Bern, in Union hands since 
March, 1862, ivas contemplated. Major General George E. Pickett | 
was to lead the expedition. According to Captain Neill W. Ray, 
historian of the Sixth: 



i: 



Our men began almost to believe the rumor that ^\■e ivere 
being carried to North Carolina to hiuit up deserters. Unpleasant 
as such diuy would have bgfri, there ivas rejoicing at the thought 
of being nearer home. . . .(^ 

Appropriate orders w^ere issued, and die regiment marched from 
its position at Raccoon Ford to Gordonsville, on the Virginia Central I 
Railroad, on January 21. On the 22nd, the men croi\'ded into railroad 
cars for the trh^thiough Richmond and Petersburg to Gai^sburg, 
North CarolinaOHoke, expecting to join Corse's brigade at Petersburg, 
reported to General Pickett at that place on January 22. Here he 
learned that Corse's brigade "could not reach there before Wednesday, 
Januarv' 27." This unexpected factor delayed the movements of the 
expedition until the 29th. In the meantime, the artillery was collected 



%i 



Da 
•IX 
Hear 
ao( 
•i 

Bllif 
■Stl 

Jist 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 177 

and placed upon railroad cars, "as if it was to be shipped to Rich- 
mond," a move designed to deceive the enemy. The artillery horses 
were sent to the countr)', then ordered to proceed to Wihnington. 
They were removed from the train at Wilson, North Carolina to a\\'ait 
fiuther orders. Hoke made other anangements for the expedition at 
Petersburg and then went to Kinston, North Carolina. Finding that 
the enemy still ivas inactive at Ne\\' Bern he retmned to^4j^'eldon "to 
gi\e the shipment of my troops my personal attention."^— Buring this 
period, the Sixth remained in camp at Garysburg, a stay of six days. (£3^ 

On January 30, the^egiment took the train to Kinston, arriving 
there on the same day^^t Kinston, the men joined a large expedition 
consisting of Kemper's brigade, three regiments of Brigadier General 
Matt \V. Ransom's brigade from \Veldon, Barton's brigade of 600 
cavalrv ivitltsix Napoleon cannon, and six rifled cannon and their 
cannoneer^^^oke described the Confederate battle plan: 

. . . the column . . . was to leave that point (Kinston) on 
Saturday morning and move do^vn the Trent road as if upon 
Ne^v Berne; thence across Trent River and doTvn the sotith bank 
across Brice's Creek to the rear of Ne^\' Berne, under the command 
of Brigadier-General Barton. Two regiments of Corse's brigade 
were also for\varded to Kinston on Friday, which, ^\dth 'Whit- 
ford's battalion, now on duty on north bank of Neuse River 
beloAv Kinston, fonned the column, commanded by Colonel 
Bearing, which ^\-as to make demonstrations against W'ashington, 
or if he could surprise Fort Anderson (one of the major forts 
guarding New Bern) ^vas to go in.(^> 

Hoke's brigade, ivith some of Corse's men, two regiments of Cling- 
man's brigade, and the Fifty-sixth North Carolina of Matt Ransom's 
"brigade, would advance against New Bern on the Dover Road. Their 
artillery complement was foin- Napoleons and eight rifled cannon. 
The men were marched do^vn the Dover Road to a point five miles 
from iinston on Saturday afternoon and placed in camp for the 
nightC-The plan called for the attack to be made simultaneously by 
the several columns of infantry, artillery, and cavalry.(^ 

It shoidd be remembered that the column under Hoke had orders 
to create a diversion and "draw off the enemy," not capture the city 
ol Nei\- Bern. That important objective ^vas the task of Barton's and 
Dearing's cavali^ brigades and the naval contingent tinder Com- 
mander John Taylor ^Vood.tZV 

At 6:00 A.M. on Sunday, Januaiy 31, Hoke's column, accom- 
panied by General Pickett, marched down the Dover Road in the 
iirection of New Bern. During the day, the Confederate infantry 
nrested eveiTone it encoiuitered since the element of surprise was 
mportant to its plans. At nightfall the men had reached Stevens' 



1' 



178 The Bloody Sixth 

Fork, ten miles from New Bern and two miles from the nearest 
enemy outpost. They ^\■ere ordered to make camp, but were not 



allowed to light fires for fear of alerting the enemy to their presence.^' 
At 1:00 A.M. on February 1, Pickett ordered Hoke to advance upon 
the Union outposts. Hoke's infantry advanced rapidly, capturing all 
the outposts in front of them. The column advanced down the 
road to New Bern "with all possible speed." It was important that 
the bridge over Batchelder's Creek should be captured before the 
enemy had an opportunity to destroy it. Unfoi'tunately, the Unionists 
had beenj^lannecl by the firing of the outposts "and had taken up the 1. 
bridge."(^ i 

When Pickett saw what had occurred, he ordered Hoke to wait 
until daylight enabled him to force a passage. Hoke quickly advanced 
his line at dawn and a fierce engagement began. The enemy was 
found to be in a strong position on the east side of Batchelder's Creek, 
and was rapidly reinforcing his line ^\ith infantiy brought fonvard 
by the railroad. An ironclad steam car was pushed forward on the 
railroad to support the infantiy. Shells began to fall into the Con- 
federate lines. A blockhouse within the Union lines also opened fire. 
At this crisis Hoke ordered some trees to be cut down and thro^vm 
across the creek to make a temporary bridge. Over this bridge 
Colonel Mercer, of the Tiventy-first Georgia Infantry, was pushed 
forward witli two regiments. Mercer attacked the enemy on the flank 
and lear while Hoke's other troops repaired the bridge and prepared 
to cross over. In spite of their reinforcements and under jybjs pressure, 
the Unionists soon broke and withdrew from the field.HSoke's men 
advanced so rapidly as to almost capture a train filled with Union 
troops which was moving forward to reinforce the position at 
Batchelder's Creek. The Confederate commander had planned to 
seize the train, place his men upon it "and go into New Berne." At 
this moment and for some inexplicable reason, Pickett ordered a 
halt to the pursuit. Hoke's brigade was promptly placed in position 
to meet any advance which the enemy might make from New Bern. 
Clingman was directed to cross the Trent Road, to cut off the retreat 
of the enemy from their position near Deep Gully, and pick up as 
many prisoners as possible. However, CU«gman failed in this mission 
because he did not know the country. ^3oke wrote that Clingman's 
failure to accomplish his mission, 

. . . was extremely unfortunate, as during the evening at 
different times 500 infantry and 400 cavalry passed intojhe town 
panic-stricken, leaving their camps in wild confusion.(V3) 

It should be noted that Pickett's reasons for calling off the Con- 
federate pursuit were some^vhat weak and invalid. He apologized for 
the lack of Confederate energy at the critical moment by saying that 



Hie 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 179 

he had "no cavahy, and the men much worn by the long night's 
march, and not having been allowed fires, we were unable to press 
our admntage as we would have done had there been fresh troops in 
hand."^'ftl spite of the weak Confederate pinsuit many captures were 
made. Four hundred prisoners, 2 pieces of artillery, 40 horses, 
300 small arms and equipment, "some few negroes," and a quantity 
of commissars' and quartermaster's stores, "clothing &;c," 3vere taken. 
The Sixth lost only ts\'o men, both mortally ■wounded.(j^ 

Hoke's men had advanced a distance of six miles along the rail- 
road. When they rested in line of battle to ivait for General Corse's 
brigade to come up, diey found themselves close to the town's outer 
defenses. A further advance placed the brigade -svithin a mile of the 
town. Hoke, reconnoitering the enemy's position, met widi a further 
disappointment. He saw two trains come into Ne^\' Bern from 
Morehead City. Hadn't Barton's cavaln' fulfilled its part of the plan? 
Hoke was deeply disappointed but kept his men in line of battle all 
day, hoping that Barton ivould finally advance. Late in the day, a 
dispatch amved from the unfortunate cavaln' officer, stating "that it 
was impossible for him to cross the creek." Hoke's anger at this 
information, although kept to himself, was intense. The disappointed 
Confederates ivere ordemd to svithdraw to Batchelder's Creek on 
Wednesday, Februan' S.'-^y the 4di, Hoke's weai7 troops -were back 
in their camps at Kinston, still eager for new adventures. A report 
circulated in the regiment that die men would soon be sent tQ_^ 
Salisbur)', although John K. "Walker thought "it doubtful myself." C^ 

In spite of the reverse in front of Ne\v Bern Hoke was optimistic. 
After all, the expedition had come back laden ^\ith booty: 13 Union 
officers; 284 enlisted men; and 14 Negroes captured together with 
much material. Among the latter were 2 rifled cannon and caissons, 
300 stands of small arms, 4 ambulances, 3 wagons, 103 animals, much 
clothing, some camp and gaiTison equipment, and 2 regimental flags. 
Hoke also felt that New Bern could still be captured if a determined 
effort were made. He had recruited his brigade, including the Sixth 
Regiment, back to a reasonable degree of strength since the command 
had been in North Carolina. Hoke continued: 

The troops do not look upon otu" campaign as a failure, as the 
real object was not known to diem and the capture of several rich 
camps pleased them wonderfully .... The two 3-inch rifled pieces, 
^\ith horses and ecpiipments, svas a ^•aluable prize.(%) 

Actually, Hoke and his men had no time to either be elated or 
dejected over the outcome of the engagement at Batchelder's Creek. 
The command was busy with other problems. Ninety-five carpenters 
and mechanics and fifty laborers had been recruited from Hoke's 
command to work on an ironclad gunboat, the "Neuse," which was 



180 The Bloody Sixth 

under construction at Kinston. Hoke had a supervisory capacity over 
the project and the work on another gunboat in the Roanoke, the 
"Albemarle." He hoped to have both gunboats completed by March 1. 
Until then he planned to keep his men in camp at Kinston, "and 
push forward the work, and . . . give the boat protection, which is 
absolutely necessary. . . . There is no doubt-o£ success in this under- 
taking, and we cannot and must not stop."(^ 

As the work on the gunboat progressed, rumors still circulated 
through the Sixth that the men were going to Salisbury. Their eager- 
ness was enhanced by the fact that life was difficult in the camp at 
Kinston. Rations, that perennial barometer of the life of the common 
soldier, ^vere "very common." John K. Walker, unable or unwilling 
to eat what the army furnished him, asked his father to send him a 
box of "cabbage turnips sweet potatoes 1. qt. of wheat 1 pk. of flour 
a small piece of middling meat, and a little butter." He also needed 
a good, strong flour bag to cari7 his supply of flour, and, "if you can 
get it," a quart of brandy. G^ 

Life had its interesting points, too. There was always a bit of the 
Ijoy in the Confederate soldier. This quality was evident among the 
men of the Sixth and their kinsmen. Private James H. Walker, 
Company G, Fourteenth North Carolina, stationed along the Rapidan, 
had been home recently in Alamance County. He wrote to his cousin 
John K. Walker: 

... I seen it published in the papers that your Brig, was 
detailed to go to N. C. John I kno^v that you will be glad if you 
do get to go up close to home. For there is some place in some 
of them countys that I shoidd like to look for deserters but not 
cai-e mutch whether cant (get) them or not. . . . John I hope 
that you will soon get to go home, for yoiu- Girl wants to see 
you. I ^vent to see her & spent one night with her, she was well & 
toled me to give you boys her love, for she sertainly did love you. 
John I would make a swipe at her myself but I knew that you 
had got your pigs sot so that it wotdd be tiseless to do so. John 
I had a good time, all thaL there was about it was that the time 
did not last long a nuff. \§y 

James continued by informiug John that he had visited the latter's 
home and found his family -well. Then, in debonair fashion, 

... I happened home at the right time for -(vhile thear one 
of them girls that you youst to traffic \vith had a child fine boy. 
I was close to the house at the daue but ivas not called upon. I 
send my love to all of the boys. (^5) 

It paid to be lighthearted since there was so much sadness mixed 
with army life. 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 181 

During the Sixth's stav in camp at Kinstou detachments were sent 
out to procure provisions and recruit replacements for the men 
captured at Rappaliannock Station. On A [arch 1, one of these detach- 
ments commanded by First Lieutenant Neill W. Ray collected 144 
bushels of corn and 168 pounds of hay^^m >[ajor J. L. Chisman, 
assistant quartennaster at Greensboro. ^-4^ieutenant Colonel Tate 
traveled throughout the central and -svestern portions of the state on 
recruiting duty. While on one of these trips, at Morganton, Tate, 
his mind ahvays turning back to the unfortimate members of the 
regiment capttued on the Rappahannock, -svrote Governor Vance: 

... 1 have been thinking over matters since I sa^\• you and 
would respectfully suggest that you would . . . contrive a suit of 
clothes to every North Carolina soldier noiv Field or prisoner of 
war. They are "all at Point Lookout Md. — destitute and friend- 
less. This e\idence of yoiu- care for them, -(vhen they so much 
need a friend, \\ould make such an impression as time could 
never efface, and attach them e\en more strongly to their home 
& cause. (^ 

Tate had learned that some of the men at Point Lookout were 
"almost nude." It would be wise to supply th£_,men from a political 
viewpoint, "aside from other considerations.CfjV 

John K. 'W^alker, retin-ning from a visit to his home in Alamance, 
set do-ivn while on guard duty to ^vrite his mother on March 14 to 
inform her that "I am ^^'el\ and hearty and got safe to camp on 
Saturday evening about one hour by sun and on arriving at camp I 
found all the boys well and hearty and i (n) fine spirits." ^Valker then 
gave his mother a list of some of the men in his company (K) ^vho 
hailed from Alamance: Sam Tate: Albert Graham: James Squires; 
Henn- ^\'alker: John and Joe Sha^v: Anderson Ector; Rufus McCul- 
loch; Thomas Lynch "and several others that you dont kno\\- anything 
about." Fourteen neiv men had recently joined the company, filling 
it up to capacity. AValker jokingly felt that he "was such a good 
looking boy that they had obliged to take all such boys as me." 
Eveiyone had been surprised to see Walker when he returned to 
camp because a lamror had been circulated that he was to be married. 
This was evidently the farthest thing from Walker's mind. His 
thoughts were turned to the possibility of getting a substitute, maybe 
a man bv the name of Buck Bro^vning. ^vho "used to belong to our 
Co."@) ' 

Walker's letter continued \\ith other ne\\s, usual to Confederate 
soldiers. There had been a recent alarum, "a cavalry laid on our 
picket post," which frightened the brigade and regimental officers 
sufficiently to issue marching orders which were soon counteniianded. 
Then the nostalgic. 



182 The Bloody Sixth 

Tell Jane (possibly a youngei- sister) that I am going to send 
her and Ginnie Ann a bale of snuff a piece and that I am going x- 
to send it by Jim Hall, and she can get it from Penulia Maynard. C£ 

A few days later Walker sent Jane a small book and some religious 
tracts. He also sent "some little small bills of money"' to his yoimger 
brothers. He planned to send Jane his song book "as soon as I learn 
some of the^ongs myself." In return. Walker had received a box 
from homej[^ 

Things ^\ere shaping up in the Sixth. Sixty conscripts had arrived 
in camp on March 23, proving that General Hoke and Colonel Tate 
were being successful in their recruiting efforts. What was even more 
important, at least from a contemporary viewpoint, was that the 
Sixth's prisoners at Point Lookout were well. There was even a rumor 
going around that "our Prisoners were all at Richmond and was going 
to get a furlough for 30 days." Walker felt that the men would be 
exchanged in a short time. To reveal the good humor in which most 
of the men found themselves, they participated in a great snow 
ball fight on March. 23 between Hoke's brigade and James L. Kemper's 
Virginia brigade.(iP 

Towards the end of March, a movement ivas started to invite 
Governor Vance to visit Hoke's brigade in its camps at Kinston. A 
committee, consisting of Captain Carey Whitaker, Fourty-third North 
Carolina, Major W. T. Pfohl, Twenty-first North Carolina, and 
Chaplain John Paris, Fifty-fourth North Carolina, was appointed to 
invite tlae governor to come to Kinston "and address us at your 
earliest convenience; with which invitation we have no doubt it will 
be your pleasure to comply." It was evident tha|^he brigade would 
"be happy" to receive a visit from the govemoiVTo supplement the 
invitation from the committee. Lieutenant Colonel Tate of the Sixth, 
who was cousin to Vance's wife Harriet, Avrote, 

I desire merely to say that we will expect you and I will have 
prepared for you, a separate apartment and bed in the Camp of 
this Regiment, and an extra horse and sei-vant for vqii at the 
Station ivhen you an-ive, and accompany you myself.(zv 

Tate reassured Vance that the latter might accept "any of the many 
invitations which will doubtless be extended to you," without offend- 
ing him. The colonel would meet the governor at the train with the 
ever-necessary horse and servant. There ^vere other things Tate was 
willing to do for the governor — "I hope cousin Harriet got the shad 
last -is-eek — sent by a soldier going home on furlough." He would try 
to obtain some oysters "S: other fish" in the immediate future. It was 
convenient to send a kinsman seafood when you were near the sound 
region of North Carolina, especially when that kinsman happened 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 183 

to be go^'ernor of the state. Tate also wanted something from Vance, 
the assurance that Colonel Webb would never return to take the 
command from him. He Tiuote Vance a rather timid footnote: "(Has 
Mr. W[ebb] resigned?) " ^ 

There is no extant reply from Vance, although it may be assumed 
that he did ans\\er, giving the p*ess of business as a reason for not 
being able to visit the brigade. ^— ^ 

There were other members of the Sixth Regiment, not then in the 
field, who ^\ere still to be heard. These ^\ere the officers of the Sixth 
who had been captured in the hard fighting at Rappahannock Station 
the previous November. On March 30, 1864, these men, together -svith 
nearly all the other North Carolina officers who were imprisoned 
with them at the Johnson's Island Prison, near Sandusky City, Ohio, 
appointed a special committee to prepai-e a petition. The officers from 
the Sixth who signed the petition ^vere Benjamin F. White, Samuel 
J. Crawford, Henry C. Dixon, and James H. Watson of Alamance; 
Louis H. Rotherick, James Calder Turner, and Archibald C. God^vin 
(fomierly of Virginia and California) of Rowan; Louis Warlick and 
William G. Turner of Burke; M. W. Norfleet and Jeromiah A. Lea 
of Casi\'ell; ■Willie G. Guess, Robert F. Webb, and William S. Christian 
of Orange. The petition wns prepared for embattled North Carolina, 
especially to act in opposition to the pro-Union Convention Party 
under Editor 'William Woods Holden. The North Carolina officers 
sought to reassure Vance of "the intense satisfaction with -(vhich we 
have marked the distinguished ability jmd lofty patriotism, -(vhich 
have characterized your administration. tiThe petition ivas filled ^\ith 
diat peculiar eloquence of the Nineteenth Century: 

It has been ^vith peculiar pride, diu-ing this, oiu" long and 
tedious imprisonment, that in eveiy nind that has wafted to our 
ears, a whisper from the land of oiu' birth, and of our unchange- 
able love, ^\^e have heard the utterance of our own sentiments, 
the echo of our o^v'n prayers, of our highest hopes, and purest 
aspirations, in the manly and patriotic language of the Governor 
of our State. Exiles from our homes and country, captives in the 
land of those 'who hate, and ■ivould destroy us, we watch ^\ith 
anxious concern, the progress of e\ents, and the course of the 
war; and note ivith immingled pleasure the manifestations of 
ardent patriotism and unyielding jirmness, among the masses of 
the people of our Oivn state. . . . QfP 

The petition continued ^\ith praise for a patriotic speech Vance 
had recently made in ^V^ilkesboro, "so genuine in its eloquence, so 
exalted in its patriotism, so forcible in its argimients, and withall, so 
hopefid, and confident of success," Vance's "exposition" of the Federal 
policies Tvas especially praise^vorthv. The ^\•riting continued, in the 
strong language inherent in the times; 



184 The Bloody Sixth 

The one great idea of the people of this country, is the 
subjugation of the South, and so to appropriate its property, to 
the liquidation of their stupendous debt; and the dominant 
party is stronger or weaker in proportion as the prospect of 
success is nearer or more remote. Let our people, by any event, 
either through submission or subjugation, be thro^vn on the mercy 
of this nation, and the great plan wiU have been consummated, 
and this success will have insured the perpetuity of the Repub- 
lican Party. What policv' this party would pursue in the Govern- 
ment of our Countr)', is but too plainly manifested already; ive 
gather it daily from their Congressional actions from their party 
Conventions, from their leading journals; we hear it even from 
their own lips, so to humiliate the South, so to crush her spirit, 
so to cripple her resoiuxes, so to disarm her, so to quench her 
hopes, tliat never aoain within her wjdf borders, shall even a 
■whisper be heard m clann of freedom. IK?^ 

The petition ivarned that the war -svould be -is-aged by the North 
tuitil there was no "possibility of its recuiTence." It prophesied that 
Southern pi-operty would be confiscated and given to "their soldiers 
and freedmen." The slaves would be freed, and arms ^vould be taken 
from the whites and given to the Negroes, who ■tvould also be given 
the right to vote. Suffrage wotdd be limited to those whites who had 
committed treason against the Confederacy. The Republican Party 
desired to "make of our Country, one vast ruin, so hideous, that far 
do^vn into the coming ages of mankind, it may stand as a ghastly 
warning to deter the rash patriot, that Tvould claim freedom as a 
birthright; or Republican Government as a heritage." The petition 
came to a strong conclusion in a burst of eloquence: 

War may cover the land whh sorrow and moin-ning, but peace, 
on the tenns of sidjmission, would cover it with the blackness 
of the shado^v of death. War has still the blessing of hope, but in 
such a peace, there is only the darkness of despair. In such a 
state of existence the order of nature would be reversed. Life 
woidd be the King of Tenors, and Death its only solace. In final 
eternal separation, lies oin- only hope, our only safety; other 
terms were dishonorable, were dangerous. As soldiers of N. C. as 
citizens of our young Confederacy, we can be content with no 
peace, that does not recognize us, as a free and independent 
people. 

So long Sir, as you tread the path of duty, :\ith the same manly 
unfaltering step as heretofore, so long will oin- hearts go with you 
in gratitude; so long will we hail you as among the great de- 
liverers of the State we r^jerence, from a tyi-anny more revolting 
than the visage of death. (^ 

This w'as not the last commtmication from Johnson's Island. In 
April, Colonel 'Webb ^n"ote to his kinsman. Reverend Adolphus W. 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 185 

Mangum, in answer to the latter's query about a sketch of the Sixth 
North CaroHna Regiment. The sketch was sent ^vith the apology "I 
send you my rough notes from Johnson's Island. They were intended 
for you at first, but so badly are they written and under such unfavour- 
able circumstances was the attempt made, that I have concluded they 
would be of little service to you. Ho\\ev«i', if you can make any thing 
out of them they are at vour service." ^'prhe text of this summaiy is 
included in .\ppendix C] It might be interesting to jxjint out Webb's 
comment about Rappahannock Station, his "Waterloo": 

Battle of Rappahannock Bridge Nov. 7, 1863^ com by Col. 
Webb where the whole concern was gobbled up. @) 

To^vards the end of .\pril the naturally homesick AVebb -wrote his 
sister-in-law Lucie Mangiun, expressing his happiness at the news "that 
Amanda [his ^vife] and the children were well." His health was good, 
except for a reciuTent case of some type of arm trouble. Colonel 
Godwin had been sent away from Johnson's Island on April 23, to be 
exchanged, an act which ^Vebb considered deplorable. The colonel, 
although a brave man, was naturally bitter and jealous. He put much 
of his sadness and self pity on paper: 

I have been a Prisoner so long I hardly remember the om side 
world and were we not reminded by newspapers that man is as 
much depraved as ever, we would almost loose our identity. I 
seldom bestow a thought upon any thing but my wife and little 
ones. You know how dearly I love my home. I have sufered^— ^ 
teribly, though not from any bad treatment as a Prisoner of War.' — 

Webb had met ^vith many sympathetic Northerners ^vho had given 
him many "comforts other\\ise I could not procure." The problem 
was not one of food or warmth; it was simply the fact that "it is 
terible hard ivork doing nothing." The lancl in ^vhich he was im- 
prisoned \vas so strange, especially the climate which was still cold 
and harsh compared to the \\'armth of a North Carolina April. 
Fortunately most of the officers of the Sixth who were imprisoned at 
Johnson's Island were in good physical condition-^hat is, everyone 
except Captain Pan'ish who was "not so A\eIl."^Vebb concluded 
with die pathos peculiar to a man who hadn't seen his loved ones for 
a long time and had little prospect for seeing them in the immediate 
future: 

Tell Amanda to bear ujj bra\ely and cherfully. I am hopeful 
it ■(vill not be long before we meet .... Give mv love and kiss all 
the children for me, present my kind regards to your father and 
Ada. Remember me to William Lunsford and Sallie. I ivrite 
even' week home. My mother and sister are well [in Baltimore]. 



186 The Bloody Sixth 

They ivrite to me often. Tell Amanda she must continue to 
write. . . . good bye and may God bless yon. . . (n_^ 

Other men in die Sixth ;vrote home from prison in die spring of 
1864. On April 14, Private Tilmon Vance, imprisoned at Point Look- 
out, Maryland, ^vrote Governor Vance: 

I am well ... & hope the time will not be long tel I git to 
go home. 

Vance was in the Eighth Division at the prison and hadn't seen his 
home in three years. He advised the governor that, 

Dixey tobacco is the cr\' here. If you ^\ill send me a box of 
tobacco_or a check for fifteen or twenty dollars and I will make it 
rite. (t£) 

War bred homesick men, not all of ivhom were located in far away 
Northern prisons. John K. Walker might be considered to be one of 
these. Although comparatively safe in camp at Ivinston he wTote home 
often, usually aljout details of camp life and pro^^sions he hoped to 
receive from home. His correspondence provides a chronicle of the 
life in the Sixth Regiment. On April 4, he wrote. 

There is nothing strange to \\'rite at this time, all the boys are 
well with the exception of Albert Graham he is complaining some 
but I dont think it anything more than [a] bad cold. James 
Stpiires is well and looks well we have had a great deal of rain 
Avithin the last ^veek, but the weather has faired off now. (7^ 

The Sixth had recently received a great many conscripts; Company 
K, alone, numbered fifty-seven men. The nimiber of men physically 
able to perform active duty ^vas grooving, although at a very slow rate. ^ 

Walker's correspondence mentioned such diverse events as "I 
sent another Song Ballad to Jane in that last letter I wrote which had 
that money in and I want you to write whether you got it or not," 
to tlie disapproval of a furlough requested by one of the officers, or 
"there was one^eauit died in Co. 'C last night, and another also 
some days ago.'tjXlost of the letters contain allusions to supplies either 
received by Walker or sent by him to his family. At one time in the 
spring of 1864, he wrote, 

... I want to know if you ever got that blanket I sent to old 
Johnie Walkers and if you got that pr. of shoes that I sent to 
Barnwells and that red blanket I sent by James Hall . . . and if 
you got that saddle girt I sent in diat trunk. . . . (23* 

Again, on April 4, 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 187 

Tell Uncle Epharim that my shoes are all right. CS-' 

Walker continued this familiar line of conversation on April 7, pro- 
viding an important glimpse into the provisions which North Carolina 
soldiers in the field received from their families: 

Father I want yon to send me a pk. of peas and some flour 
by James Hall he is going to start back about the 18th of the 
month, and you can send the peas and flotn- down to William 
Barnhills about the 17th of the month. I am going to have [to] 
send two little bottles and my flour polk by Hall, and you can 
just fill it up ^\ith flour and send me a pk of peas and my little 
polk full of ilonr.m) 



In this same letter Walker assiued his father about the new men in 
the Sixdi. Although the regiment had suffered some discomfort 
during a two-week period of rain, the substitutes were "getting along 
fine, and seeny^> be well satisfied." Most of them were "very good 
looking men."^One wonders how they were able to stay out of the 
army until the spring of 1864. 

The morale of the Sixth, at least judging by Walker's letters, must 
have been fairly high dining its stay at Kinston. The general health 
of the men was good and their spirits were certainly raised by the 
visits of pretty young girls like "Miss Susan Bird." Spirits were also 
raised by occasional furloughs, which permitted those men kept in 
camp to maintain a direct link with home since the men going on 
furlough were ahvays entrusted with letters and packages for loved 
ones on the home front. When these same men returned to the 
regimental camp they brought boxes from home back with them.(^ 

This apparent lightheartedness didn't stop the men from having 
a slightly fatalistic attitude alsout life. After all, this was a natinal 
feeling \vhen one had faced enemy bullets almost daily through three 
long years of war, as some of the men in the Sixth had done. Some 
of the men, entranced with this theme, wrote poetry about it: 



23 I trust that Im prepared to die 
I trust that I shall reign on high 
And when I leave this world behind 
I hope a better one to find 

24 Farewell my father and Mother dear 
you have been cruel and severe 

I hope God will forgive the same ,^-'-~\ 

Though you have greatly been to blame C_^J/ 



Some of the men, although not quite so pessimistic, didn't relish 
the opportimity of facing the enemy. One of this type. Private C. S. 



188 The Bloody Sixth 

Holleman, had been seized and forced into the army, although he 
had previously hired a substitute to take his place. Holleman, 
obviously thoroughly dissatisfied with the service, ^wote to Governor 
Vance from his tent in Company I of the Sixth: 

I am a farmer and have left my wife and little children the 
oldest not 5 years old and no man person belonging to my plan- 
tation and when I was at home I had the charge of 2 other 
soldiers' fairms, if you wish for me to have an equal chance with 
my fellow citizens you ^vill please forward to my commanding 
officer my release in furlough or any thing you think proper and 
when the men who have furnished substitutes are called in 
service I will return to my Regt.(_£3) 

Holleman, a resident of Chatham Comity, was 'Svilling to bear" his 
share, but wanted to help his family plant a crop. He would return 
to the army when "all are called out on the same footing." There is 
no record of Vance's reply, but we may sjinnise that the solicitous 
governor treated Holleman ^vith fairness. CZi^ 

Vance had other problems relating to men in the Sixth. Monroe 
Oliver of Hightowers, Caswell County, formerly a lieutenant in the 
regiment, wrote the governor to ask for his help in obtaining the 
position of Confederate tax collector in "our comity." James L. McKee 
of Yanceyville, a man under forty-five years of age who had never 
served in the army and who "has been speculating on Liquors &:c." 
had been appointed to the position. Oliver wanted the governor to 
force McKee out of office and appoint him. The former lieutenant 
presented a convincing argiunent: 

I have served in this war nearly two years gone through eight 
hard fought battles &: offered up my life as a sacrifice for my 
comiti7 although not compelled to go until recently on account 
of Ijeing a Justice of the Peace but 1 thought it a duty I owed 
to my country &; I went at the first call I volunteered as a private 
but when I was wounded at Sharpsburg I was Lieutenant being 
disabled from the service by having a grape pass through the 
calf of my leg cutting thesmall bone of my leg in twain & 
disabled almost for life[.] ^^z 

01i^■er, a\1io gave the names of William Long and S. S. Harrison, 
both members of the General Assembly, as references, was indignant 
that "sjsecidators" were "appointed to keep out of the anny as long- 
as there are wounded men capable of doing the same business." Even 
if the governor couldn't appoint him there were many other wounded 
veterans in Caswell Coumy. Again, we can find no record of the 
action taken by Vance. vH^ 

In early April, Hoke, chagrined at the failure in front of Ne^v Bern 
and anxious to perform some service of value to the Confederacy in 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 189 

North Carolina, determined to attack the fortified to^vn of Plymouth 
on the Roanoke Ri%er, about 50 miles east of Tarboro and 125 miles 
below AVeldon, terminus of the \Vilmington and ^Veldon Railroad. 
Plymouth, an important ri\er port and military post some seven 
miles ^\•est of the mouth of the Roanoke, was garrisoned by 3,000 
Union troops commanded by Brigadier General Heni7 W. Wessells 
of Cooperstown, Ne^\- York. Dming the year and a half that the 
Unionists had been in cor^rol of the town, Plymouth had been made 
into a veritable Gibraltar.CAtcording to a Confederate writer, 

... on its left flank is Coneby Creek, skirted on either side 
^vith an impassable morass. The enemy had thrown up a very 
heavy fortication in front, extending from the river to the 
creek — a distance of a mile — with a deep ditch in front. At short 
intervals along this line ^vere siege and field guns in embrasure 
and in the centre ivas the \V'iIIiams Fort, mounting 6 very heavy 
siege and 3 field guns in batteries. This fort occupied a com- 
manding elevation; was exceedingly strong, with a deep ditch 
and impenetrable stockade surroiniding it, enclosed on all sides, 
and in case of assault was protected with a heavy gate and 
dra^vbridge, thus closing the only entrance into the Fort. Inside 
of this line were three other forts, mounting tivo to four siege 
guns in barbette, protecting their left flank and rear. Immediately 
upon the river ^vas one 200-Parrott rifle in position. On their 
right flank, about 600 yards in ad\ance of the main line was 
Fort Wessell, similar to Fort Williams — not so large — and mount- 
ing tA\o guns. One mile higher up the river ivas Fort Wanen, of 
like construction, mounting one 100 Panott and several other 
guns of heavy calibre, all commanding the river and any land 
attack. In addition were four gun-boats to co-operate with these 

"Wessells, hearing that the Confederate ironclad ram "Albemarle," 
commanded by Captain James W. Cooke, ^\•as nearly completed up 
the river at Halifax, made arrangements to deal with her. The 
Roanoke -was blocked with lines of stakes and sunken vessels filled 
with sand, and "infested" -svith torpedoes. According to the Con- 
federates, "every appliance of engineering skill and yankee industry 
with pick and spade had been exhausted for a t\\'elve months' lal)or 
to make Plymouth a Sebastojxjl." Wessells' force consisted of five 
regiments of infantry and several companies of heavy and light 
artillen- and cavalry. The naval fleet was commanded by Captain 
Charles \V. Flusser of Kentucky, "said to be an officer of rare in- 
trepidity and merit." Altogether the obstacles facing the Confederates 
were formidable, tho^^vere not impregnable against a prolonged and 
detennined assault.^^^^ 

The Confederate force that prepared to march against Plymouth 
consisted of the infantiy brigades of Matt W. Ransom, James La^vson 



190 The Bloody Sixth 

Kemper (commanded by Colonel Terry) , and Robert F. Hoke. 
Colonel Jimmy Bearing's regiment of cavaliy and several batteries 
of field artillei-)' commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Branch and 
Major Reid rounded out the expedition. Hoke, as senior brigadier, 
commanded the entire force. His brigade was composed of the Sixth, 
Twenty-first, and Forty-third North Carolina and the T^venty-first 
Georgia, commandecL by Colonel Mercer of the T'venty-first Georgia, 
the senior colonel{_^ 

Hoke's expedition was carried to Tarboro by train; it left that 
place at 10:00 A.M. on Friday, April 15. Kemper's men were in the 
lead, followed by Ransom's brigade and Hoke's troops. The day was 
disnral and the rain fell incessantly upon the men as they plodded 
along the muddy road. That night the expedition encamped two 
miles west of Hamilton on the Roanoke, fifteen miles from Tarboro. 
Colonel William Gaston Lewis, commanding the Forty-third North 
Carolina in Hoke's brigade, wrote his wife: 

We are all in good spirits, 8c have no doubt of our success. 
The weather is rather disagreeable, but I stand it ven' well. 



As Le^vis ^vrote, the rain came poiuing down in toiTcntsS— On the 
morning of the 16th, the march continued to the east. The column 
bypassed to the south of AVilliamston, infiltrated by Lhiion patrols. 
It would be fatal for their plans to miscarry at this point. The element 
of surprise Avas essential. By nightfall the column had reached 
Foster's Mill "and rested until 5 a.m. on Sunday [April 17] to allow 
the pontoons to be put down in the creek, ivhich we foiurd to be 
six feet deep although citizens had told to Cenl. Hoke it could be 
easily forded." At 5:00 A.M. the march ^vas continued: the distance to 
Plymouth was sixteen miles. The route the expedition was forced to 
take, however, placed the actual distance traveled at tiventy-two 
miles. While the expedition was in the vicinity of "^Villiamston it 
was joined by the Thirty-fifth North Carolina, on picket duty in the 
area, and by a battalion of cavaln' under Bearing and Lieutenant 
Colonel Branch's artillei^ battalion, "consisting of sections of 
Graham's (Va.) Pegram's (full) Bradford's and other batteries." The 
total number of guns amouiued to thirty-five. The entire Confederate 
force numbered 7,000 men. (j? 

The troops moved rapidly by way of "a good many cross roads" 
through |ames^•iHe and to '(vithin five miles of Plymouth. At this 
point Bearing, commanding Kemper's brigade and some twenty- 
pounder Parrott guns, turned off to the left to attack Fort Gray at 
Warren's Neck. This fort, which commanded the upstream ap 
proaches to the town, was located one and a half miles above Ply- 
mouth on the river bank and two miles north of the Jamesville- 



A Badlv Needed Victory Under Hoke 191 

Plymouth Road. The brigades of Hoke and Ransom continued on 
the main road toward Plymouth. Finding that the bridge over 
Welch's Creek had been torn down, Hoke ordered his men to cross on 
a mill dam. Anxious to make the attack, the men pressed forward 
rapidly, proceeding to the Washington Road by a roundabout way. 
The column then continued on the Washington Road to its junction 
with the Jamesville Road two miles southwest of the town. A com- 
pany of Bearing's cavalry charged the Union picket, killing two and 
capturing nine. Two men escaped to give the alarm. Events now 
happened in rapid succession. The element of surprise being lost, 
Hoke quickly formed his men into two lines of battle. His brigade 
was placed on both sides of the road four hundred yards in advance 
of Ransonr's men. Ransom's brigade was placed entirely to the right 
of the road. Soon the stirring sound of Union drums beating the 
"Long Roll" filled the air. The garrison of Plymouth was being 
mustered to meet this sudden threat from the south. The artillery in 
Fort ^\'illiams and along the Union line began to throw shells at 
Hoke's men, "but owing to the di^ance no harm is done." The Con- 
federate batteries did not reply. (3^ 

While Hoke ^\as beginning his battle south of Plymouth, Bearing 
began an accurate cannonade against strongly-defended Fort Gray 
from a distance of fifteen hundred yards. The fort's three gims and 
two supporting giniboats in the river quickly answered Bearing's fire. 
Soon the Confederate artillei-\- fire began to take effect. Fort Gray's 
garrison flagstaff ^\as cut do^vn, one of die Union gunboats was sunk, 
the other \\as badly damaged and forced to withdraw "a respectful 
distance." Bearing's sharpshooters moved closer and closer to the 
fort, pouring in an accurate musketiy fire, \\'hich annoyed the fort's 
cannoneers and caused their firing to be wild. Bearing kept the fort 
tmder siege, biit delayed making an infantn- assault due to a fear of 
heav-y losses. (fi^ 

Hoke, hearing the sound of Beai-ing's guns, ordered his skirmishers 
to advance. Soon the men were shuffling through the pine -woods in 
front of the Union lines, poining in a heavy fire, a fire -idiich was con- 
tinued until nightfall. Biuing the night Hoke's line was moved 
forward and farther to the left. At 2:30 in the morning the Fifty-sixth 
North Carolina was ordered to prepare brestworks for Branch's guns 
in a position in advance of the main Confederate battle line and just 
behind the skirmishers. A detail of 250 men kept up the work 
throughout the night, until relieved by a Company of die Fifty-sixth 
at daylight. Throughout the day the work was continued by 
one company at a time, "under the enemy's fire." The Forty-third 
North Carolina, on skirmish duty during the night, ivas relie\ed 
by the T^venty-fifth North Carolina at dawn: and companies from 
other commands extended the skirmish line finther to the right. (^ 



192 The Bloody Sixth 

Early in the morning Blanch's guns began a heavy fire against the 
various Union fortifications in and about Plymouth. This fire was 
"vigorously responded to" by the Union batteries. Late in the morn- 
ing, Hoke determined to captiu-e Fort Wessells which, as previously 
mentioned, was detached from the remainder of the Union line. The 
Confederate infantry which was selected to make the assault was com- 
posed of Hoke's and Kemper's brigades and one battery of artillery 
under Major Reid. Hoke ordered Ransom's brigade and fointeen 
pieces of Branch's artillei-)' to make a strong demonstration against 
the town at the moment of his attack against Fort Wessells. Ransom 
moved his skimiishers forward, "under Pegram and .Applewhite, of 
his staff." The men advanced with spirit at a rapid pace and pushed 
the Union skinnishers back into their breastworks. According to a 
contemporary accoimt, 

The enemy had now commenced a furious shelling when our 
artillery advanced at a dashing gallop for a half a mile over an 
open field, and took position at aliout 1500 yards from the 
enemy's works, each battel^ opening fire as it reached its position. 
The solid line of infanti-y pressing forward at a double quick to 
support the artillei^. The enemy cannon raised a most terrific 
fire from all their forts and gimboats upon the artillery. Still it 
was unheeded: and as they would get our range the batteries 
would liml)er to the front, dash forward at full gallop and open 
a murderous fire upon the enemy. Again and again did they 
advance imtil they were in 800 yards of Fort Wijliams, the 
infantry pressing closely up, but reserving their fire.(_f^ 

Ransom's demonstration had begun at sunset. The night ^\as clear, 
with a full moon. According to the same writer. 

The siffht was maarnificent — the screaming hissing shell, meet- 
ing and passing each other through the sulphurous air, appeared 
as blazing comets with their burning fuses, and would burst ivith 
frightful noise, scattering their fragments as thick as hail/^7) 

During this fighting the Confederate infantry was able to escape 
most of the Union fire by advancing its lines Avhenever the artillery 
would get the range. The shells woidd then "in most cases [pass] over 
us." One participant recorded the fact that "it was certainly the 
heaviest dose of Iron I ever took." Another reason for the small 
Confederate loss was due to the rolling nature of the ground over 
which the men advanced. Ransom's demonstration began at 6:00 P.M. 
and ended about 10:00 P.M., with the Confederate skirmishers within 
100 yards of the enemy's works, and the main line of infantry within 
400 to 500 yards. Nearly all Branch's artillei7 ammunition had been 
expended, forcing the ivithdrawal of the artillery at 10:00 P.M. His 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 193 

infantry remained in position until 1:00 A.M. when it was withdrawn 
to its former position. According to a particpant, 

Leaving a small show of skimiishers we fall back to our former 
position, hearing that Hoke's men are all around the fort, some of 
them in it as prisoners, but that it has not sunendered, and 
bitterly disa]jpointed at our gunboat not making its appearance 
as expected-thinking that if Avhat we gone through with was only 
a demonstration, what must a fight be. In fact we fell to sleep, 
deeming it more probable that the morro^v would bring orders 
for Tarboro than for Plymouth./^ 

While Ransom's demonstration ivas succeeding on the right, Hoke 
made prepaj-ations to assault Fort Wessells, or, as some called it, the 
Eighty-fifth Redoubt, on the left. The position was a small but strong 
earth fort defended by forty-two enlisted men of Company K, Eighty- 
fifth New York Regiment under Ca]3tain Nelson Chapin, Lieutenant 
L. A. Butts, and Second Leutenant S. S. Peake; and twenty-three 
enlisted inen of Company H, Second iXIassachusetts Heavy Artillei7 
under Second Lieutenant H. L. Clark. The fort's armament consisted 
of "a light 32 pounder on a ship carriage, and an old-pattern iron 
6-pounder field piece." Hoke intended to use his own brigade, com- 
manded by Colonel John T. .Mercer, Twenty-first Georgia Regiment, 
and Kemper's brigade imder Colonel ^Villiam Terry. A vigorous 
infantry attack was launched against the position, an attack which 
is described by an officer in the fort: 

... a heavy colimin of infantry was advanced to assault the 
redoubt. This colimin was opened upon by our musketry when 
about 100 yards distant, but it advanced steadily and soon 
enveloped the redoubt on every side, jjouring in a heavy fire. 
The abatis ivas soon penetrated, ^vhen hand-grenades were used 
by us, apparently ^vith great effect, as the attacking force soon 
retired, to rally again, however, in a short time/f?) 



-*&" y , 



The men in the Sixth, participating in the attack with the rest 
of the brigade, did not suffer from the hand grenades. According to 
the regimental historian, "the enemv threw hand-ffrenftcles quite 
freely, but they did not prove to be very destructive. '^^Fne attacks 
upon the fort continued, after a temporary delay. During the delay, 
about twenty-six men of the attacking force surrendered to the fort's 
gamson. These men were "assisted to scale the walls into the redoubt," 
but later proved to be "a great embarrassment" to their captors. The 
fort finally capitulated when Confederate artilleiy was concentrated 
against it. Confederate sharpshooters assisted the artilleiy in throwing 
a heavy banage against the fort. According to Lieutenant L. A. Butts, 



194 The Bloody Sixth 

who assumed command after Captain Nelson Chapin, the fort's com- 
mander was disabled. 

The small building in the corner of the work, upon which the 
fire was concentrated, proved a source of great danger. The per- 
cussion shells from tire enemy's guns struck its roof and chimney, 
exploding and sending deadly missiles to nearly every part of the 
redoubt. . . . The fire was also very effective upon the walls of the 
redoubt, penetrating deep and throwing off much earth by the 
explosions. The sand-bags were broken and thrown off the para- 
pet, so as to destroy the loop-holes on the sides of attack. After 
the second cannonade had been some time continued, fire was 
opened in that direction by our giui-boats, but their slrells passed 
over and exploded far beyond tlie enemy's batteries. Some shells 
from the town seemed to better elevated and l:)etter timed, but 
were without apparent effect. The last two shells from the gun- 
boats struck and exploded, one on the parapet, the other upon 
the traverse covering the^oor of the magazine, both in perfect 
range for the magazine/W^ 

Faced with this destructive fire, some of it from their own gun- 
boats, the officers in the fort held a council of war. It was decided to 
surrender because the Confederate infanti'y was now between the 
fort and the towai, the fort's cartridges were almost expended, "only 
half a dozen grenades were left," the fort's, artillerymen were disabled, 
the prisoners were a detriment, there was no way to spike the gims 
or make signals for aid, and 

There appeared in the darkness no hope of efficient help from 
the gini-boats or from the town batteries, and the fire receivecL— 
from the gini-boats, if repeated, left no safe place in the work. ^' 

The fort surrendered at 11:00 P.M. Total casualties for both sides 
in the attack were tliree killed and eight wounded in the ganison and 
about sixty killed and wounded in the attacking force. Probably the 
worst loss suffered by the Confederates was the death of Colonel 
Mercer, who had led Hoke's brigade in the attack. The number of 
prisoners captured by the Confederates was fifty-two, all of them taken 
by Colonel Jimmy Bearing, the intrepidj^rginia cavalryman who 
accepted the surrender for General Hoke.(_^5^ 

The capture of Fort Wessells was important to Hoke's men for it 
removed a "vei^ important flank position" from their left flank. It 
proved to be of great value, especially after the ironclad ram "Albe- 
marle" succeeded in running past the giuis of the town at 2:00 A.M. on 
April 19. The "Albemarle" performed great service to the Confed- 
erate cause when she sank the U. S. S. "Southfield" in the river below 
Plymouth and drove the gunboat "Miami" into Albemarle Sound to 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 195 

the protection of the Union Blockading Squadron. The weary men in 
Hoke's and Kemper's brigades could sleep upon their anns that night 
knowing that the friendly "Albemarle" had control of the Roanoke 
River. Plymouth was no^v completely surrounded by the Confederate 
forces. (IB^ 

During the morning of the 19th, reinforcements from Ransom's 
brigade were ordered to support Hoke and Terry [commanding 
Kemper's brigade] on the left. A heavy artillery duel developed dur- 
ing the day between the two forces. Hoke devoted his time in making 
a "more thorough reconnoissance." Fortified \vith his newly-derived 
knowledge of the Union position, Hoke called off a projected attack 
by his reinforced troops on the left. Instead, he ordered Ransom to 
take his brigade and move across Coneby Creek. The plan ^vas to 
attack Plymouth on the Confederate right or eastern side. After en- 
coimtering some opposition at the creek (the bridge was down and a 
Union force was intrenched on the opposite side) Ransom's men 
crossed and spent the idght of the 19th in line of battle immediately 
in front of the \.o\s\\.([^^ 

When Generals Hoke and Ransom separated on the afternoon of 
the 19th, it was agreed that l^ansom would signal Hoke by firing 
a rocket as soon as he was in an assault position. Hoke woidd then 
attack the Asestern approaches to Plymouth with his and Kemper's 
brigades, and "Ransom on the right would make a demonstration 
or attack, as he drought best." At 1:00 A.M. on the 20th, Ransom 
notified Hoke that he was in position and would attack at dawn 
"and intended to cany the place by assault." Hoke was asked to 
co-operate with a simultaneous attack or demonstration. Hoke then 
called a council of war, notified his regimental field officers of 
Ransom's intentions, and "by his confidence, coolness, and resources 
seemed to inspire them thoroughly with his own self-reliance." He 
placed his artillery behind his infantry, causing the Uniea gunners 
to overshoot his lines in the demonstration of the 20th. vlfiv 

The attack on the morning of April 20 was made by Ransom's 
brigade. A careful study of the ground about Plymouth will enable 
the reader to understand why this was done. On the west side of 
town, in front of Ploke's forces, a deep and swampy stream inter- 
vened bet^veen the Confederates and the Union positions on top of 
"Camp Hill" and about Battery Worth. Immediately behind Hoke's 
troops floAved the forbidding stretch of W^elch's Creek, which cut off 
possible retreat in case of a Confederate defeat. For these reasons, 
Hoke placed most of the burden of the attack on Ransom's men. 
Althousrh the Sixth Regiment wasn't involved in the assault, it is 
important to briefly describe \xO^^^^ 

At daybreak on the 20th, Ransom's men ivere aroused from a 
fitful slumber to make the attack. The men Avere still exhausted 



196 The Bloody Sixth 

from their marches and exertions of the day before and "nearly 
chilled with cold." The participating troops were the Fifty-sixth, 
Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth, Thirty-fifth, and Eighth North Carolina 
Regiments. With a rapid movement in quick time the line surged 
forward, the ironclad "Albemarle" steaming along the river bank to 
aid the infanti^. Lieutenant Colonel John W. Graham of the Fifty- 
sixth North Carolina, son of Confederate Senator William A. Graham, 
described the charge in a letter to his father: 

Soon it becomes double tpiick [time] and "yells" break from 
the whole line which are ans\\-erecl by Hoke's Brigade on other 
side, tlien into a marsh in some places waist deep and impassable 
for our right, which has to be withdrawn and canied through 
by a flank. The 25th is the same fix and our Regt. gets ahead of 
it and fomis under a heavy shower of minnie balls at the edge of 
town and % of a mile from Avhere Ave started and on the right 
of 24th, our left resting on the stream and 25th going to our 
right. The 8th and 35th were still engaged at the Forts (Fort 
Comfort and the Coneljy Redoubt) on either side of the road but 
soon come up, 35th passing between us & 24tli and going to the 
left. The 8th is still to the left facing at nearly at right angles 
and are hotly engaged with the enemy. We are now in position 
and I see nothing more of 8th, 35th, or 25 diu-ing the fight as 
houses intervene between us and 24th moving on, [Colonel] 
Faison filed to the right and started by the left flank up the 
street./^eF) 

The Union forces put uj) a "hot" resistance, firing from behind 
houses and in alleyways. Graham quickly formed his regiment in 
line of battle near the line of the Twenty-foiuth North Carolina. A 
piece of artillery was placed in the center of the Confederate line 
near the Plymouth jail. The entire line then performed a right 
oblique and charged forward. The enemy was found "undergi-ound 
in holes," but soon surrendered. Over fifty prisoners were taken in 
this attack. Graham looked around for Colonel Faison, the regimental 
commander, but he couldn't find him. He then saw that he was in 
command of all of the Fifty-sixth except for "the t^vo right companies." 
At the far end of the street a Union cannon and caisson ivith twelve 
horses were firing at his men. Graham charged the piece, captured the 
caisson, and wounded two of the horses: but the sergeant in charge 
of the cannon blew up the limber and killed and ^sounded six horses. 
Graham described the end of the Ijattle: 

I then advanced the men and getting a flank fire succeeded in 
capturing all the Yankees along the whole of west line of fortifica- 
tions, over 200 of them. Several of my men calling out that the 
Yankees were rimning for the Fort [Fort Williams] ... I advanced 



A Eadlv Needed Victory Under Hoke 197 

the line across the breast [works] on om- left front but soon 
found out that the Federal Flag was still Hying. I then fell back 
within the fortifications and formed line again Avith 24th. I 
got a ball through my overcoat about this time. Hoke's Brigade 
now came in and Sharpshooters being placed around the jMincipal 
fort and artilleiy brought up very close, the flag was hauled dowp..^ 
and Brig, Genl. ^\'essells and command received as prisoners. QfJ) 

The fighting at Fort ^Villiams Avas desperate. Although Hoke's 
brigade had advanced into Plymouth when Ransom's men had pene- 
trated the eastern defenses of the town, the Confederates were stopped 
short at the fort. Repeated assaults failed to dislodge Wessells and a 
handful of his men ^vho were determined on continued resistance. 
There was finally nothing left to do except to bring fonvard artilleiy. 
Before the artillery opened fire, Hoke made an oflfer during a personal 
interview between the two men. The Clonfederate demanded the 
unconditional surrender of Plymoiuh in consideration of Wessells' 
"untenable position, of the impossibility of relief" and of the fact that 
the defense had been conducted honorably. Wessells refused to con- 
sider surrender, although he later admitted that Hoke's general 
attitude had been "courteous and soldierlike." Hoke then prepared 
to rene^v the ofl'ensive. ArtilleiT was brought forward from all direc- 
tions and fired upon Fort 'W^illiams. Wessells described the bombard- 
ment: 

This terrible fire had to be endured -ivithout reply, as no man 
could live at the guns. The breast-height ^vas struck by solid shot 
on every side, fragments of shells sought almost every interior 
angle of the \\ork. the Avhole extent of the parapet was swept by 
musketry, and men were killed and woimded even on the ban- 
quette slope. A covered excavation had been previously con- 
structed, to which the wounded were conveyed, Avhere they re- 
ceived efficient medical attention. (^^^ 

Under this pressiue AVessells "had the mortification of siia.cnder- 
ing my post" to the Confederates at 10:00 A.^f. on April 20.^^^ 

Hoke placed Lieutenant Colonel Graham in command of the town 
and proceeded to survey the supplies he had captured. These included 
2,500 captured Union troops, 300 Negroes, 30 pieces of artillery in- 
cluding 2 one himdred-pounder Parrott guns, complete garrison 
equipment, 100.000 ijoiuicls of meat, 1,000 barrels of flour, 300 horses, 
3,000 stand of small arms, and 1 steamer. Two Union gunboats were 
sunk and one [the "Miami"] was crippled. The Union loss in killed 
and wounded was about 250: the attacking Confederates estimated 
their losses to be 75 killed and 430 wounded. In addition to this, the 
Confederates lQ*tel^ gnn by an explosion, 2 limbers "blown up," and 
12 horses killedV-Tiie Sixth suffered a loss of 5 killed and 30 ivoimded. 



198 The Bloody Sixth 

According to the Greensboro Patriot, J. E. Saunders, J. Tilley, A. 
Weavil, John [Sergeant J. E.] Lyon, ancl Privates J. E. Borden, John 
McGee, R. Pittman, E. Nelson, F. Page, John Childress, A. B. 
Ephriam, E. P. Hyatt, and John Reece were patients in hospitals at 
Wilson and Goldsboro shortly after the hanle.C^S^ 

The usual telegrams were sent by Hoke and his lieutenants to 
commemorate and announce their victory. Commander John Taylor 
Wood, an acting aide to Hoke, assiued an anxious Governor Vance: 

The land & water attack upon Plymoutliunder Gen. Hoke 8c 
Comdr. Cooke was complete success. . . . (2^^ 

Hoke wired Braxton Bragg, President Davis' militai7 advisor: 

I have stormed and carried this placej_capturing 1 brigadier, 
1,600 men, stores, 25 pieces of artillery. (^^;^ 

Davis himself wrote Hoke, congratulating the young brigadier 
for his victory. A reward was included: 

Accept my thanks and congratulations for the brilliant success 
\vhich has attended your attack and capture of Plymouth. You are 
promoted to be a major-general from that date. Lil^ 

The Confederate Congress congratulated Hoke and Cooke "and 
the officers ancbjnen under their command," for the "Brilliant victoi^" 
at Plymouth>-Siich a faithful correspondent as John K. 'Walker was 
not to be outdone. He informed his father, 

It was one of the completes! vicjLorys won during the ^\-ar .... 
We all got just what we -wanted. (^ 

Walker's elation ivas increased by the fact the Company K suffered 
the loss of only two killed and three wounded. Most of the men from 
around Mebane, "Jimmie Stjuires, George Maynard, Capt. Vincent," 
w^ere all right. There was a note of indecision in Walker's mind: "I 
don't know where we will ,p» from here. Some say to little Washington 
but I don't know where. 'v|^ 

There was another more sinister side to the victoi7 at Plymouth 
which the men in the Sixth probably knew nothing about. In mid- 
July, 1864, Union Major General Benjamin F. Butler wrote to 
Lieutenant General U. S. Grant, then engaged in the siege of Peters- 
burg. Butler had examined a Negro soldier named Samuel Johnson, 
an orderly sergeant in Company D, Second Ihrited States Colored 
Cavalry, ivho accused memljers of the Sixth and Eighth North Caro- 
lina Regiments of murdering all Negroes found in Union uniforms. 
Johnson had been captured at the fall of Plymouth, been detained 



A Badly Needed Victory Under Hoke 199 

in Raleigh for "about a month," and was then attached to the Sixth 
North Carolina Regiment in front of Richmond as the personal 
servant of "Lieutenant Johnson." He had then escaped and made 
his way into the Union lines ^vhere he eventually found Butler and 
told him his ston': 

Upon the capture of Plymouth by the rebel forces all the 
negroes foimd in blue imiform, or with any outward marks of a 
Union soldier upon him, i\as killed. I saw some taken into the 
woods and hung. Others I saw stripped of all their clothing and 
then stood upon the bank of the ri\er ^vith their faces rivenvard 
and there they ^\ere shot. 

Still others were killed Ijy having their brains beaten out by 
the biut end of the muskets in the hands of the rebels. All ^vere 
not killed the day of the captme. Those that were not were placed 
in a room with their officers, they [the officers] having previously 
been dragged throtigh the toivn with ropes around their necks, 
Avhere they ivere kept confined imtil the folloiving^moniing, 
■sdren the remainder of the black soldiers were killed. (^^^ 

Butler Avrote Grant in white-hot anger, basing his case entirely 
upon Johnson's statement. The Massachusetts officer felt that it was 
up to Grant to act on Johnson's claim. In his letter he eiToneously 
stated that the Sixth North Carolina "is still at Plymouth." Nothing 
ever came of these accusations. A thorough study of all available regi- 
mental correspondence does nothing to substantiate these claims. 
Until authentic evidence is micovered, it is impossible to arrive at any 
other conclusion than that the entire spHfjnent is the biased opinion 
of someone -ivith a vivid imagination. (j^>' 

.\fter the victon' at Plymouth, Hoke became determined to clear 
eastern North Carolina of Union troops. Moving rapidly he advanced 
his force against Washington on the Pamlico, almost midway 
between Plymouth and Ne^v Bern. AVhen the Confederates arrived in 
front of Washington they found the x.ow\\ had been evacuated by the 
enemy. Hoke sent Jimmy Bearing's cavalry after them and made 
arrangements to send ageru*-to Hyde County, east of Washington, in 
search of corn and bacoiiv_3pne Sixth Reoiment entered Washington, 
but on April 27 was marched to Greenville in an unsuccessful search 
for the enemy. Camping at Greenville for one day, the men, ac- 
companied by the Third Virginia Infantn', left for Washington on 
Sunday, May 1. The weary troops filed into the small town on the 
Pandico on the 2nd, having marched a distance of twenty-two miles. 
Here they remained for a time, together with the remainder of a 
hastily improvised garrison: The Third Virginia; the Sixth; one 
artillery battery: and one cavalry regiment. Hoke ordered the re- 
mainder of his brigade to return to Kinston. John K. AValker wTote 
home on May 3 and described the situation: 



200 The Bloody Sixth 

... I am noA\' sitting back in W'ashington, N. C. in a fine 
house ^vriting by candle light .... Our Co. [K] is on Provost 
Guard in Town and the ballance of the Regt. is about 14 of ^ 
mile outside Town. We are fairing splendid getdne plenty to 
eat and coffee &: sugar whenever we can press ^^-0^) 

Walker was indignant because the enemy had returned and at- 
tempted to burn the to\vn on Saturday, April 30. Fortunately the 
\\'inci had changed and only one-fourth of the place had been de- 
stroyed. The Union forces had again evacuated ^Vashington on the 
same day, but a Union gunboat had visited the town on Tuesday, 
May 2. One shell was thrown into the streets but no one was injured. 
Walker ^vas certain that the Union forces had no intention of attempt- 
ing to recaptiue ^\''ashington in the immediate future. He also felt 
that the Sixth \\ould remain in the area "for some time." There was 
also a nnnor that the enemy was preparing to evacuate New Bern, 
but Walker didn't cpc^t the report since "They have got the wrong 
boys to traffic with. '^— He had also heard that his Uncle John AValker 
planned to join the regular Confederate Army. This was all well and 
good, but no enlistment plans should be made to join the Sixth 
Regiment: 

... if you dont want to see the monkey in ten days after you 
join dont come to the 6th, there is some of the boys that never did 
see him in their lives but as soon as they jsined the 6th they got 
to see him in ten days after they joined. (^^^ 

Still, for the time being, army life in the Sixth ^\-asn't too bad. After 
all, one could sit back and drink real coffee in the town of Wash- 
ington. The small town was a nice place to be stationed. There were 
pretty girls and easy duty to perfonn. \Valker had giown well "and 
fat as a pig" under these conditions. All his friends in Company K, 
Captain John S. Vincent, George R. Maynard, Jimniie Squires, 
Samuel Tate [not the colonel], Jackson Dailey, Monroe Walker, 
Marshall Shaw, Tom Wilson, and George Cheeks, were fine, too. The 
only thing John wanted from home wasjjje latest map of North 
Carolina, probably to record his travels. ^'*») 

General Hoke, still anxious to strike a blow at the Union power 
in eastern North Carolina, determined to attack tire important town 
of New Bern in early May, 1864. But first he would need more troops. 
The fighting at Plymouth had cost him many of Iris best men. Also, 
the Ne\\- Bern garrison -ivas far larger and more aggressive than 
Wessells' troops at the Roanoke River town. Confederate Adjutant 
General Samuel Cooper at Richmond and General Beauregard, then 
in Kinston, were asked to aid Hoke in his cjuest for troops. They tried, 
but ■without much success. 



A Badly Needed Victorv Under Hoke 201 

Cooper wired Beauregard: 

Dispatch recei^•ed. By General Hoke's force was meant that 
^vhich he took ivith him to Plymouth. The troops will move by 
railroad//^ 

Nevertheless, Hoke determined to continue his movement on 
Plymouth, but -(vithout the Sixth Regiment which -ivas kept in garrison 
duty at Washington. Hoke had the opportunity to make a surprise 
attack since the garrison at New Bern didn't expect a Confederate 
offensive. As Hoke was preparing to moimt the attack, an effort was 
made to reinforce him. A twenty-pounder Parrott gun was sent to him 
from \\'ilmington by Major General Chase Whiting. C^f^ 

On the e\ening of May 4, Hoke attacked the Union positions on 
the north side of Ne^v Bern. The follo\ving dav was spent in cutting 
off the Union garrison's commimication by railroad ivith Morehead 
City. Confederate artillery was planted within t^vo miles of the town. 
This artillery ivas quickly silenced by tlie Union ironclad railroad car 
and the gunboats in the Neuse River. On the moniing of May 6, Hoke 
demanded the surrender of the town, but was refused. On that after- 
noon the Confederate force qiiicklv ■ivithdreA\' for Kinston, after 
capturing a force of fifty men from the Fifth Rhode Island Heavy 
.\rtillery' at a small railroad station near Ne^v Bern. Hoke's sudden 
departine ^\as not caused by any move on the?^art of the Union 
garrison. He had not been defeated in the fielor-^ie answer lav in a 
letter \\ritten by General R. E. Lee to President Davis on Mav 3. Lee 
had sent a man kno^vn as "Burke, the Scout" into Maryland to learn 
the plans of the enemy. Lee used Burke's report to ascertain the 
Union movements. The Confederate general wrote. 

Generals Breckinridge and Imboden both report the troops 
that had gone -(vest to Beverly, &;c., as returning east. I think they 
^vill mo\e up the valley. It is their better mo\'e. I hope General 
Breckinridge will be ordered to unite with Imboden to drive them 
backy^^ 

.\nd then the all important statement: 

If General Beauregard can take care of the flank movement 
on Richmond, and / can gel all the troops belonging to tliis ay)ny. 
Pickett. Hoke, and R. D. Johnston, I will endeavor to iiold the 
front. If this cannot be done it mav be lietter for me tp^be nearer 
Richmond, Avhich I request the President to decide. (V^ 

On May 10, the Sixth Regiment was ordered to leave Washing- 
ton, the scene of so many pleasant associations, and move to Tarboro. 
The men reached the latter to-ivn on the 13th, where trains picked 



202 The Bloody Sixth 

them up for the trip to Weldon. John K. Walker sat at the railroad 
station and wrote a letter after the first half of the regiment had 
already left for Weldon and the long trip to Petersburg. He wrote in 
an emphatic and half-hopeful tone, but the combat-weariness which 
comes with long nights and days in the field was beginning to tell: 

I understand that Gen. Lee has whipped the Yankees in Va. 
and Gen. Beauregard has whipped them on Black Water (River) , 
but I guess that there will be some fiojiting to do when we get 
there. All the boys are generally weW.Q^^ 

As the rain fell in sheets onto the muddy streets of Tarboro, Walker, 
soon to be far from home, wrote his father that he would send him a 
haversack and "a big Red Yankee blanket" together with "all the 
little tricks in my haversacks." He ended with a nostalgic note: 

. . . give my respects to all the neighbors Grandmother Uncle 
John Aunt Mary & all write soon I have not heard from home 
since the 8th April. . . . 

And then Walker was on the train to W^eldon and Virginja^and 
heaven knew where. The Sixth's great adventure had begun. 



XII 



In the Field Against Sheridan 



"Since I last ivrote you we have been marching tV maneiairing 
. . . to draiv the Yankees out of their e?itretichments, to fight us, 
but tliey iL'ont come." 



Stephen Dodson- Ramseur to his wife, 
September 6. 1864. 



In early May, Hoke's brigade was placed under the command of 
Lieutenant Colonel William Gaston Lewis of the Forty-third North 
Cai'olina. Lewis, a resident of Tarboro, had been an able officer, being 
present at the first "battle" of the war at Bethel Church, June 10, 
1861. His map of that encounter is still studied by historians. Other 
regiments in the brigade ^\'ere the T^venty-first, Fifty-fourth, and 
Fifty-seventh North Carolina and the First North Carolina Battalion 
Artillery. The brigade was assigned to the division of Major General 
Robert Ransom, Jr., a native of Wanenton, North Carolina and 
brodier to the post war United States Senator and Confederate 
Brigadier General Matt W. Ransom. Other brigades in the division 
^vere the Alabamians of Archibald Grade and the Virginians of 
William R. Terry [Kemper's old brigade] and Seth M. Barton. The 
division was assigned to the Department of North Carolina and 
Southern Virginia's First Military District, commanded by Major 
General George E. Pickett at Petersburg. Overall command of the 
department was in the hands of General Piene G. T. Beauregard of 
Fort Sunuer fame. ^ 

Although part of tlie brigade arrived in Petersbiug by May 11, 
the Sixth Regiment was held in the vicinity of Belfield and Hicksford, 
along the Petersburg and AVeldon Railroad, to protect railroad bridges 
"in that neighborhood for a few days.'Uj' 

On May 15, Colonel Tate was ordered to move his men from 
Belfield to Petersburg by Major General Chase Whiting, then on 
special duty in the Petersburg area. Butler's Union Army of the James 

203 



204 The Bloody Sixth 

was moving forward from its lines at Bermuda Hundred on the James 
and threatened to cut the important raihoad bet\\een Richmond and 
Petersburg, ^\'hiting directed Tate to, 

Conimimicate the same order to the regiment of Kemper's 
brigade (the Third Virginia Infantry) now on the road either at 
Hicksford or at Weldon.® 

Brigadier General James S. Walker of the Holcombe Legion, a select 
body of troops, wanted the Sixth Regiment to relieve his men at 
Petersbmg in the trenches. His chief reason ^\as that he wanted to 
bring together his scattered command. By May 19, the Sixth was in 
Petersburg, comprising the garrison of that place in company with 
the Virginia militia. The Sixty-foiuth Georgia Regiment was ^\ithin 
supporting distance at S^vift Creek, north of the Appomattox River. 
Jimmy Bearing's cavali7 Avas "scouting" alLjhe approaches to the 
town in anticipation of the Union advancelJ^ 

The men of the Sixth were placed in position on die east side of 
Petersburg about t^vo miles out in support of a position known as 
Battel^ Number Five, an important link in the Petersburg defensive 
line. Their mission was to protect Petersbin-g and its important rail- 
road installations. The remainder of the brigade was moved to 
support Generals Beauregard, Hoke, and Ransom in their attack 
upon the Union position at Bermuda Hundred. The men did not, 
therefore, support Beain-egard in his partially-successful attack upon 
Butler's lines at Bedmuda Hundred on May 16. This effort was only 
partially successful due to Whiting's failme, for unknown reasons, 
to come up in time from his base at Port Waldiall Junction, six wiles 
north of Petersburg on the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad.tS-' 

As the Sixth heard the thunder of Beainegard's cannon bom- 
barding Butler's position at Bermuda Hundred, John K. Walker 
reviewed the military situation in Virginia: the bloody duel between 
Lee and Grant: the deaths of many ineplaceable Confederate officers 
like Stuart, Junius Daniel, Micah Jenkins, and Leroy Stafford; and 
the sad ivotuiding of Lieutenant General James Longstreet. Walker 
then sho-ived his personal courage and desire to participate in the 
fighting: 

I dont kno^\• Avhen \ve will join our Brigade they are about 12 
miles from us we have not been ^vith them since the 1st. day of 
IVfay. They have done some very hard fighting so report say but 
ive ha^•e heard nothing official from ihem. We are kept here to 
protect the R. R. and Petersburg, but I had much rather be with 
the Brigade. We have not stayed all night t^vice in two weeks. 
We ha\e not been in any fight yet biu no telling how soon(i^ 



In the Field Against Sheridan 205 

And tlien 'W^alker ^vrote the defiant line Avhicli underlies the feelings 
of the men in the Sixth: "Do not fear we are all right and will never 
give up Richmond as long as a grain of Powder will burn." The men 
in the Sixth \\-ere all in fine spirits: the health of most of them was 
good. Jimmie Squires, Sam Tate, Tom Wilson, George Cheeks, 
Lieutenant George Maynard, Captain John S. Vincent "are all \\-ell." 
Only poor Joseph Sha-i\- had become ill and had to be left in the 
military hospital at Belfield. "Walker himself ^vas in good health, in 
spite of the continuous rain that fell at Petersburg. The young soldier 
was excited, probably because of the dramatic passage of events, and 
had "many tilings to ^vrite but this must do for the present." He re- 
vealed the basic fatalism common to all men who have passed im- 
harmed through \ears of \\-ar Avhen he infomied his father, "I remain 
your son until Death. "0 

While the Sixth was encamped at Batten' Number Five, Governor 
Vance ■^v'as engaged in the correction of a problem in the case of 
Joseph S. Latta, a member of die regiment. Latta had been con- 
scripted into the regiment from his position as a constable in Orange 
County in the spring of 1864, a time ivhen the Sixdi was filling its 
ranks with conscripts from piedmont Nordi Carolina. Latta had ap- 
plied to Governor Vance for a discharge on the basis of his occupying 
an official position as a state officer. Vance had complied \\ith Latta's 
request by writing Colonel Peter Mallett, commander of the state's 
camp for conscripts at Camp Holmes, north of Raleigh. \V'hen Mallett 
didn't immediately reply, Vance wrote again after learning that Latta 
was sick in a hospital at Raleigh: 

Some time ago I demanded his discharge. . . . No reply has 
been received to my application.(£) 

Mallett replied that his office had no authority to discharge Latta 
since he had been "assigned to the 6th N. C. T. some time since." 
When Latta's certificate for discharge had been received whh Vance's 
accompanying endorsement, "claiming his discharge as a State Officer," 
it had been forwarded to the enrolling officer who had enlisted Latta 
"to report ivhy the man had been enrolled." Mallett stated that if 
Latta were found to be telling the ti-uth and were a constable, the 
certificate would be for^rarded to Colonel Tate "recommending his 
discharge." Mallett was finn in his opinion that the conscript officer 
had no authority to grant a discharge and, besides, "at present there 
is not sufficient ground to recommend it." Mallett had explained the 
problem to Latta on two occasions, but evidently couldn't convince 
the reluctant soldier. \^ance's footnote to the problem^irected his 
secretai7 to file Mallett's letter away for finther reference. The matter 
was finally settled by Colonel Mallett in a letter of June 22, to 
Governor Vance: 



206 The Bloody Sixth 

This man was not a "successor in office" having been the 
first constable ever appointed in his district. He was accordingly 
enrolled and assigned to the 6th N. C. T. on the 31st. Match. 
Being in the army this office has no longer any authority over him. 
His discharge should be demanded of his commanding officer. 
It is understood that he has been ordered to rejoin his Reg't 
from the hospital -svhere he had been for treatment but has not 
yet done so. If this be the case he is a deserter or an absentee 
without leave and liable to be airested accordingly(2*) 

Mallett had sent Latta's paper to the Conscript Bureau for instruc- 
tions. 

Latta wasn't the only conscript to claim exemption from militai7 
duty as a "State Officer." On June 9, Jesse E. Borden, a constable 
appointed at the February term of court in Sampson County, had 
been consaipted on Maich 22. He had been taken to Raleigh "and 
was sent to the 6th Regt. N. C. T. -where I have ben till the battle 
of Plymouth." Borden had been wounded in tlie engagement and 
sent to the Confederate General Hospital at Goldsboro. He wanted 
the governor to let him know whether he was "Exempt or not or 
whether I am entitled to Exemption or not." Even with the national 
emergency some men still exhibited a notable lack of patriotism.fi^ 

Events now moved rapidly towards a showdown between Lee and 
Grant. Both armies were busily maneuvering in the vicinity of Rich- 
mond. Lee, anxious to obtain all the reinforcements for his decimated 
anny that he could get, wrote to Bragg early on the morning of 
May 24: 

It is reported that the Sixth North Carolina Regiment and 
First North Carolina Battalion, Hoke's brigade, and Third Vir- 
ginia Regiment, Kemper's brigade, did_not accompany their 
brigades. Please send them if practicable(^ 

Bragg for^varded Lee's request to Beauregard, asking for an expla- 
nation, and -(vas quickly assured that "the Third Virginia and the 
Sixth North Carolina have already been ordered to their respective 

brigades."(2>' 

On May 26, the Sixth rejoined the remainder of Lewis' brigade 
idiich was stationed in line of battle "a little to the north of Hanover 
Junction." The regimental historian, Captain Neill W. Ray, proudly 
wrote, 

"We -ss-ere back with the army of Northern Virginia again{3^ 

The men were now kept busy with constant skimiishing along all 
sections of the line, although no one seemed to expect a general 
ensasrement. As Grant moved forward toi\'ard Richmond the Sixth 



In the Field Against Sheridan 207 

was withdrawn from Hanover Junction to the line of earthworks 
along Totopotomoy Creek, near Bethesda Church. Here the fighting 
in the trenches continued, a type of ^varfare which wore do\\'n the 
morale of the weaker annyCi^ 

The regiment was posted in this position on Sunday evening, 
May 29, with three of its companies on the skinnish line. The firing 
was heavy until dark, when it slackened off and a general silence fell 
upon the line. Early in the morning of the 30th, the skirmish com- 
panies were ordered to withdraw into die main line. The action that 
followed is described by Captain Ray, commanding Company D, one 
of the skirmish companies: 

. . . hardly had we gotten back to the regiment ivhen orders 
were brought ... to take the men back to the same skirmish line, 
and hold it imtil heavily pressed by the enemy; and, as they 
pressed us, to fall back to the main line. W^e ivere soon in our 
place, and it was not long before the enemy came up in force in 
our front, and as far as we could see to our right and to our left. 
We were on the north side of the creek, along the brow of the 
hill; in front of us was a level field, in our rear was a valley which 
had been cleared for cultivation, and the groimd sloped from our 
line back to the rim of the creek, and then up on the south side, 
which was wooded, back to our main line on the blow of the hill. 
The skirmishing soon became furious all along the line. In falling 
back our part of the line had to averse the cleared ground imtil 
we began to ascend the slope on the south side of the creek, and 
the enemy, who rushed to the brow of the hill, poured a destruc- 
tive [fire] into us(^ 

Ray moved from the left to the right of his line, -ivhen he was hit 
in die ankle by a minnie ball. Fearing that he might be captured, he 
called upon his troops to can-y him to the rear. Three or four men 
came forward, lifted Ray in their arms, and canied him back until 
the goup met the stretcher-bearers. Ray described the rest of his stoi-y 
in the third person; 

He was then carried by them to the ambulance-station, and 
thence to the hospital, and there, ^vhen his turn came, he was 
placed on the operating table, and ^^•hen he woke up his left 
foot ■(vas gone — the surgeons said amputation was necessaiy. 

This around-, ended Ray's sen'ice as an active soldier in the Sixth 
Regiment.(ZV 

Captain Ray wasn't the only officer to fall during these days of 
bitter skirmishing. On June 7, Lieutenant Bartlett Yancey Mebane, 
commanding Company F, was mortally wounded near Cold Harbor. 
The sinister effects of attrition, partially overcome after Rappahan- 



208 The Bloody Sixth 

nock Station, were again making themsehes felt, especially among the 
regimental line officers. By mid-June the regiment A\as faced with a 
"very serious lack of officers." There were only seven line officers left, 
owing to the "captures of last November" and the casualties suffered 
in the fiehtina at Bethesda Church and Second Cold Harbor. In order 
to offset this problem. Colonel Tate \note North Carolina Adjutant 
General Richard C. Gatlin, urging the promotion of Captain Richard 
Watson York to the rank of major. York, a brilliant orator and son 
of noted Methodist clerg^'man and educator Brantley York, had com- 
manded Company I since the beginning of the war. He had been 
under consideration for a promotion for some time. Tate considered 
the delay in promoting him so serious that it "has already done him 
injury." In presenting York's claim Tate \vrote, 

The Captain has been giving me valuable aid for near a year 
now, as an acting Field Officer. His bearing at Gettysburg & 
during the campaigns following^has lieen such as to merit my 
warm gratitude and admirationljP 

York was promoted, although the order promoting him has been lost.' 
Other men were seeking advancement, but not possibly of the 
same type. Captain N. A. Ramsey, A\ho had succeeded Neill W. Ray 
in the command of Company D, wrote Governor Vance from Cold 
Harbor on June 8: 

I see by the papers that the Legislature has authorized vou to 
appoint an agent to attend to the collection bounty, pay, Sec, of 
deed, soldiers. @) 

Ramsey wanted the appointment. In fact, he felt that he could fill 
the position "most efficiently &; satisfactorily to all concerned." He 
had sened in the army for nearly three vears, but woukbi't accept 
the appointment if "I though the war ivould last for any considerable 
length of time." He presented good references: ex-Governor Charles 
Manly; Judge George E. Badger: young politician and future uni- 
versity president, Kemp P. Battle; and J. F. Rogers — all residents of 
Raleigh. Manly added a postscript to Ramsey's letter: "I believe that 
Capt. Ramsey is well qualified for the office." Although there is no 
evidence that Ramsey received the appointment, it is interesting to 
obsen'e the influence held by some members of the Sixth. (^ 

A change was in the wind in late May, a change -ivhich -ivould have 
a direct influence upon the regiment. On May 31, Major General 
Jubal Anderson Early, fornierly commanding the division in which 
the Sixth served, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and 
assigned to the command of Ewell's old Second Corps. This promotion 
was given to Early after the temporary retirement of E^v-ell from 



d 



'ti\ 



In the Field Against Sheridan 209 

active field duty. Brigadier General Stephen Dodson Ramseur was 
placed in command of Early's division, this action also to be eliective 
on the 31st. The young Lincoln County officer was promoted to the 
rank of major general on June ^C^^ 

Ramseur had been born in Lincolnton, North Carolina on May 31, 
1837. He attended Davidson College and the United States Military 
Academy at \Vest Point, where he graduated with the class of 1860. He 
resigned his commission on April 6, 1861, and entered the Confederate 
service as captain of the Ellis Light Artillery, a Raleigh battery. 
Almost his first official function was to lead his unit in Governor Ellis' 
funeral at Raleigh on July 10, 1861, a sad e\ent in which the Sixth 
Regiment also participated. In the spring of 1862, he reported for 
service ^vith General John B. Magruder, then at Yorktown, Virginia. 
In April. 1862, he was elected to the colonelcy of the Forty-ninth 
North Carolina, -^vhich he ably led during the Seven Days Battles. He 
T\'as badly ^vounded at Malvern Hill on July 1, 1862, and received a 
commission as brigadier general on November 1, 1862. He succeeded 
General George B. Anderson, ^\ho had been mortally A\'Oinided at 
Sharpsbing, in the command of the latter's North Carolina brigade. 
He fought -ivith distinction at Chancellorsville, but was ^vounded 
again. After this, he fought through all the battles of the Second 
Army Corps, and ^\'as \vounded a third time at Spotsylvania Court 
House. "When Ramseur received his commission as major general, 
the day after his fiventy-seventh birthday, he \vas the yotuigest West 
Pointer to attain that rank in the Confederate service. The Sixth 
Regiment was forttuiate to be in the division commanded by such a 
man. Both Ramsetir and Early, though not ^vithout certain short-^^ 
comings, were very able men, as the future woidd amply demonstrate.C^:7 

In early Jtme, the Sixth Regiment ivas posted in strong fortifica- 
tions near the Mechanicsville Road, nine miles northeast of Richmond. 
The position was near the Chickahominy River at a point kno^vn as 
Chickahominy BlufiF, \vhere strong Confederate trenches can still be 
seen. Entrenchments of the two armies ^vere six himdred yards apart 
at this point, across the Chickahominy River in a neighboring" SA\'amp, 
but heavy cannonading and skimiishing on the skirmish lines was 
continued "incessantly from daylight until dark." The Union forces 
occasionally attacked the breastworks, but were ahvays reptdsed by 
the men in the Sixth, usually with heavy loss. The regiment didn't 
participate in the attacks of Generals Rodes and Gorclon upon the 
; Union right flank at Bethesda Church on June 2. Rodes and Gordon 
succeeded in turning the Union right flank and in "capturing about 
i 500 prisoners, and killing a gieat many and driving them otit of 
three lines of Breastworks." The men did engage in a sharp skirmish 
on Monday, May 30, in which tAvo men of Company K were wounded. 
John Barton was -ivounded in the shoulder and Levi ^Valker was shot 



210 The Bloody Sixth 

in the leg. This A\as the same skimiish in -(shich Captain Ray was 
womided. (fV 

On June 4, John K. Walker wrote, 

The cannonading and skimiishing is raging furiously while 
I write. Our troops are in good Breastworks and in fine spirits 
just waiting for the Yankees to come on us, and we ship thenv. 
every time they attack us and getting plenty of evei^thing to eatLi 

Walker ^\'as in fine spirits, believing that "we \vill fight out this ^\'ar 
now before we stop." He felt that Lee and Beauregard were "giving 
old Grant fits," and were definitely "the men to work Grant." Walker 
even had time to remind his family about a blanket and a haversack 
he had sent from North Carolina. He didn't want the younger mem- 
bers of his family to use.-.;^ny more of my old ink and that cinamon 
but take care of them.'Cfi/ 

The fighting soon died down as the armies rested from their 
exertions at Cold Harbor. General Ramseur, division commander for 
the Sixth, wrote to his wife on Jime 9: 

We have been quiet all day. No artillei")' &: very little musketry 
along our lines. I have been asleep for hours. 

It was qiugts.along the Chickaliominy, but a great adventure ^vas about 
to beginCil:^ 

Lee hoped to make a diversion against the Union forces under 
General David Hunter in the Shenandoah Valley and possibly threaten 
Washington city. By doing this, Union pressure on his lines in front 
of Richmond would be relieved. Accordingly, he ordered Early to 
move to the valley with the Second Army Corps. On June 11, the 
corps ^vas moved to the rear of A. P. Hill's Third Army Corps, near 
Gaines's Mill. On the 12th Early received orders to march. Two 
battalions of artillery were ordered to accompany Early's 8,000 infan- 
try. Brigadier Geperal Armistead Long was placed in over-all command 
of the artillery, (ty 

At 3:00 in the morning of June 13, the column began its march, 
through Louisa Court House and to the banks of the Rivanna River 
near Charlottesville. By the evening of the 16th, the road-^\eai-y 
infantry wsls encamped near Charlottesville, early enough for William 
G. Lewis, Brigade Commander of the Sixth, to write his wife: 

You see by the date of tliis letter that we have done some 
vei-y quick marching since I last wrote. I think we ^dll capture 
Hunter & his entire force in a few days. We have a plenty of men, 
& they are good ones. I don't think there ivill hardly be a fight. ( 



L\ THE Field Against Sheridan 211 

Le-(\-is didn't \vant his ^^'ife to be uneasy about him. He feh certain 
that "Hunter will not give us battle." The Confederate brigadier also 
felt that the "war will end this Fall," presumably ^\ith a Confederate 
victoi'y. It was good to express such confidence, but there was still 
much fighting to be done.(35^ 

We have few records from the men in the Sixth Regiment during 
this period, since it was late in the war and Confederate regimental 
records are rare for the period. Still, we can trace their progress from 
the records of men in other regiments of Ramseur's division. C. C. 
Blacknall, Colonel of the Tiventy-third North Carolina, desmbed 
Early's movement against Hunter, who was advancing upon Lynch- 
burg from Lexington, in the Shenandoah Valley. Blacknall ^vrote, 

'W'e left Richmond on the ISth inst, marched night & day to 
Charlottesville, thence by Railroad to Lynchburg ^vhere we 
aiTived just in time to save the city from capture as Hunter with 
a large army was marching on the place S: was already shelling 
the city 8: the forces on the outskirts (Breckinridge's Division) . 
We went hastily to the front & engaged the enemy at once, drove 
him back & established our line of fortifications 21/9 miles from 
town, the next day enemy advanced in strong force attacked us 
in front of my Brigade &: made a charge on our lines but were 
repulsed in splendid style by the 12th and 23rd Regts. We killed 
& wounded & captured a large number & lost but a single man in 
my Regt. The boys from our neighborhood all -^vell &: unhurt./^ 

By June 20, Hunter had had enough. He began to retreat to^vards 
the line of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad through Liberty and 
Buford's Gap in the Blue Ridge. Early's Confederates follo^sed, 
marching as rapidly as possible, until Hunter attempted to delay 
their pursuit at Bedford, twenty-five miles ivest of Lyndiburg. Here, 
General Lewis was ordered to take one of his regiments and drive the 
enemy through the town. The men charged upon the rear of the 
Union column "shooting them do^\n on every side, Sc leaving the 
dead & -svounded lying on die \en- doorsteps of houses tliat they ^\'ere 
engaged in robbing i\'hen we made the attack." The women of the 
town lined the streets and cheered the Confederates with hurrahs for 
Jeff Davis. The cheering was accompanied by the anxious waving of 
handkerchiefs and the urging of the Confederates to press on. Ihe 
women seemed oblivious to the danger created by the battle going on 
in front of them. Although Confederate officers urged them to "retire 
to their cellars for safety," they disregarded all entreaties and con- 
tinued to greet the advancing column. The excited ladies even 
pointed out the retreating enemy and urged the Confederate infantry 
"on to the pursuit." Blacknall wrote. 



212 The Bloody Sixth 

. . . such excitement & such a route I have never before wit- 
nessed, fi^. 



Liberty had other attractions which absorbed the interest of some 
of the men. Lewis wrote, 

... I have met with a good many very nice young ladies up 
here, &: have payed them some attention. Since I have been nrar- 
ried my opinion of the female character has been very much 
raised, &: I believe I like to be with the ladies more now than 
ever. In fact, Mitte, your true & estimable traits have led me to 
believe that a true ivoman is next to an angel. But the thought 
will sometimes intrude itself that they are not, as a class, as good 
as you. And I am compelled to sav that I do not believe they 
are.' . . .(3) 

The piusuit continued through Salem, sixty-five miles west of 
Lynchburg, with the Confederates marching day and night through 
immense clouds of dust, which limited their visibility in sotne cases 
to ten feet. Strong men fell unconscious from exhaustion and fatigue 
created by dust and the intense heat. The march wore out men's socks 
and altered their appearance. Their skin became sunburned, while 
beards and hair were left untrimmed. At Cave Gap, west of Salem 
in a spur of the Alleghenies, Hunter again delayed the Confederates. 
Early's men captured eleven pieces of artiller)' and many horses and 
wagons, all "ivith very little loss on our side." In spite of this success 
Hunter made his escape-jnto the moimtains, thereby th^\-arting Early's 
plans to destroy him.Lj-^ 

Failing to crush Hunter, Early turned his column north towards 
the Shenandoah Valley in an effort to fulfill the second part of his 
orders. The men marched rapidly north^vard covering from twenty 
to twenty-five miles a day. They reached Buchanan, on the James 
River, on June 23. Le^vis wrote. 

This is a most romantic place, but we ^vill not be allowed to 
enjoy its beauty long,.^ for we are ordered to leave at 4 o'clock 
tomoiTow morning. r^^ 



Continuing their long march the men marched through Coziers 
and Botetourt Springs to Natural Bridge. The sight of the huge span 
of rock dirilled many of the men, especially die piedmont North 
Carolinians wh.o were unused to the mountains. Blacknall described 
the scene: 

We marched our whole army to the place, stacked arms &j 
gave our men time to go do^^•n &: examine this great work of the ( 
Creator. It was a grand sight to see thousands of our soldiersji 
covered ivith dust . . . beneath this grand structiue examining [( 



In the Field Against Sheridan 213 

its wonderful proportions & sending up cheer after cheer, as our 
Brass Bands played beneath the immense arch.{£^ 

At Lexington the scene was different. Here the men passed by the 
grave of "Stone-svall" Jackson with reversed arms, keeping time to the 
"solemn music of banks." The gra\e was co\ered with fresh flowers, 
gi^'ing■ rise to deep feelings among the men ^vho had sened under the 
dead general. Le\\is wrote, 

Vou ha\e no idea what feelings passed over me as I A\ent by 
his grave. There lay the great Christian patriot — & soldier, the 
unsurpassed ^varrior of his time, cold in death, & as hannless as 
the flowers that covered his grave. .\nd the thought that Yankee 
vandals had passed o\er his gTa\'e, ivho could ne\er stand before 
him while alive, & passed in triimiph as conquerors, stirred feel- 
ings within me, that I at least, would strike the hardest blows in 
my po^\'er to pre\'ent such an occurence again./jTl 

Lewis believed that some of Jackson's spirit Avas instilled into the men 
of his brigade — "those hardy veterans who had followed him in so 
manv hard marches, & fought \\ith him on so manv stubborn btit 
victorious fields. '(^i> 

The citizens of Lexington greeted Early's army with spirit and 
rejoicing. According to one Avriter, thev were happy to be "relieved 
from Yankee rtile." But the Confedeiate athance did not end in 
Lexington. It continued up the Valley Turnpike toward Staunton, a 
route that ^vas lined with prett)' ladies, residents of the suiTOunding 
countn', who welcomed the men by waving white handkerchiefs and 
smiling sueetlv "at the "boys' who had rid them of the Yankee 
plunderers & thie^■es." The march \\'as nearly an ovation. The greeting 
was noticed by all the soldiers, but especially by Brigade Com- 
mander Lewis who "paid considerable attention" to some of the young 
ladies on the route. He liked the company of women.,^s he explained 
it, "now better than I did before I was married." (^9y 

The men arrived in Staunton for a brief rest and an opportunity 
to prepare for the long march ahead. A rumor was in the air that they 
would march into Pennsylvania or, at least, try to capture AYashington 
city. Everyone was "delighted ^\-ith a visit to the enemys country." 
Orders \\ent out to send back the baggage wagons. Blacknall T\'as 
forced to leave his company headquarters wagon, "which has hereto- 
fore carried m) pri\ate baggage." From no^v on, his saddle bags had 
to be sufficient since they would be the "onlv means of carrying 
clothing."(V^ 

In spite of these hardships and the exhausting march, the beauty 
of the Shenandoah Valley did not go lumoticed. General Early -w^as so 
impressed that he -wrote nearly four pages of description in his Aiitn- 



214 The Bloody Sixth 

biography. Lewis described it as "one of the most beautiful countries 
in the world, and teeming with the prettiest ladies you ever saw." 
Blacknall was impressed by the richness of the soil and the amoimt of 
supplies which the valley was able to furnish Early's army. He 
ardently described the scene: 

The crops are splendid, the v\heat better than ever before & 
the whole counti-y one vast meadow, the thousands of horses 
which we have with us, barely making an impression on the vast 
hay &; grass fields.^/") 

Blacknall often went into the country around Staunton to get his 
meals and was always treated with kindness by the hospitable people 
who furnished him with "quantities of milk & butter without charge." 
All this beauty was great compensation for the noise and confusion 
of camp as the anny prepared to march forward into the enemy's 
counti-y. Finally the baggage had been sorted and packed, the mails 
had been discontinued, and the "hundred little things" which were 
necessary to prepare an army for the march had been comj^leted. The 
cohunn was ready to march again — to the North. C^ 

As the men marched toward Winchester, ninety miles north of 
Staiuiton, they were continually impressed by the beauty of the 
valley. The only thing to impair the scene was the presence of a 
"long &: protracted draught" which had "blighted" everything. On 
June 27 it rained, for the first time since the expedition had left 
Richmond. This aided the wheat crop, but came too late to help the 
corn and the family gardens which were seen everywhere. The loss 
was not too serious, at least in the mind of one North Carolina 
farmer. Colonel Blacknall. He -ivrote, 

. as the wheat crop is superabundant & corn is but little ^,|,j 
needed, the loss of the crop will not be seriously felt. The fanners,i 
are not able to save one-tenth of the grass crop for want of labor(_^ 

The march continued through intense heat and clouds of dust 
which choked men and obsciued vision. After passing through Win- 
chester Early moved against Union General Franz Sigel at Harper's 
Fen-y. The enemy was driven through the town onto the commanding 
eminence of Mai-yland Heights on the north or Maryland side of the 
Potomac. The Conferedates then destroyed portions of the Baltimore il q 
and Ohio Railroad, some public property, "& took along with us as 
much of the supplies as we cotdd cany." The rest was burned. Dining 
this movement Lewis' brigade was held in the rear of the array and 
kept on Bolivar Heights until late in the afternoon of |idy 7. It 
rejoined Ramseiu's division, which had advanced through Martins- 



In the Field Against Sheridan 215 

burg, at Sharpsburg, Maiyland on July 8. Spirits were high when the 
men moved into Maryland. General Ramseur exclaimed to his wife: 

I cannot tell how long we will be absent from the "Con- 
federacy." You must not feel luieasy. . . . ^Ve are doing vei7 well, 
but have plenty of hard ^vork to do. . . " 



On the morning of July 9, Early's advance marched through 
Frederick, driving a force of Union cavalry [part of the Ninth New 
York] before them. As the Sixth Regiment marched through the town, 
the citizens taunted them ^\ith the cry, "Go ahead! You will soon meet 
regular soldiers." The-^^ien replied: "All right, they are the fellows 
we are hunting for.v_-5rhe regular soldiers which the townspeople 
were talking about consisted of a force of about 3,000 hastily-collected 
infantry under Major General hew Wallace. These troops were posted 
on the east side of the Monocacy River, a small stream which flows 
from southern Pennsyhania through central Maryland and passes 
immediately east of Frederick. Wallace had been able to collect a 
force of militia which had been reinforced by the Third Division of 
the Sixth Anny Corps, Army of the Potomac, commanded by Brigadier 
General James B. Ricketts, commander of the battery -(vhich tlie 
Sixth Regiment had captured at First Manassas on a similar siunmer's 
day three years before. Noav the Sixth was to meet Ricketts again, 
and uet the better of him aoain./*v 

Early sent General John McCausland's cavah-y brigade to find a 
ford across the river above Wallace's right flank. The news he re- 
ceived upon McCausland's return was encouraging. Ramseur's division 
was advanced against the enemy's center in an effective demonstration, 
while Gordon moved rapidly across the Monocacy and attacked hi/ 
flank. During the frontal demonstration, the Twenty-third North 
Carolina ivas detached to dihe the enemy from a strip of woods 
along the river bank. Blacknall described the scene: 

AVe performed the task splendidly, charging through the -^voods 
R: driving the enemy back to their fortifications at the Railroad, 
where they took refuge in a block-house constructed of hea\ry 
timbers at the depot. I then charged them in this position going 
within 20 ft of the house in which they were posted but finding 
it impossible to carry it by storm, we fell back to await reinforce- 
ments. I^j 

Gordon's men attacked Wallace's right flank and caused the enemy 
to break and run. Johnston's brigade of Ramseur's division moved 
across the river and completed the route. Many prisoners were cap- 
tured while the Union camp, including Wallace's headquarters, was 
plundered. The pursuit was continued for four miles in the direction 
of Baltimore until Early ordered his men to return to camp on the 



216 The Bloody Sixth 

banks of the Monocacy. The Confederates had won a hollow or 
Pyrrhic victory. Besides suffering casualties which numbered nearly 
seven hundred men, including Brigadier General Clement A. Evans 
who was Avounded, the expedition had lost a precious day. There is 
no record of the losses sustained by the Sixth Regiment in this en- 
gagement. In spite of everything, the men of the Second Corps ^vere 
exhilarated by their victon'. General Lewis wrote. 



(4<1) 
We Avhipped the Yankees beautifully at Frederick Md.v^ 

On July 10, the march continued through the most unfriendly 
state of Maryland. As John K. Walker exclaimed, "The people of 
Md. show less sympathy for us than A\hen ^ve were first in there." 
Even so, Walker found that some sympathy for the Confederate cause 
still existed. He wrote two letters to his brother Bill, a prisoner at 
Point Lookout, and left them "at two Secesh House[s]." The in- 
habitants of these homes had sons in the Confederate Army and 
promised to mail the letters "with the gieatest pleasure." Walker was 
doing -w-ell, except for the fact that he hadn't heard froniJiome in 
nearly two months and didn't like the di^, dusty ^veather. \^ 

As the column marched through Rockville on the afternoon of 
July 10, the heat continued to be intense. The dust rose in clouds, 
covering men, horses, cannons, and other military equipment with 
fine powder. In spite of this obstacle, the men marched a distance 
of thirty miles before a halt ^vas called. The march was continued on 
the morning of the 1 1 th to^vards the fortifications of Washington 
which circled the city. As the men struggled through the heat on the 
Seventh Street Pike, they encountered the same conditions ■which had 
plagued them since they had left Lexington. Early described the 
scene: 

. . . the day \vas so excessively hot, even at a very early hour 
in the morning, and the dust so dense, that many of the njfn fell 
by the way, and it became necessai7 to slacken our pace. ^ 

By the afternoon of the 1 1 th, the dome of the Federal Capitol 
became visible. Soon the fortifications along the Seventh Street Pike 
loomed up before the weary men. 

Early found these to be "very strong" and built "vei^ scientifically." 
They "consisted of a circle of enclosed forts, connected by breast- 
works, Avith ditches, palisades, and abatis in front, and every approach 
swept by a cross-fire of artillery, including some heavy gims." The 
principal fort in front of the Confederates ^vas named Fort Stevens, 
a strong works which wdA supported by Fort Reno some distance to 
the left. Early threw out a line of skirmishers and made plans to 



at 
£irlv 
Burse 
'fall 



In the Field Against Sheridan 217 

nK)ve his men forward in a general attack. Soon the Confederates 
were engaged in heavy skimiishing ^vith the city's defenders, although 
no general attack was made. Night came and the exhausted men slept 
on their arms, wondering whether "Old Early" woidd order a general 
assault in the morning. (j;i}2^ 

One of the two letters that John K. Walker ivrote to his younger 
brother "Billie" was ^vritten on Jidy 7 and presumably sent before 
the Sixth Regiment arri^•ed in front of ^Vashington. The other was 
wTitten -while the regiment was encamped in front of old Francis 
Blair's house at Silver Spring, Maryland, two and a half miles from 
the 1854 limits of ^Vashington city. ^V^alker's second letter is well 
worth repeating, at least in part: 

. . . Billie I have not heard from home in a month but all was 
well when last heard. Tell all the boys of your mess that there 
people are ivell. AV^illiam Squires is well. All the Boys are wom 
out marching. Our aggxegate in the co. [K] is 78, and only 37 
men are present. . . . Lieut. Mavnard is well Capt. Vincent is 
complaining. Jim Squires is -svell Charles [?] is well. Tell all of my 
old mess Ho^vdie and give them my respects. . . -/CrS) 

The Confederates remained in front of \\'ashington throughout 
the 12th. Their artillerv fired some shells into the Union fortifications, 
chiefly Fort Stevens, while heavy skirmishing continued. Early did 
not, however, make an assault. He explained his reasons in great and 
needless detail in his official report, ivritten near Leesbin-g, Virginia, 
on July 14. Possibly his chief excuse ^\as the arrival of the Sixth .\rmy 
Corps from Grant's army, then in front of Petersbiu'g. The some\\'hat 
overcautious Confederate explained, 

I became satisfied that the assault, even in successful, ^vould be 
attended with such great sacrifice as would insure the destruction 
of my -(vhole force before the victory could have been made 
available, and, if unsuccessfuL-4\ould necessarily have resulted 
in the loss of the ^\'hole force. ^3^ 

Because of this. Early determined to retire across the Potomac "before 
it became too late." He felt that the loss of his army would have "a 
depressing effect" upon the Confederacy, and ^vould encoin-age the 
Union cause. The disaster might be "very serious, if not fatal," to 
the Confederates. Besides, Generals Couch, Sigel, and Hunter were 
all at various jx)ints in the rear of the Confederates. The overcautious 
Early could have marched into ^Vashington on the 11th — but, of 
course, did not realize the extent of his opportimity. The net result 
of all of these arguments caused Early to order his nien to \\ithdraw 
from in front of ^Vashington on the night of July li^X5^ 



218 The Bloody Sixth 

As the men retraced their weary steps through the dust of southern 
Mar)'land the air was ahve with mixed feehngs. General Lewis took 
the withdrawal philosophically. He had seen the dome of the capitol 
and concluded that "I would not visit such a detestable black Republi-^ 
can place, so we tinned round & came over to a more congenial clime." cf 
Captain Blacknall felt that the Confederates had succeeded "in giving 
the Yankees ^jvorst scare & causing the greatest panic of die war in 
Yankeedom.'^-This feeling was concun-ed in by General Early who 
reported to General Lee: 

There was intense excitement and alarm in Washington and 
Baltimore and all over the North, and my force was greatly exag- 
gerated, it being reported that you Avere in command, having 
left Beauregard at Petersburg. 

Early ruefully added. "Washington can never be takea-by our troops 
unless surprised when without a force to defend it."(ii^ 

Ramseur was jubilant over the results of the expedition. In spite 
of heat and dust that were "so great that our men could not possibly 
march further," he felt that the Confederates had "accomplished a 
good deal & I hope will still do good work for oiu- cause." The young 
major general hoped that his wife i«)uld join him in continued 
prayers "for independence & peace." (£P 

On July 14, the army recrossed the Potomac at White's Ford after 
marching through Rockville, Maryland. By that afternoon the weai7 
Confederates were encamped at Leesburg, the county seat of Loudoun 
County, Virginia. (^ 

The Sixth Regiment had fared ^vell during the raid, although most 
of the men were "nearly worn out marching." They had covered a 
distance of nearly six hundred miles since June 13, and had succeeded 
in getting within "2 miles of Washington City, near enough to throw 
shells in the city." John K. Walker was proud of this record, and 
jaroud of the fact that the Sixth had assisted in the capture of "a 
great many horses and cattle." He wrote his father: 

... I tell you we took them by surprise and whipped out old 
Wallace on the 9th & on the 1 1 th we were at Washingtor^ You 
better knoiv the name of Ewells Corps is enough for them.C^ 

There was another point which was even more important; all thai 
"boys" who came from eastern Alamance County were "well." 

On July 15, Early's army marched from Leesburg toward Win-I 
Chester and went into camp at Ben7ville, on the western edge of thcj 
Blue Ridge Mountains, almost equidistant from Winchester and 
Harper's Ferry. During the march Lewis' brigade engaged in a 
skirmish with a force of Union cavali7. The brigade had won a 



In the Field Against Sheridan 219 

minor victory, capturing a piece of artillery and recapturing some 
wagons ^\'hich had been taken from the Confederates. Lewis felt his 
men would have captured another piece of artillery "if I had not 
been ordered very peremptorily to go no further." (j^ 

On July 19, Ramseur's division Avas ordered to move to Stephen- 
son's Depot, important supply point northeast of Winchester. There 
had been reports from General Vaughn, commanding Confederate 
cavalry in the vicinity, that a small Union force of two regiments, one 
of infantiT and the other of cavalry, Avas moving from Martinsburg 
toward Stephenson's Depot. Ramseur, not wishing to be taken by 
surprise, moved his entire division towards Martinsburg on July 20. 
As the men mardied fonvard, two brigades, Johnston's and Lewis', 
were moved into an assault position across the Martinsburg Pike. The 
Sixth was ordered to advance t^vo miles up the pike, beyond the main 
body of Ramseur's division, where it formed line of battle at the edge 
of a small woods. Suddenly the enemy appeared in force and attacked. 
The men in the Sixth loaded their rifles and opened fire. Ramseur, 
attracted by the firing, soon appeared with the remainder of Johnston's 
and Lewis' brigades. He quickly moved his infantr)' to within sixty 
yards of the enemy, ^vho ^vere lying down in an open field. Stiddenly 
the Unionists opened "a severe fire" upon the Confederate line. Both 
of Ramseur's brigades still continuetl to advance, forcing tire enemy 
to begin a slo^v retreat. At the critical moment some of Lewis' men 
suddenly broke ranks and ran to the rear, "in the most unaccountable 
manner." This sudden withdra\\-al forced Johnston's line to also fall 
back. A Confederate artillery battery, ivhich had been run into the 
front line, was taken and two hundred and fifty men were killed, 
wounded, and captured. The loss in Lewis' brigade was twenty killed 
"and some wounded & some prisoners." General Lewis was severely 
woimded. Company K didn't lose a man, although it carried twenty- 
six men into the fight, "the largest Co. in the Regt."C3' 

The Confederates withdrew in much disorder to their fortifications 
around Stephenson's Depot. Fortunately, the Union force, commanded 
by cavaliT General William Averell, did not press the purstiit. During 
the night Ramseur moved his entire division down the valley to 
Strasburg, some miles below Winchester, tt?-^ 

Ramseur was "greatly mortified" at the result of the battle. He 
believed that his men had "behaved shamefully." He confided his 
feelings to his Avife from Early's headquarters "Near Strasburg": 

They ran from the enemy and for the first time in my life, I 
am deeply mortified at the comiuct of troops imder my command. 
Had these men behaved like my old Brigade ^vould have done 
imder similar circumstances, a disgraceful retreat would have 
been a brilliant victory. 



220 The Bloody Sixth 

Fortunately Ramseur was safe, but he didn't war^sJiis wife to "men- 
tion to anyone the bad conduct of my troops.' Tie wTote in more 
detail on the same day, July 23: 

The fight of 20th at Winchester where my Div. was engaged 
ought to have been a victoi-y. Our men for some unaccountable 
reason became panic stricken & after a fight of five minutes ran 
off of the field in wild disorder. 1 did all in my power to stop 
them, but it was impossible. Officers \\ho are acquainted with all 
of the facts not only do acquit me of all blame, but unhesitatingly 
declare that had the troops behaved with tlieir usual steadiness 
we woidd have gained a glorious victory.(_^iv 

Ramseur was certain that he had done everything possible to win, 
"yet newspaper Editors & stay-at-homes, croakers will sit back in 
safe places & condemn me." He hoped that his wife would be "little 
affected" Jay the defeat, and wanted her to "pass" it by "without 



notice." fe-' 

The mortification must have been especially deep because Ramseur 
wrote again on July 28th: 

. . . The Yankees whipped me the other day. T'was terribly 
hard to bear. . . ^ _ 

Ramseiu- was attacked bitterly by the Virginia press, chiefly on the 
issue of the disposition of his troops. He was ably defended by his 
good friend. Major General Robert E. Rodes, also a division com- 
mander in the Second Corps. Rodes wrote General E^vell in an effort 
to vindicate Ramseur's name: 

Ramseur acted most heroically, as usual exposed himself reck- 
lessly, but could do nothing with the men: they were under the 
influence of panic. I do not hesitate to record my belief that the 
cause of the disaster was the conduct of the men, and the prime 
cause was the breaking of the two left regiments of Hoke's 
brigade. Of course if Ramseur had put Pegram's brigade in the/| 
front line the disaster might have been averted, but who knoivs?*" 

Rodes continued with a strong condenmalion of the men ivho had 
attacked Ramseur: 

Is a battle lost finally because your enemy outflanks you? 
With their superior opportunities, and urged by a natvual desire 
to shirk the responsibility for this disaster, and the less laudable 
one inspired by this dislike of Ramseur, to throw the blame upon 
Ramseur, the men and main officers concerned have succeeded in 
winning public opinion to their side, and have very nearly ruined 
Ramseur. 



In the Field Against Sheridan 221 

Rodes felt that it was due to Ramseur as his friend, "and as an 
admirable officer," to defend him. He felt that Ewell would be able 
to plac^the young- North Carolinian "fairly before his brother of- 
ficers. "W^ow much the Sixth had to do with Ramseur's reverse is 
not recorded. Captain Neill W. Ray, the regimental historian, ^\'as 
absent in a Richmond hospital. He used secondhand information to 
record the engagement in an implausible manner. He wrote. 



The 6th charged single-handetl and fought until nearly sur- 
rounded, But the enemy had overpowering numbers, and the 
whole brigade was outflanked, and all had to fall back together. 



Ramseur's division marched up the valley on the night of July 20, 
the retreat continuing imtil the men had reached Strasburg. Union 
forces under A\'erell and Hunter advanced to ^Vinchester and began 
to fortify their position. Early wasn't through, however. He continued 
his campaign of constant maneuver by advancing upon Winchester 
on July 24, in a surprise move. As the Confederates approached the 
town Blacknall noticed that the 

. . . hills & forts aroiuid town (were) filled with Yankees, we 
deployed our cohunns, ordered a general acfvance & swept like 
an avalanche over every obstacle driving the Yankees before us &: 
causing them to flee for their lives in j^ery direction, leaving 
their dead and woimded in our hands. (2?' 

Pri\ate John K. Walker ^vas juljilant. He felt that the enemy loss 
had been "terrible in killed wounded &: jjrisoners." The U*i^ in the 
Sixth was slight: none of the men in Company K were hur^^-He wrote 
home with high spirits: 

. . . you just ought to seen the Yankees run, and burn their 
dragons &c. I guess they cant follow us any more soon. Harpers 
Ferry seems to be there only place of safety when old Early's foot 
cavalry gets after him.(vV/ 

The Union forces fled to Martinsbing, and finally across the 
Potomac into Maryland, leaving the roads behind them filled with 
trains of binning wagons. One train, over a mile in length, was so 
closely pursued that it was set on fire and alaandoned. The Confed- 
erates continued their pursuit into Martinsbing which they reached 
on {uh 27. Blacknall commented, 

. . . the enemy . . . crossed to their siclg^of the Potomac leaving 
Genl. Early monarch of all he surveys.(^> 

Ramseur, still smarting from his defeat near Stephenson's Depot 
on the 20th, gloated: 



222 The Bloody Sixth 

. . . we paid them back on the 24th. We haye driven them 
aa-oss the river & expect to follow in a few daysCffc) 

For the moment, the men were allowed to rest. Campaigning was 
temporarily halted while Ramseur's division was engaged in tearing 
up the track of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which ran through 
Martinsburg, and gathering the ripening wheat from the lower 
valley. The weather continued to be hot and dry, although John K. 
Walker noticed with a farmer's eye that the "wheat crops look hne.ClZ^ 

For several days the army rested at Martinsburg. During this 
period the weai-y men of the Sixth, thoroughly exhausted by the hard 
marching of the previous two months, obtained some badly-needed 
rest. John K. Walker was mildly distmbed over the fact that he had 
received only one letter from home in the past month while he had 
written over half a dozen. He didn't want his family to make him any 
clothes until he wrote for them. Instead, he had many things to send 
home. It was too hot to march and carry unneeded equipment along 
at the same time. He asked his father to send him a pair of socks and 
some sewing thread and then wrote, 

I am going to send one good oil cloth 1 fine hat 1 pr. of boots 
1 fine pr. socks, and tell Levi that I am going to send him 135 
caps by Mitchell in with Jim Squirese and one haversack. They 
will all and I am going to send some other little tricks that I 
wont mention in this letter ... I am going to send some little 
leather straps by the bearer. 

Most of the men in Company K were ^vell, including Sam Wilson, 
George Cheeks, and Lieutenant Maynard. Unfortunately, both Sam 
Tate and Albert Graham were sick in the hospital.(W?) 

On Ausrust 1, W^alker -inote that he wanted the socks and thread 
sent from home right away. He also wanted some soap, a shirt and 
pair of drawers "that I sent home by Levi." He was especially inter- 
ested in acqtiiring new pairs of boots for himself and his yoimger 
brother Bill, then at Raleigh. If his father wanted to send him a 
pair of shoes instead it would be fine. Walker was nattnally sensitive 
about his footwear — a habit he had picked iqj in the long, hot 
marches of Jime and [uly. He anxiously Avrote his father: 

. . . have me a pair of shoes inade just like Bills, have them 
made on the same last but dont have them half soled and dont 
leave the soles out so far as the edges have them made just like 
Bills exactly but dont have them halfsoled at all for I can have 
them half-soled myself cheaper than yoa can, and so you take 
the boots and have me a pr. of shoes made for I had just as leave 
have shoes anyhow dont have any marching to do in the 
winter. . .(^') 



In the Field Against Sheridan 223 

In late July the Sixth Regiment accompanied Ramseur's division 
in a movement from Maitinsbiirg across the Potomac to Williams- 
port, Maryland. The men spent one night on Northern soil while 
Confederate authorities procured badly-needed commissary stores 
which the retreating Union forces had left at Williamsport. After 
recrossing the Potomac, the division marched to Bunker Hill, six 
miles north of \Vinchester, and went into camp. The ^veather con-^,^^ 
tinned hot and diy, but the health of the men continued to be good.*^-->* 

The Confederates continued to fare veiy well "in die way of sup- 
plies." Everyone was astonishetl at the abinidant food in the louver 
valley. Blacknall wrote. 

The country affords any cjuantity of wheat beef, &c. The 
people in the \'alley have never had any scarcity of provisions, 
but on the contrary the greatest abimdance. We are able to get 
a splendid dinner for 50c to $1 in Confederate money. . . . There 
is enough wheat in the valley for Genl. Lee's army, & I hope Ave 
will be able to get it off. 

Later Blacknall added, 

We are now encamped in a sjslendid country &: we get such 
supplies as we need Avithoiit trouble. 

The only provisions which the North Carolinians missed were water- 
melons and peaches, two aops Avhich were almost unknown in the 
valley .(^ 

In early August the army was in a stir of excitement over Mc- 
Causland's cavalry expedition to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania "to 
demand 5100,000 in gold to pay for houses burnt in Virginia by order 
of Federal Generals." McCausland had orders to bimi the town if he 
failed to get the money. When the town was binned there was "much 
excitement" in the army, although most of the men thought the act 
was 

... a just retribution, whether as a retaliation for the binning 
of our Southern towns or as a penalty for the refusal on the part 
of the citizens to comply with a demand for money levied in 
accordance with the rules of war. (yi) 

Blacknall felt that Early had conducted his campaign with great 
skill, and had entirely outwitted the enemy. The latter were "puzzled 
to death" in their attempts to understand the movements of the 
Confederate general.Cfi^ 

This Confederate success was to be short-lived. On August 6, 
General Grant had appointed a new general to take command in the 
valley. His name was Philip H. Sheridan, formerly commander of 
the cavah-y in the Anny of the Potomac. On the 10th, Sheridan moved 



224 The Bloody Sixth 

his command Irom Harper's Ferry into the valley and went into posi- 
tion with the right of his line resting at Clifton and his left at Ben7- 
ville, directly east of A\'inchester, ?iIost of the Union cavalry was 
massed on the Millwood-Winchester Pike. Early withdrew his troops 
from Bunker Hill to Winchester in an attempt to coimter the threat 
to his rear. On the night of August 10, the Confederates retreated 
from Winchester and moved up the valley to Strasburg. At 9:00 A.M. 
on the 11th, Breckenridge's division was withdrawn from its covering- 
position on the Berryville Pike and moved rapidly back through 
Winchester to cover Early's retreat. Early's "foot cavalry" soon out- 
distanced their pursuers, thereby frustrating Sheridan's intention to 
get in their rear and force them to give battle on terms favorable to 
the Union commander.(£>^ 

By August 14, Early's army was intrenched at Fisher's Hill, a 
strong position below Winchester, waiting for Sheridan to attack. 
Ramseur, satisfied that the army's line was impregnable, felt that 
"they are afraid to attack us in our present position." liie army 
would now rest for a few days, awaiting Sheridan's attack. (£5-^ 

The Sixth Regiment had engaged in several skirmishes with the 
enemy during the retreat from Biuiker Hill, biU few of the men were 
hint. Company K had one casualty, Bedford Ballard, who was bruised 
by a ball on the left arm. Fortunately the skin hadn't been broken. 
The regiment lightheartedly went into line of battle with Ramseur's 
division on the right of Early's line, covering the Valley Pike and 
the approaches to Massaniuten Mountain. John K. \Valker described 
the rumors that circidated in Early's army as the men awaited 
Sheridan: 

They (the enemy) are reported to be in vei7 strong force 
consisting of 4 corps of Infanti^ and two Division of CavaJry 
Comd. by old Joe Hooker who we cleaned up for at Chancellors- 
ville in 63. It is rumored that Grant is leaving Petersburg as 
fast as he can and that is undoubtedly true because a portion of 
this army consists of troops from Petersbiug, and I also inider- 
stand that they are sending large numbers of_Troops South it is 
thought that Mobile Ala. will go up soon. Q^ ■ : 

Fortunately, Kershaw's division of Longstreet's force was coming 
up from Petersburg, just in time to repulse a Union cavah7 expedi- 
tion under Torbett in the Luray Valley. Fitz Lee's cavalry had helped 
Kershaw's men to repel the eneiuy with the capture of "7 pieces of 
artillery. "(1^ 

The weather continued hot and dry with an occasional shower as 
the picket lines of the two armies faced each other on the slopes of 
Fisher's Hill. Although the opposing armies were less than a mile 
apart, few shots were exchanged. The Confederates were determined 



In the Field Against Sheridan 22.5 

to make a stand and^iwuld give the enemy "the best in our shop," if 
an attack were madft-^eneral Ramseur was especially anxious to see 
his division redeem itself for its defeat at Stephenon's Depot. He 
had written on August 10, ivhile the command \\as still at Bunker 
Hill, 

I hoped for many reasons that we may \\hip them soundly. . . > — ^ 

As the Sixth Regiment lay with the rest of Early's army on the 
heights of Fisher's Hill, an old friend returned to conmiand the 
brigade that they were in. Archibald C. Godwin, hero of the stand 
at Rappahannock Bridge, had been exchanged from Johnson's Island 
prison in the early sinnmer of 1864. On August 5, he had been com- 
missioned a brigadier general and, on August 11, was assigned to 
the command of "the bridge of Early's Division formerly commanded 
by General Hoke." General Le^vis ^vas relieved of command and sent 
to command forces in ea^ern North Carolina, mostly in the vicinity of 
Tarboro and HamiltonS-^The brigade to which Godwin retmned was 
still composed of the Sixth, Twenty-first, Fifty-Fourth, and Fifty- 
seventh North Carolina Regiments. The First North Carolina Artil- 
len' Battalion was still on detached sei-vice at Forts Branch and Fisher 
in eastern North Carolina. Its ranks had been sadly depleted by the 
continuous campaigning of the summer of 1864, imtil the aggregate 
of men present for duty was only 854. This compared very unfavorably 
with the niunber of 2,627 who were listed on the brigade's record 
books as "Aggregate present and absent." Ramsem's division, com- 
posed of Pegram's, Johnston's, and Godwin's brigades, could present 
only 2,060 men who were present for duty — a sad record of the attri- 
tion which was to destroy the Confederate Anny. Early's entire anny 
numbered only 8,269 present for duty, although a total of 34,515 
were listed as being present and absent! Lieutenant Colonel Tate ^\•^s 
still in command of the Sixth Regiment, although the records of the 
Second Army Corps listed Colonel Robert F^Vebb, still in a Union 
prison, as being the regimental commander. (^^ 

On August 17, Early moved his anny from Strasburg toward Win- 
cliester; Sheridan fell back before him, umvilling to give battle unless 
the conditions ^\■ere fa\orable for a Union victory. As Ramseur's 
division marched through "Winchester a "considerable skirmish" en- 
sued in which the Confederates captined "4 pieces of artillei-y" and 
several hundred prisoners. The Sixth lost only one man wounded — 
Company K had no casualties. The Confederates pursued Sheridan to 
his stronghold and supply base at Harper's Ferry. Ramseur moved 
his division to Smithfield, six miles from Harper's Fen-y, and then 
withchew to a better position at Bunker Hill. Although Early offered 
battle, Sheridan wouldn't take the bait. Ramseur \\rote. 



226 The Bloody Sixth 

If they choose to come out & fight us, I think Gen'l Early will 
accommodate them. (^^ 

Blacknall described the situation in the lower valley after the 
division had returned to Bunker Hill. His discussion shows that he 
had a sound grasp of basic Confederate strategy: 

This portion of the couirtry has been occupied alternately by 
both annies every week since our occupancy of the valley . . . 
Harpers Feny being at the extreme point of the valley where the 
blue ridge approaches the Potomac on the South & the range 
known as South Mountain on the North side, the Ferry being 
immediately in the gap. Bunker Hill being farther up the valley 
& commands the different approaches from that direction. Win- 
chester a large (& before the war very floin-ishing) town of 5000 
inhabitants being still farther up the valley & distant from this 
point ten miles, the valley is traversed from South to North by a 
large turnpike, known as the valley pike, this is intersected by 
numerous other pikes rimning in from the different gaps in the 
mountains east & west, besides there aie other small pikes (all 
the roads are j>ikes on Mcadamized roads) running parallel to 
the main thoroughfare, the valley being generally quite narrow, 
it is difficidt for one army to flank another or to pass to its rear. 
But as there are numerous gaps through which an army can 
easily pass, it will be seen that the valley is extremely difficult to 
defend at any given point. If for instance the enemy should 
attempt to get in our rear by moving up on oiu- east side of the 
mountain & crossing in at Snickers Gap or at Front Royal then 
a backward move would be necessary on our part. Strasburg 
being located in a very narrow part of the valley is easily defended 
& difficult to tin-n, hence we fall back to that place when the 
enemy make demonstrations against our rear flanks. 

Blacknall assured his correspondent that Early was doing a good 
job in his movements against Sheridan and "has wielded Ms army 
with much prudence & skill & is still master of the situation. ^-Possibly 
this was true, but Blacknall certainly overstatetl the Confederate 
position when he infened that Early had Sheridan "so that he will 
run as soon as we turn oiu- faces towards him." Sheridan w'as far 
from being cowed by Early, as the futine would soon reveal.(fll^ 

Ramseur's division lay quietly at Bunker Hill as the month of 
August drew to a close. Although Sheridan's cavalry had made one 
or two demonstrations against their position, no general conflict had 
developed. The men, from Ramseiu" to the soldiers in the ranks, 
seemed content to rest after the hard march from Strasburg, although 
there was heavy skirmishing at the oiUposts. The main topic of 
interest was A. P. Hill and Wade Hampton's combined attack against 
^Varren's Fifth Army Corps at Reams Station on the Petersbiug and 



In the Field Against Sheridan 227 

Weldon Railroad. John K. Walker had heard with some concern that 
"the Yankees have possession of the R. R. between Petersburg &: 
Weldon and have fortified themselves on it and will [be] veij hard to 
drive off it." He hoped that his North Carolina kinsmen would "drive 
these Yanks off," e\eiv4^it ^vere necessary to call upon old men and 
young boys to do itrTor themselves, it was far more enjoyable to 
campaign in a land of plenty, commanded by an able general, now 
that the -^veather ^^•as turning cool and pleasant. No one knew what 
the future 'svould hold; they might cross the Potomac into Manland 
or they might hold their position and wait for Sheridan to give 
battle. Ramseur summed up the operations that had just come to a 
conclusion and expressed a sincere hope for future success: 

... I have e\erything now ready to mo\'e. Thus, you see, our 
life is one of constant action, marching counter-marching, ma- 
neuvering & sometimes a little fighting. So far we have been very 
successful. God giant that we may continue to strike telling blows 
for our bleeding country. (^ 

September began ^vith a movement of Ramseur to^vard Winchester. 
The weather was pleasant and bracing, "contrasting agreeably Avith 
the dry, dusty & sultry summer ^vhich has just left us & which departed 
without many regrets on our part." The cooler ^veather saw a re- 
juvenation in the spirits of the men, although their health had been 
good during the hot summer. The chief worry was the possible effect 
of Sherman's capture of Atlanta upon the presidential elections in 
the North. Everyone wanted McClellan to ^\•in with a corresponding 
return of peace, a negotiated peace. Besides this concern there was a 
general feeling of success and well-being in Early's anny. After all, 
beef was a better diet than bacon and the valley people were different 
enough for many of the men to imagine they were almost in a foreign 
country. Blacknall described the people of the lower valley as they 
appeared to him in early September: 

The manners 8; customs of this country are totally different 
from ours, there is a freedom cordiality & want of reserve here, 
to which you are a stranger in our country & this prevades the 
highest as ^\■e\l as the middle classes, pass a house today 8; get a 
glass of water: tomorrow call & you are an old acquaintance 8c 
dear friend of the family. The poor people live in t^\-o-story 
brick houses & the rich, the female portion, do their o^\n labor. 
I have seen many ladies of good appearance 8: good estate attend- 
ing to their domestic affairs bare-footed, 8; not seemina: in the 
least confused to meet company in that seemingly luicivilized 
condition. Many of them being at the same time, quite intelligent 
8: to some extent accomplished, but all free & easy as to manners, 
but sufficiently correct as regards morals, the people in the valley 



228 The Bloody Sixth 

bear their suffering & sacrifices with remarkable composure & 
with commendable good temper, being at all times ready to afford 
relief to the sick & woimded 8: to divide their subsistence witli 
any who may choose to call & the number of applicants is by no 
means small. @) 

Afost of the connnon soldiers had little time to fraternize with the 
people, at least not at this latter period of the campaign. Sheridan's 
superior numbers were now making themselves felt. Ramseur's divi- 
sion was constantly annoyed by Union cavalry which tended to de- 
moralize the Confederate infantry. It was difficult to be always on 
the alert, constantly engaging enemy cavaln to prevent a surprise 
or the capture of the divisional supply trains. It£) 

John K. Walker was doing well, except for a bad cold and a sore 
throat. He had recently received a quantity of personal supplies from 
home, brought by Private Mitchell \vho had been home on furlough. 
The shirt, pair of drawers, pair of socks, thread, and soft soap were 
most welcome to a soldier \vho had to be on the move most of the 
time. Heavy clothing was badly needed now that autumn seemed to 
be here to stay. The di7ness had left the earth by this time and it 
rained a part of every day, making the daily job of skirmishing some- 
what more pleasant. It was better to move in a cool rain than to 
march in the heat and dust of mid-summer. Besides, muddy roads 
also hampered the movements of the enemy. (^ 

On September 10, Ramseur's division drove the Union cavalry 
back several miles in a sharp skirmish. The folloAving day saw a lack 
of activity as a heavy rain kept the division in its camps about 
Bimker Hill. On September 11, the division fell back to a position 
five miles north of Winchester. Moves, especially retrograde move- 
ments, always caused men to philosophize. This one seemed to move 
Ramseur greatly. He described the war-racked coimtry through which 
his di^'ision marched: 

I wish you could see this magnificent Valley — at this beautiful 
season of the year. Although plantations are ruined — & the 
blackened remains of once splendid mansions are to be seen on 
all sides yet nature is triumphant. Magnificent meadows, beautiful 
forests &; broad undidating fields rich in grass & clover. Truly it 
does seem sacriligous to despoil such an Eden, by the ravages 
of war.rT^ 

As the division settled do^vn in its new camp, the gathering of 
wheat continued at a faster pace. Large supplies, including "several 
hiuidred" good beef cattle, were sent to Lee's array at Petersbmg. It 
was gratifying to kno^v that the mission of holding the lower valley 



In the Field Against Sheridan 229 

while the ^rheat crop -was being harvested was soon to be acconipHshed. 
All they could do was to hold "our part of the \me."(j^2S^ 

The men in the division continued to thrive on a daily fare of 
skirmishing, with no engagement of a general natiu'e. Days Avere 
spent in picket duty on the line east of ^Vinchester and in gathering 
in the wheat crop. The scene ^vas almost too quiet; the air \vas filled 
^^'ith uncertainty. The constant skirmishing had caused such battle- 
hardened veterans as Blacknall to exclaim, 

. . . ivhat you might consider an adventure of some importance 
has become to me only an evei")' day occurrence, as wt are so often 
under fire & ha\ing little affairs with the Yankees that ^ve dont 
regard a little skirmish as anything at all. ^^ 

Blacknall often lay do'ivn and read the newspapers while his men en- 
gaged in a "brisk skirmish." The weather continued to change. The 
hot and dry days of summer and early fall were becoming cooler: 
rain continued to fall almost evei7 day. All this caused a sense of 
false secmity to pervade the feelings of the men — from General 
Ramseiu' on doAvn. The "constant watchfulness 8; almost daily moves" 
were beginning to change the attitude of evenone. It seemed that one 
could stay in the valley forever, always fighting Yankees, until the 
Judgment Day. Maybe there woidd be a change, maybe the armv 
would fall back toward Staunton. No one seemed to kno^v. Most of the 
men belie\ed that the fortunes of the Confederacy depended upon 
them as they tried to hold Sheridan back in the valle) : 



I think everything depends upon this Fall CampaignC^__^ 

Ramseur's division continued to occupy a position east of Win- 
chester, facing Sheridan's camps at Berryville and Charlestown. Be- 
cause of the open character of the country both armies could see each 
other across the rolling fields. On September 1 7, Union cavaln- drove 
in the Confederate cavalry picket stationed in front of Ramseur's 
position. Ramseur sent infantry out and soon drove the Union 
troopers back down the road to^\ard Benyville. The air ^\-as nou- filled 
with signs of a general engagement. On the 18th, Early moved 
Gordon's division, with part of Lomax's cavahy, to Martinsbmg, to 
check Union efforts to repair the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
Rodes's division was moved back from Bunker Hill to Stephenson's 
Depot; Gordon returned from Martinsburg and went into a tempo- 
rary camp at Bunker Hill, "with orders to start at daylight to return 
to his camp at Stephenson's Depot." As Gordon's men marched into 
the town on the following morning they heard heavy firing in the 
direction of the Winchester-Berryville Pike. Ramseur seemed to be in 
trouble. Early quickly ordered Rodes, Gordon, and Breckinridge to 



230 The Bloody Sixth 

put their divisions under arms and prepare to move to Ramseur's 
assistance. The Confederate general then hurriedly rode toward the 
sound of firing, (ifjx 

At daylight on the morning of September 19, 1864, a large force 
of Union cavaliy attacked Jolmson's cavalry brigade attached to 
Ramseur's division which was on picket duty on the Berryville Pike, 
two miles east of Winchester. Although the attack w^as quickly re- 
pulsed the two forces did not disengage. Artillery roared and infantry 
skimiished as the long-awaited general engagement developed. The 
main body of the Union Army advanced rapidly up the turnpike 
from Berryville, moving into the fields on the right and left of the 
road. Ramseur quickly placed his division in line of battle across the 
road, just in time to receive a heavy infantry attack on his left. 
Godwin's brigade was in the center of the line, across the Berryville 
Pike. At 10:00 A.M., a general cannonade ensued between the two 
armies as more forces were brought in on both sides. Early brought 
Rodes and Gordon into the battle on Ramseiu's left. Sheridan moved 
most of the Sixth Army Corps up through the Ben7ville Canyon to 
reinforce Wilson's cavalry division which w^as making the initial 
attack upon the Confederates. By 1 1 o'clock, the fighting had become 
general. After half an hour of desperate fighting, the Confederate 
line was pressed back a distance of two hundred yards. The men 
withdre^v slowly and re-formed in good order. According to the cor- 
respondent of the Raleigh Confederate: 

. . . our troops, though greatly outnumbered, addressed them- 
selves to the work before them like men detennined to conquer 
or die. The Yankee line advanced slowly. Oin- brave fellows stood 
the fire like Salamanders, and plied their rifle^like men who 
were fighting for all that is worth living for//t^ 

In this fighting Pegram's brigade, \vhich was on the left flank of 
Ramseiu's division, was forced back. God^vin, his men extended across 
the Pike to Abraham's Creek, shifted to the left to support Pegram's 
line. Again and again the Union infantry asaulted the brigade's 
position, and again and again they were repulsed with heavy loss. In 
this heavy in-fighting, man after man of the Sixth Regiment went 
down. Lieutenant D. Z. Hardin, commanding Company A, fell 
slightly wounded in the head: Privates C. J. Presnell, William Rose, 
Thomas .\. Seals, and John Langler all fell woimded. Presnell was 
severely wounded in the body. The other companies suffered similar 
losses. Private P. iM. Gooch of Company B was severely wounded in 
the back and was left in the hands of the enemy. Privates J. N. Hollo- 
way, J. T. Hutchins, and W. D. Blalock were casualties in Company 
C, while |. M. Peck and 'William Chambler were listed as missing. 
Even Regimental AdjiUant Cornelius Mebane was slightly woimded. 



In the Field Against Sheridan 231 

Total regimental casualties were thirty-three iiiounded and eight 
missing. Fortunately, only five men were killedf-^J^ 

During a lull in the battle, Gordon attempted a counterattack in 
the area north of the Berryville Pike, assisted by a fonvard movement 
of Ramseur's division. This maneuver succeeded in routing a portion 
of the Nineteenth .\rmy Corps, but failed ^vhen Union reinforcements 
reached the scene and Sheridan succeeded in rallying his panic- 
stricken men. Both Confederate General Robert E. Rodes and Union 
General David A Russell were killed in the desperate fighting. Now 
the scene of combat shifted to the north, in the area along the Win- 
chester-Martinsburg Pike \\here Breckinridge's division had been 
reinforced by the cavalry units of Imboden, Rosser, Wickham, and 
McCausland. General George Crook's small but hard-hitting Eighth 
Army Corps attacked the Confederate position ivith great fun', forcing 
Breckinridge's men back into the outskirts of Winchester. The time 
was 4:30 P.M. Suddenly Imboden's cavali-y broke and fled to^vard 
the rear, followed by the other cavalry units. Breckinridge's men held 
firm for a iew moments, but joined in the rout ^vhen Merritt's cavalry 
division charged down the Martinsburg Pike and overran their posi- 
tions. Now all alons-jJie line, the hard-pressed Confederates were 
forced to withdra^\•.(2^^ 

To the east, along the Berryville Pike, Ramseur's division with- 
dre^\' slowly. During a temoprary lull in the fighting, General Godwin 
rode in front of die lines of his brigade. Reaching the pike he con- 
gratulated Captain John Beard of the Fifty-seventh Regiment, saying, 
"I am proud of the conduct of my old regiment to-day. It saved the 
day." Beard warned the general to get off the pike since the position 
was being swept by artillei-y fire. Even as Beard spoke, a shell ex- 
ploded near the two officers and a fragment struck Godwin in the 
head, killing him instantly. The dead general was quickly placed in 
an ambulance and carried into the streets of -ii'inchester, already 
filled \\-ith panic-stricken Confederate soldiers. (/_£*) 

The scene in the streets of Winchester was almost beyonil descri]> 
tion as Early's army fell back, on their A\ay toAvard Newtown and the 
upper valley. .\n e)eAvitness reported: 

. . . clouds of dust -(vere rising to heighten the scene. ^V^agoners, 
teamsters, ambulance drivers, negroes, boys, skulkers from the 
battle, and scjuads loitering about the field, all caught the panic 
and fell into the general rush, until it constituted a perfect stonn 
of the madness of himian folly. Soldiers threw do^vn tlieir muskets 
aboiu the fields and streets, divested tliemselves of cartridge boxes, 
knapsacks and blankets, in order to run light: ambulances just 
returning from the battle field went galloping off in this ivild 
■idiirlpool, filled -^vith the agonizing wounded, all tending to 
make 'confusion ^vorse confounded.' 



232 The Bloody Sixth 

The same writer felt that the Confederates had gained a "decided 
victoi^" in the field but had allowed it to be thrown a\v:a^by the 
actions of Imboden's and McCaiisland's cavalry brigades.(_^_^jy 

As his disheartened army withdrew from Winchester toward the 
south Early took stock of his losses. The Confederates had lost 226 
killed, 1,567 wounded, and 1,818 missing in the infantry and artillery. 
The cavalry loss ivas unknown. Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah 
captured 5 pieces of artillery, a number of caissons, and 7,000 stand 
of small arms. The loss of Generals Rodes and Godwin would be 
sorely felt later. Union casualties niniibered 4,000, including General 
David A. Russell who was killed. (J^ 

The road by which the Confederates retreated ran through New- 
town to Strasburg. Inmiediately south of Strasburg the eminence 
known as Fisher's Hill thrust its bulk across the valley from North 
Mountain on the west to the tip of Massanutten Mountain on the 
east. Here Early detennined to make a stand. He placed his army in 
line of battle on the afternoon of September 20. Ramseur's division 
occupied the left of the position with Lomax's cavalry acting as a 
picket-guard on the extreme flank. The men, although disheartened by 
their reverse at Winchester, waited for Sheridan's arrival with some 
degree of firmness. By the morning of September 21, the two armies 
again faced each other with full intentions of giving battle. VlD 

On the e\ening of September 22, Union General George Crook's 
Eighth Army Corps marched around the base of North Mountain and 
attacked the lightly-held Confederate left flank. Lomax's cavalry, 
which held the position, was brushed aside and an imexpectedly 
heavy blow was dealt to Ramseur's left flank. The pressine was too 
much. Men who had seen continuous action through nearly four 
years of war, and newly-inducted conscripts whose spirits had been 
dampened by the gruelling valley campaign, broke and ran under the 
strain. The rout was so spontaneous that Early foimd it "impossible" 
to rally his men. Ramsein- exclaimed, • 

. . . the enemy concentrated heavily on our weak point 
(guarded by our cavalry) diove everything before them there, & 
then poured in on our left &: rear. I am sorr)' to say that our men 
^vere very much stampeded &: did not keep cool nor fight as ^vell 
as they have here-to-fore done. (7l>) 

Early's army fell back in a panic, almost like a house of cards which 
has been scattered to the winds. T^velve pieces of artillery, 995 pris- 
oners, 30 killed, and 210 wounded completed the Confederate loss, 
"a sad blow, coming ... on the heels of the affair at Atlanta." Early, 
saddened by the defeat, commented, 

... I am sorry to say many men threw away their arms.mt); 



In the Field Against Sheridan 233 

The retreat continued throughout the night. By the following 
morning the scattered commands were fairly well organizecL Early 
moved his men on to Mount Jackson and then to Rude's Hill. Here 
the Confederates beat off a Union infantry attack, but continued their 
witlidra-ival "in line of battle for eight miles." There Mere occasional 
halts as the men Avere thrown across the road to check the enemy. 
During the night of September 23, the army withdrcAs- from Rude's 
Hill to Port Republic. Sheridan was left in control of the lower 
valley, no^^• open to the devastation which the Union authorities had 
promised. Early paused at Port Republic in a desperate attempt to 
reauit and reorganize his battered arm^^Ji?) 

While his men recuperated from their reverses at \Vinchester and 
Fisher's Hill, Early explained his deep "regret" at "the present state 
of things" to his superior, General Lee: 

In the fight at ^Vinchester I drove back the enemy's infanti7, 
and Avould have defeated that, but his cavalry broke mine on the 
left flank, the latter making no stand, and I had to take a division 
to stop the progress of the fomier and save my trains. ... In the 
affair at Fisher's Hill the cavaln' ga\e Ma\', but it was flanked. 
This could have been remedied if the troops had remained steady, 
but a panic seized them at the idea of being flanked, and with- 
out being defeated they broke, many of them fleeing shamefully. 
The artillery was not captured by the enemy, but abandoned by 
the infantry./r7^ 



Early explained that his troops were "very much shattered, the 
men ver)' much exhausted, and many of them without shoes." Never- 
theless, he would do the best he could, although Sheridan's superiority 
in cavalry "gives him immense advantage." Early begged for Kershaw's 
infantry division, originally sent to him and then recalled, and 
Hampton's cavalry. Lee replied in a sympathetic note, promising 
that shoes, anns, and ammunition woidd be sent to Early and "every- 
thing done to strengthen him.'(?/fc) 

On September 27. Lee wrote Early a detailed letter of instructions, 
giving his sidDordinate some exact criticism, and expressing his faith 
in the men of the vallev army: 

I very much regret the re\erses that have occurred to the amiy 
in the \'alley, but trust they can be remedied ... I have stich 
confidence in the men and officers that I am sure all -(nil imite 
in the defense of the coimtry. It Avill require that even' one 
should exert all his energies and strength to meet the emergency. 
One victory will put all things right. You must do all in your 
power to invigorate your army. Get back all absentees; maneuver 
so, if you can, as to keep the enemy in check until you can strike 
him M-ith all your strength. .\s far as I can judge, at this distance, 



234 The Bloody Sixth 

you have operated more with divisions than with your concen- 
trated strength. Circumstances may have rendered it necessai-y, 
but such a course is to be avoided if possible. It will require the 
greatest watchfulness, the greatest promptness, and the most un- 
tiring energy on your part to arrest the progress of the enemy in 
his present tide of success. /^7f) 

Lee felt that there was possibly a "lack of confidence" between the 
officers and men in the valley army. If this were true it was due to a 
lack of instructions and discipline. The Confederates were forced, by 
necessity, to fight against "great odds." It was necessary to exert every 
energy for final success, (flij 

The men who filed into camp ^\•ere discouraged, but still deter- 
mined to defeat Sheridan. Ramseur Avrote from the Confederate camp 
near AV^aynesboro on September 30: 

We are recruiting here &: I hope in a few days ivill be able to 
drive the Yankees out of the Valley. 

If only the anny coidd get back to full strength and possibly obtain 
sufficient cavalry tc)defeat Sheridan's seasoned troopers, a victory 
might still be ■\von.(W/ 

There is little documentation to record the activities of the Sixth 
Regiment dining this period. It is inferred, by later correspondence, 
that Colonel Tate was absent in North Carolina on leave at the time. 
As we ha\'e seen above both Generals Godwin and Rodes had been 
killed in the Battle of Winchester. To remedy these losses Early 
appointed Brigadier General John Pegram, the senior brigade com- 
mander, to the command of Ramseur's division. Ramseur was ap- 
pointed to the command of Rodes's leaderless division. These changes 
took place on September 20, shortly before the Battle of Fisher's Hill 
and during the long retreat from Winchester. Lieutenant Colonel 
William S. Davis was placed in command of Godwin's brigade. On 
September 30th, 1864, the brigade vas stationed at Mount Sidney, on 
the Valley Pike midway between Mount Crawford and Staunton. The 
division could muster 1,630 muskets, not a bad averaae for that late 
period in the ^\ar. Davis' brigade, of which the Sixth Regiment was 
now a part, -ivas able to muster 712 men and ofiicers, 882 men and 70 
officers still being held prisoners of war. Attrition had set in, as evi- 
denced by the ranks of the other regimental commanders in the 
brigade. The Twenty-first North Carolina was commanded by Major 
W. J. Pfohl; the Fifty-fourdi, by Captain August H. Martin; the Fifty- 
seventh, by Captain Miles H. Hunter, (j^^' 

Major Pfohl ivrote his cousin, Christian T. Pfohl of Salem, North 
Carolina: 



In the Field Against Sheridan 235 

SoiTV as I ana to say so, I must confess that Ave have been badly 
whipped u]} here on t^vo occasions, all o^ving to se\eral trivial 
circumstances ^vhich might have been prevented had ^\■e had a 
good commander. 

After explaining the reasons for the reverses at Winchester and Fisher's 
Hill. Pfohl continued: 

AVhat the effect of these disasters has been upon the country 
1 cant say, as we do not get to see any papers these days, but I 
fear they have had rather a depressing tendency. It is certainly 
the most a-itical moment that we have ever yet had in our histon', 
but I hope Ave may soon see the dawning of a brighter d^y.^f^T) 

That "brighter dav" was soon to come closer. In early October 
Sheridan's army was reported to be at New Market. In spite of this 
movement. Early held his anny bet^veen AVaynesboro and Mt. Sidney 
for nearly a iveek. ^Vhile Early remained inactive, Sheridan devastated 
the valley, just as he had promised he would. Mills, barns, and crops — 
especially wheat — went up in smoke. The devastation Avas finally 
halted when Early's army moved forward again through the continu- 
ous rain Avhich no^v drenched the valley. (f>'^ 

Sheridan's army slowly withdrew as me Confederates advanced. 
On October 6, Early marched rapidly from Mount Crawford in an 
effort to overtake Sheridan and bring him into a general engagement. 
Although Early marched into New Market on October 7, Sheridan 
eluded the^nsuit and retired to a line above Cedar Creek, north of 
Strasburg/^/23^ 

As the anny moved forward to certain battles, other things hap- 
pened — some of them filled Avith tenderness and hope for a better 
future. Colonel Tate, newly-returned to the regiment after a visit to 
western North Carolina, received a letter from a friend named Carrie. 
She was a young girl Avith Avhom Tate had assumed a recent friend- 
ship, a friendship which left at least one letter of affection. Canie was 
"convinced" of Tate's "entire devotion," but felt that she possibly 
didn't deserve "such love." Her letter was filled with Avarmth and 
affection and thoughts of home. It Avas couched in language remote 
from thoughts of war. The colonel might well have blushed Avhen he 
read it, but if he took time to reminisce over the good time he must 
have had, he didn't have much time for it. The war in the Shenandoah 
Valley still remained to be fought to a final decision. (J^^'O 

As the Confederates advanced toward Strasburg there ivere many 
exclamations of rage at the sight of the devastation which Sheridan's 
army had created. The sight served to inspire most of the men to do 
their fidl duty. Ramseur described the scene, adding some pertinent 
opinions about Sheridan's future movements: 



236 The Bloody Sixth 

This beautiful & fertile valley has been totally destroyed. 
Sheridan had some of the houses, all of the mills & barns, evei-y 
straw & wheat stalk burned. This valley is one great desert. I do 
not see how these people are to live. We have to haul our supplies 
from far up the valley. It is riunored that the Yankees are rebuild- 
ing the Manassas Gap R. R. If this is true, Sheridan will not give 
up his hold on the Valley, & we will probably remain here for the 
winter — imless Gen'J=-iee becomes so hard pressed that we will 
have to go to hm\n>^) 

On October 8, Rosser was badly defeated by Union Generals Mer- 
ritt and Custer in a desperate cavah^ action at Toms Brook, a small 
town between Fisher's Hill and AVoodstock. The Confederate cavalry 
had been harassing Sheridan's infantry as it withdrew toward Stras- 
burg. Sheridan, exasperated by Rosser's boldness, directed General 
Alfred Torbert, commander of the Union cavalry, to defeat the Con- 
federates. Torbert moved Alerritt and Custer forward in a grand 
sweeping attack which routed Rosser and Lomax. Nine Confederate 
guns were captured, along with many wagons. Early, who never 
learned how to properly use or imderstand his cavalry, complained to 
Lee: 

It would be better if they could all be put into the infanti^; 
but if that were tried I am afraid they would all run off//>C.j 

This reverse was partially offset, at least in Early's mind, by 
Sheridan's withdrawal to the north side of Cedar Creek, a narrow, 
twisting stream with steep banks. Here the Union Army complacently 
went into camp, to Early's complete amazement. Did Sheridan intend 
to cross the Blue Ridge into eastern Virginia, or was he simply con- 
tent to remain in the lower valley to protect the important Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad and the sensitive inland corridor to Washington 
and Baltimore? Early was anxious to resume the offensive in spite of 
his uncertainty over Sheridan's plans. The Confederate infantry was 
"in good heart and condition," and was anxious to give battle to the 
hated Sheridan. Ramseiu' wrote, 

I think we will have stirring ^vork before long. I do hope we 
^\-ill be enabled to punish the Yankees well. 

This view was shared by many who felt tlml^"the enemy is afraid to 
attack us — at any rate he fails so to do." n>'p 

The Confederates took position in line of battle on Fisher's Hill, 
below Strasburg, the scene of their defeat on September 22. After his 
men were established. Early surveyed the scene before him. General 
Pegram was sent on a careful reconnaissance to Cedar Creek; Generals 
Gordon and Evans, accompanied by Major Robert H. Himter of 



In the Field Against Sheridan 237 

Gordon's staff and Captain |ed Hotchkiss, Stonewall Jackson's skilled 
map maker and topographical engineer, were sent to the right to 
find a way around Sheridan's flank. Although Pegram was unsuccessful 
— the position behind Cedar Creek was too strong and easily defended 
— the other officers were successftd. A previously unknown route along 
the base of Three Top Mountain was uncovered. The route followed 
the banks of the north fork of the Shenandoah, past the mouth of 
Cedar Creek, to a position opposite the Union left flank. Here the 
Confederates would be able to surprise the Union pickets, roll up the 
Union left, then held by Crook's Eighth Army Corps, and possibly 
destroy Sheridan's army. When Early heard the good news he dis- 
played great enthusiasm. Gordon was immediately placed in command 
of three divisions — his own, Ramseur's, and Pegram's. The divisions 
of Kershaw and Wharton were ordered to attack the Union center 
composed of the Sixth Army Corps across Cedar Creek ^vhile Gordon 
made a flank attack along the line he had discovered. Rosser's de- 
moralized cavalry was directed to make a demonstration at Culp's 
Ford on Cedar Creek in an efEort to draw Custer's cavah7 away from 
the Union infantry. 'Tbe-^simultaneous attack was planned for 5:00 
A.j\f. on October 19. ([^ 

At 10 o'clock on the evening of October IS, Gordon led his three 
divisions, reinforced by Payne's cavalry brigade, towards the Shenan- 
doah. A cavah-yman who participated in the attack described the 
march: 

We . . . crossed to the right of the (Valley) pike and moved 
across the side of the mountain, which was so steep and the path 
so narrow that, for more than two miles, ^^•e had to go in single 
file. We passed within five hundred yards of the pickets of the 
enemy. Not a sound was uttered. The men left their canteens 
and everything that would make a noise behind. The path was so 
steep that we had to lead our horses. At four o'clock everything 
was as expected, and we were resting for five o'clock, the ap- 
pointed hour, to come. We were at the river, and aivay on the 
enemy's flank. 'ForwardI' and away we went/'/X^ 

Payne's men charged into the river, sinprising the Union pickets 
who had time to fire only two shots at the Confederates. This pitiful 
resistance was answered by a fusillade of "twenty shots" from the 
cavalry. Gordon's men, eager to even the score Tvith Sheridan, pressed 
behind the cavalry. Ramsetu's division followed Gordon, and was in 
turn followed by Pegram's men. The very eagerness and detennination 
of the attack took the Eighth Army Corps by surprise. Some of the 
men were caught in bed, some were engaged in the cooking of an 
early breakfast. Few were armed and prepared to offer an effective 
resistance. The confusion was increased by the attack of Kershaiv and 



238 The Bloody Sixth 

Wharton who threw their divisions across Cedar Creek and drove into 
the Nineteenth Army Corps. A Confederate observer described the 
scene: 

A more brilliant victory has not been achieved during the 
\\'ar; it exceeded Chancellorsville. The eighth and nineteenth 
corps, which Gordon struck first, were entirely routed, great 
numbers slain in their camps, twenty pieces of artillery captured, 
fifteen hunched prisoners, small arms without number, ■ivagons 
and camps, everything on the ground. Everything worked like 
a charm. Two-thirds of their amiy routed, nothing left to cover 
their disorderly retreat but the Sixth corps and their cavalry, 
which had not as yet been brought into action. 

The Confederate cavalry had captured Sheridan's headquarters, 
although the Union commander \vas absent in AVashington in con- 
ference with General Grant. Everything pointed to a brilliant victoi7 
for the Confederates.//^ 

At 10 o'clock Early arrived upon the battlefield and assinned direct 
command of his army. Gordon resimied command of his own division. 
For some unkno\\-n reason. Early ordered the successfid attack to 
cease and an immediate concentration to begin. Although there was 
some looting in the Union camps and some straggling and scattering 
among the several Confederate divisions, no satisfactory reason has 
ever been given for Early's action. The Confederates "reorganized" 
^\hile Sheridan arrived upon the field and assumed command of his 
army. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon, a Union counterattack was 
mounted against the Confederate left. Despite the efforts of Ramseur, 
Pegram, and other officers, the Confederate left flank was broken 
and an utter rout ensued. Ramseur fell mortally wounded from his 
horse Tvhile the "glorious fruits of the morning's vigor were turned 
to ashes by the evening's delay." The guns which the Confederates 
had taken Avere recaptured, along with thirty of their own. Many 
ambulances, ordnance wagons, and military stores, together ^vith 
hundreds of prisoners, were captured. The mortally wounded Ram- 
seur was captured, carried ta-^T5elle Grove," Sheridan's headquarters, 
and died the following day.M^ 

Early's army had lost over 1,500 casualties during the battle, 
although Early would write Lee, "My men ran without sufficient 
cause. . . ." Possibly no unit suffered more terribly than did the Sixth 
Regiment. Colonel Tate was severely wounded in the left ami, a 
wound i\hich put him out of action until the regiment returned to 
Petersburg. Lieutenant D. Z. Hardin of Company A was wounded in 
the right arm; Private Green Roberts of Company B was mortally 
wounded in the head; Corporal C. Craige of Company G was killed; 
Lieutenant G. R. ^faynard of Company K, the good friend of Private 



In the Field Against Sheridan 239 

(ohii K. \Valker, was missing and presumably captured. Altogether, 
the regiment suffered a loss of three killed, twenty-two wounded, and 
twenty-one missing — a grand total of forty-seven. Many names which 
had been on the regimental muster rolls since 1861 would now be 
pemianently otit of action: Henderson Warlick of Company E; 
William M. Albright and Ransom Burns of Company F; J. H. Up- 
church and ^Villiford Upchurch of Company I. These men, whether 
they were killed, wounded, or missing, would be irreplaceable. Their 
loss, along with that of many others, sounded the death-knell of the 
valley aniiy and the Second Corps, as well as the loss of the valley 
campaign. In spite of these losses, the final dissolution of the Sixth 
Regiment still lay ahead in the mists of the future. There would be 
more blood-shed, much more, before that. U3i) 



XIII 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 



". . . the command was gwen to go forward and we leaped 
over the breastworks and gave a yell and . . . u'as inside of the 
enemy works. ..." 

William J. Walker to his parents. 
March 28, 1865. 



Early succeeded in rallying some of his demoralized men at 
Fisher's Hill, but was unable to undo the results of the reverse at 
Cedar Creek, No one would go back to face the enemy or ti-y to re- 
rapture the lost artillery and wagons, although Rosser's cavalry per- 
fonned a commendable job in covering the retreat. The only bright 
side of the ledger concerned the capture of 1,300 Union troops. These 
men Avere gotten a^vay before the Confederate line broke, and were 
subsequently sent to Staunton. This fact didn't change the spirits of 
Early's men. They had been ■■\\-hipped" and they knew it. Even an 
address \\hich Early made to his army on October 25 couldn't change 
that feeling. Since this is a regimental history there is no time to 
cover the detailed causes of the defeat here. Let it be sufficient to say 
that Early blamed it on plundering carried on by his men: :\hile the 
men blamed defeat on Early's faulty generalship. No one has been 
able to answer the question to everyone's satisfaction. (Z^ 

The Confederate Army withdrew from Fisher's Hill to New 
Market on October 20. The initial disorganization and panic had 
somewhat subsided and the men, no-\v tired of campaigning, mani- 
fested an almost universal desire to go into \vinter quarters. (^ 

Although the Sixth had gone into action at Cedar Creek under 
Colonel Tate, that officer's severe ann ivound necessitated a tem- 
poraiy change. During Tate's absence. Captain John A. McPherson 
of Company E was ordered to be "acting field officer" of the regiment. 
Brigadier General William G. Lewis, formerly in command of the 
troops outside Plymouth, returned to command the brigade which 
he had left in early August, Plymouth having fallen on October 31 
to a LTnion naval and land attack. In spite of recent Confederate re- 
verses, the still-defiant brigadier was anxious for further action. All 

240 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 241 

the regiments in tlie brigade were now commanded by captains, as 
if to illustrate the se\ere attrition \\hich was beginning to destroy the 
Confederate Amiy. The T^venty-first was commanded by Captain 
[ames F. Beall; the Fifty-fourth, by Captain Limsford A. Paschall: 
the Fifty-seventh, by Captain John Beard. ^-^ 

John K. 'Walker had been ill in the Confederate military hospital 
at Gordonsville during the Battle of Cedar Creek and Early's subse- 
tpient ^vithdrawal to New Market. On November 9, he ^\Tote his 
parents abotit his condition: 

I thought as I was still at the Hospital that you \voidd be un- 
easv about me and ivant to learn how I ^vas getting along . . . and 
think that I will be able to go to the Co. in the course of a -week 
or two. I have had the fever and the Neuralgia in my head, and 
suffered a great deal but am considerably on the mend. The 
^\eather is rainy and bad here. Our fair is very common here, but 
about like all other hospitals I reckon. We have a very good Dr. 
in my Ward. His name is Dr. Wilson from Hillsboro, N. C. Q) 

Walker had heard from his company, in camp at New Market. They 
had lost one man killed and two wotmded in the Battle of Cedar 
Creek — and five were missing. 'W^alker received with much sorro'vv 
the ne^\'s that his sood friend Lieutenant Mavnard ^\-as missing. Little 
did Walker know that he Avould probably never see Maynard again, 
nor would he rejoin his comrades in the regiment in the immediate 
future. (^ 

It \\-AS just as well. On No\ember 10, the Sixth marched with 
Pegram's division in a brief reconnaissance to ascertain Sheridan's 
strengtlr. The march carried the men to the vicinity of the Lhiion 
camp at Kernstown. They fought a brief and ineffectual skinnish at 
Newtoivn on the 12th, and ^vithdrew to the safety of their own camp 
at New Market. Little is knoivn of this ej^pedition except that it ac- 
complished nothing and ^\as soon overrT"he weather ■was now be- 
coming too cold for active operations, giving the men the impression 
that the season for campaigning was over and that they ^roidd soon 
be free to build ivinter quarters. Everyone wzs happy to see the hard- 
working General Le^vis back in command of the brigade. He ahvays 
thought of the comfort of his men before he thought of his o^vn. As 
he wrote his wife on November 16, 

1 have a good deal of hard -svork to do for a while to put my 
brigade in good order & condition, so that I can leave it for 
a^\'hile Avithotu feelina uneasv in reoard to it. Eventhing- is 
getting on ^\ell in the brigade at present, &: evei7one seems to be 
satisfied with me. 

Although the wound -ivhich Lewis had recei^■ed at Stephenson's Depot 
on July 20 occasionally gave him trouble, it was slo^\ly improving. 



242 The Bloody Sixth 

He was optimistic about moving into winter quarters, possibly near 
Staunton, Avhere he hoped his wife could join him. Like evei-y young 
husbaiid, he "had" to see her before the opening of the spring cam- 
paign.(i> 

In mid-November, the iveather tinned cold and wet. Snow fell on 
top of the Blue Ridge while "snow, rain, hail, sleet, & murky Weathei"" 
plagued men on the lower levels. On November 18, Lewis' brigade 
was moved to Lacy's Springs, ten miles south of New Market. The 
brigade still didn't go into winter quarters, although the condition 
of the men continued to improve. Lewis wrote. 

My brigade is one of the largest up here. 

The men soon named their new camp "Camp Ramseur," after the 
brave young officer who had led them from June 1 to September 20, 
1864. The mood was pensive as the rains fell in late November, 
"spreading gloom over this beautiful country." Le^vis sat by a warm 
fire and dreamed of Tarboro and his "darling Mitte," the wife who 
remained so far away. A letter anived from General Hoke, now in 
command of a division in front of Petersburg, ^vhich expressed satis- 
faction over Lewis' retinn to his old brigade. As Le^vis explained it, 

He seems to want no one else to command it but me. (£) 

In late November the strength of Pegram's division was listed as 
2,493 who were present for diuy, although 8,268 were "aggregate 
present and absent." Several men received promotions in the Sixth 
Regiment during this period: Martin L. Snipes was promoted to 
Second Lieutenant in Company D: Samuel C. Vance, to Second Lieu- 
tenant in Company E; and William T. Covington, to the same rank 
in Company H. Snipes got his appointment on November 7; Vance 
and Covington received theirs on December 2. Promotions had to 
continue to fill positions which had been made vacant by months and 
years of hard campaigning.(T) 

A move was in the wind as November drew to a close. The talk 
pointed towards a march in the direction of Waynesboro, but, as John 
K. Walker said, "I cant tell whether we will or not yet awhile." Young 
Walker had returned to the Sixth on November 30 to find evei^one 
well and in good spirits. Camp Ramseur was a pleasant place, eight 
miles north of HaiTisonburg and thirty-three miles above Staunton. 
The weather was very cool, almost wintry, but good enough to drill in, 
an exercise in which the Sixth Regiment participated twice a day. 
Orders were strict as Lewis and Pegram tried to restore the morale of 
their men. News of Rosser's success at New Creek, West Virginia 
with the captine of five hundred prisoners, the destruction of the 
garrison's supplies, and the tearing up of miles of track on the 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 243 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad cheered the men, who were still anxious 
to score a success against the enemy. Life at Camp Ramseur was good, 
for that period in the war. Meals \vere sen'ed to the men twice a day 
and some foraging was permitted. Unfortunately, nothing had been 
heard of the lamented Lieutenant Maynard. Walker had heard diat he 
A\-as dead but hoped "that is not so." Company K had been tem- 
porarily merged with another company, because of the small size of 
the two luiits. Although Walker's health continued to improve and 
he had just returned to the regiment after a raondi's absence, he was 
still anxious to go home and see his family. Pride and nostalgia were 
mingled in dre young soldier's words ivhen he wrote, 

I woidd like very well to be at home to eat home spiced 
eatables. 

He hadn't heard from home in three months but wanted to go there 
to see the neighborhood and "the girls and all the rest." War was 
hard. Captain \'incent was still absent at home, and Lieutenant 
Maynard and Bill Hurdle, both good friends of Walker, were still 
missing and now believed to be dead. Probably tjie war woidd never 
end, but one could always hope that it would. 03) 

The regiment moved to \Vaynesboro, a distance of forty miles 
from Lacy's Springs, on December 5 and 6. On the evening of the 
sixth the entire brigade was placed on a train on the Virginia Central 
Railroad and moved through the Blue Ridge Tunnel. Their desti- 
nation was Petersbiug. On December 8, the train rolled into Peters- 
burg and the men disembarked for the lines south of town. Now they 
were back again, back in the wai! The men marched to Hatcher's 
Run, fourteen miles soiuhwest of the town on December 9. At last 
they would face die enemy again; at last they woidd have a chance 
to even the score. ^ 

The men did not participate in any fighting — not this time. The 
brigade returned form this expedition, a mere reconnaissance on the 
same day, and went into camp in General James G. Lane's old winter 
quarters, diree miles southwest of Petersburg. Rimrors flitted through 
the camp about A. P. Hill's movement toward Belfield on the Peters- 
burg and Weldon Railroad. Talk buzzed over news of Hill's victory, 
but as far as the Sixth was concerned, it was only talk. They had no 
\\ay to be sure, although the rumor cheered the men up. For them it 
ivould be long days and nights on picket duty in the snow-covered 
trenches with Grant's army only a few yards away. Men suffered in 

: the intense cold and prayed that they would be allowed to remain in 
permanent winter quarters. Some thought that the regiment would 
assimie a position to the north of Petersburg, on the other side of 

,£ Richmond. Until the rumor became a reality, the men could only 



244 The Bloody Sixth 

stay where they were and make the best of it. Their position was 
only two hundred yards from the enemy, immediately below Peters- 
burg. It was a hell, with hea%'y cannonading heard all the time . . . 
and the continuous cold. The night of December 11 "was the coldest 
night we have had this winter." Fortunately, Colonel Tate had re- 
cently returned to lead the regiment once more. The men of Company 
K were still looking for their commander, Captain Vincent, who was 
due at any time. John K. Walker could ^vrite his brother Bill on 
December 12 as he stood on picket duty in the cold below Petersburg: 

Billie I understand that you are coming out on a visit, but I 
will advise you to stay at home as long as you can because we 
have got no winters Quarters provided yet at all, and I want you to 
bring me some things from home but if you have to come in less 
time than two weeks, you need not start with any Box. because I 
will not be allowed the privillege to enjoy it and you need not 
start with it but I want you to bring me my black mixed round ' 
about coat and the yello-\v silk hankerchief and my gloves and my 
shoes if you have got them made and if you have not got them 
made it dont matter. I have got a pr. now, and bring my old 
leggings also, and tell Mother to dye my overcoat black and send 
it to me, and send me that little tobacco pouch that I sent home 
[the] leather one. . . (^ 

Walker didn't need a blanket, he had t\\'o already; but he wanted 
a tent fly. He didn't u'ant Bill to bring a box since they couldn't 
enjoy it unless daey were permanently settled in winter quarters. 
Even as he wrote he could see one of the enemy "vei^ easy" from 
^vhere he stood. The pickets didn't fire at each other, but only stood 
and looked, possibly because of some private agreement along that 
part of the line to hold their fire. In the distance the dull thud of 
heavy artillery could be heard on the other side of Petersbing. Heavy 
firing was also heard to the west, on the right of the regimental line. 
In spite of the nearness of war and the feeling that instant death was! 
just aroimd the corner, the men in Company K were well, includingj 
Walker^,.__u'ho had no^v completely recovered from his November 
illness. (/£/ 

By mid-December a site had been selected for permanent winter 
quarters. The location was on the Boydton Plant Road, half a mile 
below Biugess' Mills and near Dinwiddie Court House. The camp 
\\'as five miles south of Sidlivan's Depot on the important Southside 
Railroad, one of Lee's major supply lines, which ran fi^om Petersbing 
to Lynchburg. The men were busy cutting down trees and trimming 
logs to make their huts. John K. Walker wrote, "I am going to fix 
me up a bidly House." Brigadier General Le\\'is explained. 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 245 

I am now buikliiig a conitortaljlc iloiihie cabin, with plank 
floors, & brick tacecl chimneys in a very retned quiet phice away 
from the troops. Dr. Sutton has iurniture lor two rooms which is 
in Richmond. I can easily get it here. He has kindly insisted on 
my taking as much of it as I want. I am about fifteen miles from 
Stony Creek on the Weldon &; Petersbing Rail Road, & can easily 
get ^vhat provisions we will need from Edgecombe.^Jy) 

The young brigadier wanted his M'iie, Afitte, to join him in camp as 
soon as possible. In case of any trouble with the enemy he was pre- 
pared to send her to Sullivan's Depot for refuge, "where Dr. Sutton 
will probably have his wife." Even as Lewis wrote, the sounds of build- 
ing went on all around him. The men ivere detennined to go into 
winter quarters before they saw fmther action. (~^ 

With Christmas almost upon the army and with the brigade still 
not installed in permanent quarters, VV'alker decided to ask his 
brotlier Bill for those articles from home. These included overcoats, 
handkerchiefs, suspenders, shoes, gloves, envelopes, leggings, knap- 
sacks, haversacks, and "that little leather tobacco pouch I sent home." 
Bill could also bring good things to eat, many of which were un- 
obtainable in camp, things like middling meat, sweet potatoes, turnips, 
and butter "if you have it." The young soldier especially desired a 
bottle of brandy "for Christmas." Bill coidd carry all these articles 
if he got on the train at the Haw River House, a station near Meb- 
anesville on the North Carolina Railroad. When BiJLLoot to Sullivan's 
Depot he would be met by the regimental ivagon.(^_£J 

The men in the Sixth didn't ahvays ^vant things from home. They 
were also willing to help unfortunate North Carolinians on the 
home front. In late December, Colonel Tate emphasized this attitude 
by giving S585 to Governor Vance. The money had been con- 
tributed by tlie members of the regiment "for the benefit of destitute 
women & children [soldiers' families] in North Carolina." Varux ^vas 
asked to use the money at his discretion to help the needy. (^ 

On January 10, 1865, Tate wrote Goxernor Vance to protest a 
proposition by the Confederate Congress to "consolidate companies. 
Battalions and Regiments: into single units." Tate felt that this action 
woidil "injuriously effect us." He protested: 

We were organized into a Regiment in the Spring of 1861 by 
authority of North Carolina la^v and for the war, under what is 
known at home as the 'Ten Regiments Bill'. The original design 
was to use us as a Regidar Army for State defence, hence ^\■e the 
Regimen^ from 1st the 10th are called North Carolina State 
Troops.!^) 

The colonel reminded '\'ance that the Sixth had been rushed to 
Virginia soon after its organization, "owing to a pressing emergency." 



246 The Bloody Sixth 

Shortly after this, in the summer of 1861, the North Carolina Seces- 
sion Convention had passed an ordinance which "turned over" the 
regiment to Confederate control. However, there were several reser- 
vations in this ordinance. One said that the governor of North 
Carolina retained control of the method of filling regimental vacan- 
cies; the other gave the governor the power to commission officers. 
Recently the Sixth had suffered heavy losses: 4 officers and 300 men 
had been captured at Rappahannock Station on November 7, 1863; 
1 officer and 74 men hacl been captured in the 1864 campaigns in 
North Carolina and the Shenandoah Valley. After all this, the Sixth 
could still muster 13 officers and 340 men fit for duty. Six officers 
and 244 men were absent at home or sick in hospitals. This gave Jlie 
regiment a "paper" total of 43 officers and 960 men on the rolls, (ijj 

Tate felt that if all the captuied men were with the regiment 
the Consolidation Act "would not effect us," even if the Confederate 
Congress had the authority to legislate in this case. The numbers of 
the regiment would be above any limits which the congress would 
set. Tate continued in a biust of eloquence; 

We desire to protest against any consolidation which can 
effect our designation or any officer or man in our organization, 
first upon the groimd that being created by a special law, and 
organized for the ivar, we are entitled to exist, as such for the 
full temi. Second, if reasonable time is given us we will have a 
larger number present than will be required by Congress, & that 
it is particularly unjust to our brethern in captivity, that they 
shoidd be deprived of their offices &: officers, and upon tlreir 
return to their own country, subjected to conscription, men who 
were the vei^ first to volunteer in the States defence, and that too, 
without limit as to time. We have a histoi^ ^vhich it is desired to 
perpetuate, and whatever of character this Regiment has made 
from first Manassas to tire present should, in justice to our 
heroic dead, be preserved. I hold my commission from the Gover- 
nor of North Carolina. I expect to be invited before a 'Board of | 
General Officers' for examination for Confederate appointment. 
[Tjo appear before this 'board' would place me in the position 
of acquiescing in the destruction of oiu' old organization./W/ 

Tate could not follow any coiuse \vhich, although of possible benefit 
to himself, would betray "those who have stood with me on so many 
victorious fields." He hoped that the governor would protect, the 
regiment and preserve it under state control as he thought best.(^ 

Vance refeired the matter to North Carolina's eminent Confeder- 
ate senator, William A. Graham, and called attention through him 
to the North Carolina congressional delegation. Vance added the 
postscript, "Our people at home equally with the army are opposed 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 247 

to this consolidation." The Sixth never was "consolidated," but 
fought to the end of the war as an independent unit. 

Governor Vance received another petition for assistance on January 
24. This one came from the "N. C. Soldiers of Lee's Amiy," who 
were anxious about the condition of their ^\ives and children back 
home in North Carolina. These men, many of them, had been at the 
front for nearly four years, "endeavoring to keep the Enemy back." 
The petition expressed the hope that Governor Vance would do 
something to stop the terrible inflation which was the cause of so 
much suffering on the home front. The men could face the enemy, 
could "hear their shot and shell \vithout being moved," but couldn't 
stand to hear news of the suffering of their "little ones." Something 
had to be done to relieve the situation. Also, the men in the trenches 
in front of Petersburg suffered from lack of food and insufficient 
clothing. If they were healthy, the petition contintied, they would 
not complain: but when they were sick and wounded and confined 
in hospitals they did not receive proper food. The men felt that 
"Something should be done to remedy these evils." If something 
could be done to alleviate the suffering on the home front the men 
promised to stop the flood of desertion which was then threatening to 
decimate Lee's army, "and men ^\'ill go into battle ^vith heartier good 
will." The Sixth's participation in the framing of this petition is not 
knoivn, liut it certainly mirrored some of the more unpleasant condi- 
tions in the regiment during January and February, 1865.(^3' 

As military acti\ities ceased with the Januai7 cold, furloughs be- 
came more common. Privates Jordan Wilson and Bedford Ballard of 
Company K, Sixth Regiment prepared to leave for home. Captain 
Vincent, the company commander, received a furlough and left 
immediately for Alamance County; even John K. Walker, a man who 
didn't seen^ to mind amiy life or hardships, was in hopes that he 
would "get a furloe this winter myself." Everyone in Company K 
continued to fare Avell, in spite of the "very cool" weather of mid- 
January. Even Jimmy Squires, who was occasionally sick with colds, 
was "ivell and hearty." The optimism of the men in Company K was 
remarkable, especially because the situation facing Lee's army, now ^~ 
under close siege in the Petersburg trenches, was becoming hopeless. C£ji^ 

On February 5, the Sixth \vas engaged in the Battle of Burgess' 
Mill ^vhen the enemy attempted to tiun Lee's right Hank by marching 
up the Boydton Plank Road. General John Pegram, the regiment's 
daring division commander, was mortally wounded in the encounter. 
Because of the hard resistance of the Confederates, Grant failed in 
his effort to reach the Southside Railroad and roll up Lee's right 
flank, but the LInion lines were now extended to the point where the 
Boydton Plank Road crossed Hatcher's Run at a potQt about midway 
bet^reen Petersbvng and Dinwiddle Court House>-<After the battle 



248 The Bi-00di' Sixth 

everything became quiet on the Hnes about Hatcher's Run, although 
it was an uneasy quiet. The Sixth Regiment remained in its old camp 
near Sullivan's Depot. A detachment from Le-svis' brigade was. placed 
on picket duty eveiy three days. Although the health of the men 
continued to be generally good, the weather had taken a decided turn 
for the Avorse. A heavy sleet fell on the night of February 14, making 
the cold almost unbearable. All this, the cold weather and the 
intolerable trench ^varfare, made John K. Walker extremely anxious 
to get his hoped-for furlough. He wrote a younger brother: 

There is another furloe gone up for oia- Co. John Allison. I 
dont knoAv ^vhether I will get one this winter or not, but if they 
continue to furloe it is very probably that I will get one ifL the 
spring. I \vould like the best in the world to get one soon/',26) 

Walker had written his mother, asking her to send him his "dagara- 
type" Avhich he had had taken at Company Shops back in 1861. He 
wanted to have it taken again, possibly to show that nearly four 
years of warfare had made a difference in his appearance. He planned 
to send some caps and gunpowder home, so that Bill could "squirrel 
hunt as much as he wants." Walker wanted his brother to stav home 
as long as possible. There was no need for him to come and share the 
hardships of the Petersburg line, even if there were a temporary lulL, 
in the fighting and the men were doing fairly well at the moment. (^ 

The appearance of a great calm fell over the section of line held 
by the Sixth North Carolina. Towards the end of Februaiy the regi- 
ment was placed under marching orders. A rumor circidated that the 
men -ivould return to either North Carolina or South Carolina. Some |l 
men thought that the regiment would simply "fall back a short ''i 
distance." They were still encamped in the old cabins near Bin-gess' p 
Mill left by General Heth's division, having named their camp "Camp 
Godwin" in honor of the gallant brigadier Avho had been killed in 
the rout at Winchester. The building of new cabins, delayed by the 
action of Burgess' Mill in early February, was still proceeding. Men 
■were digging in the half-frozen earth, making the foundations of 
cabins and building ever higher breastworks to stop the enemy. The 
most disturbing news of all concerned the suspension of all finloughs, 
except one to each himdred men. Officers were given none at all. 
John K. ^Valker reported: ( 



... if that be the case you need not look for me at home this 
Spring but I am in hopes that they commence gi\ing furloes 
again if the weather sets in bad, but as long as the weather con- 
tinues good I dont think that there ^vill be many given, but I 
will make the best of it that I can./O, 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 249 

It tlitlii't really matter about the liirloughs. The ^^■eather had 
"faired off" putting an end to the continuous rain and sleet which 
had plagued the men all ^\inter. A faint hint of spring in the air gave 
the men pleasant thoughts and made them feel good. Walker asked 
his folks for some soap, a cap pouch, and txvo leather straps. A man 
needed to be clean and ready, ready for the war which was still going 
on some^vhere out in front on the other side of the breastworks. (£_^ 

There was one bright side to this interminable ^var in the 
trenches. The home folks weren't forgetting their men at the front. 
On March 4, Pegram's division received twenty-five pounds of flour, 
ten pounds of bacon, ham, sausage, "pyes," fruit, peas, cakes, molasses, 
potatoes, pork backbone and ribs, pepper, turnips, and brandy — a 
total \alue of $577.50. It is difficult to say ^vhat was the most welcome 
conmiodity. Possibly it was the ijrantly, but since the men had different 
tastes ^ve cannot be certain. (^) 

Other things had been enjoyed during the winter. In late Februai"y 
General Lewis' principal distraction, his wife JMitte who had been 
visiting the army, was placed into an army ^vagon and sent to the 
railroad depot at Sullivan's Station for the long ride back to Tarboro. 
Le\\is, grieving at his wife's departure, wrote to her in early March: 

I still li\e in oiu- "log palace" but it is not the palace of happi- 
ness as it WHS a iew days ago .... 

No other than such a course as that in which we are now 
engaged, could possibly induce me to seperate from you atal; and 
the great sense of duty I feel towards my counti^ alone renders 
it bearable. . 



It ^\as difficult for a soldier to sit in a clamp cabin with the rain poiu- 
i| ing doivn around it and dream of other faces and better days. This 
i\ problem was made more difficult by the thought that Sherman was 
i\ no^v approaching North Carolina in his great sweep through the 
I' South. Le^vis hoped that his wife would go up to Chapel Hill to his 
(! mother and sister. It would be better to-do that than stay in Tarboro 
j;, "to be exposed to insidts &: suffering. "(£^ 

i The men in the Sixth had little time to think about the fate of 
tl' their families back home, although many of them tlid. In early March, 
■\'j Bill ^Valker left Mebanesville and rejoined the Sixth Regiment at 
.'I Camp Godwin. On March 15, the day after Bill reached his friends in 
j'l Company K, the regiment broke camp and marched ^vith the rest of 
■>!, Lewis' brigade to the other side of Petersburg. They reached their 

I destination after a hard day's march. When dawn broke they found 
.j themselves stationed immediately behind the huge hole made by die 

(crater explosion of July, 1864. Here the men were only fifty yards 

jfrom the enemy's line, a fact wliich called for special camping anange- 
ments. Holes were dug in the ground and little tents stretched over 



250 The Bloody Sixth 

them. Bill Walker wrote: "evei^ time a man shows his head he is 
shot." The hardships of the position and the poor rations soon caused 
many of the men to be discouraged by the war and tired of the long 
separation from their families. Why had they been moved to the 
east of Petersburg? What was in store for them?(53^ 

The March days passed slowly with the barest hint of spring in 
the air. At night the Sixth was engaged in continuous sharpshooting 
with the Union pickets; during the day the lines were silent. Some- 
times the men talked to each other aaoss the intervening space of 
no man's land. On occasion newspajiers were exchanged, before the 
authorities on both sides put a stop to it. John K. Walker thought 
that most of the men were contented with their lot, although many 
hoped die war -would soon be over. John's younger brother Levi 
was attending the famed Bingham School in Alebanesville, a fact 
which made John very proud. He wanted Levi to be "a good boy," 
and try to learn all he could. It was good to be "on the right side of 
your teacher." The news of the death of Lhicle George Walker had 
saddened both John and Bill, but they took the news bravely, as 
soldiers are supposed to do. If only Shemian didn't get to Alamance 
County everything would be all right.(j^ 

The Sixth Regiment had been moved to the east of Petersburg 
for a purpose. As the approach of General Sherman's army was 
heralded by many dispatches from General Joseph E. Johnston, com- 
manding Confederate forces in North Carolina, and after Johnston's 
failure to stop Sherman at Bentonville on March 19-21, Lee deter- 
mined upon a desperate stroke. On the right of the Union Line, near 
the point where it crossed the Appomattox River to the east of 
Petersburg, stood Fort Stedman. This work was built on tlie Union 
main line near the white house of Mr. Hare. The eminence upon 
which the fort and house stood was therefore known as Hare's Hill. ! 
On the bank of the Appomattox River stood Fort Haskell, a position 
whidi had annoyed the Confederates with a heavy enfilading fire for 
most of the siege. Three smaller forts crowned the hills behind Forts 
Haskel and Stedman. Heavy Union breastworks, in some places three 
lines deep, protected the flanks of these forts. Because of the strength 
of the position, the Union works were lightly manned. Lee determined 
to assault this line with part of Gordon's corps — the brigades of 
Ransom, Walker, and Lewis. If the Confederates were successfid they 
might be able to roll the Union line back along their entrenchments 
to the south. Grant would therefore be forced to curtail his lines, now 
extending in a strangle-hold around Petersbiug and threatening the 
last rail link with the South, the Soiithside Railroad. Lee coidd then 
send part of his amiy to North Carolina, unite %vith Johnston's 
diminished force, and give battle to Sherman. If Shennan were de^ 
feated the combined armies i\ould return and attack Grant — provided 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 251 

that the latter remained in his position belore Petersburg. It was a 
gamble against long odds, but Lee and his men were used to taking 
chances. If Lee were repulsed at Hare's Hill he could at least hold his 
position before Petersburg and would be in his familiar defensive 
posture — he thought. (^V 

The assaidt upon the I'nion works was set for the early morning 
of March 25. On the evening of the 24th, the color bearer of the 
Fifty-seventh North Carolina was walking along the breastworks when 
he heard the sound of casual bantering between the pickets of the 
opposing armies. He then realized that something important was 
afoot since "such interchange of Avords was not allowed ordinarily." 
In the early darkness Lieutenant Jim Edmondson of Company F, 
Fifty-seventh Regiment came to the color bearer and asked for his 
assistance in picking a group of six men from the company. These 
men would be part of a special group of sixtv^who were to perform 
"some special duty unknown to any of us." (ffej 

At daivn the Twenty-fifth, Fifty-seventh, and Sixth North Carolina 
Regiments were silently moved forward in line of battle on that 
portion of the line opposite Fort Stedman. Lieutenant Thomas R. 
Roulhac of the Forty-ninth and Lieutenant W. W. Fleming of the 
Sixth ^vere quickly moved forward at the head of a coliunn of men, 
some with axes, the others with muskets. Roulhac's men canied un- 
loaded ^s'eapons: half of Fleming's men carried axes; the others 
carried loaded muskets. With a rush this advance column charged 
the LInion works. The axemen began tearing away the abattis and 
stakes in front of Fort Stedman. The main line \\aited for the order 
'attenshon," which was immediately given, followed by the order to 
move forward at a double quick. The men of the Sixth leaped over 
their own breastworks, uttered one mighty rebel yell, and charged 
Fort Stedman. Before the men knew it they were inside the LInion 
works, hacking and slashing at the surprised garrison. Five hundred 
astonished LInion troops threw up their hands and surrendered. Nine 
pieces of artillery and eight mortars were captured. The Confederates 
branched off into the main line of Union breastworks and cleared 
the line for a distance of four or five hundred yards on the right and 
left of the fort. Two determined Union efforts to recaptine the line 
were lejnilsed witli heavy loss on both sides. The Confederates found, 
however, that they still had to capture three small earthworks behind 
the main line, earthworks which had not been noticed in the lecon- 
naissance which preceded the attack. General Gordon, leading the 
Confederate attack, was notified of this condition. He immediately 
ordered his men to ■i\ithdraw, fearful of the heav7 loss which must 
be suffered if his men were forced to continue the attack asainst the 

O 

now thoroughly aroused enemy. The Confederates in captured Fort 
Stedman Avere soon subjected to a terrific crossfire from their front 



252 The Bloody Sixth 

and on both flanks. Some of the men began to plunder the deserted 
Union camp at the fort. Coats, blankets, knapsacks, haversacks, can- 
teens, "and everything that you could mention" were picked up, but 
thrown down again when the retreat began. As the morning passed 
and their losses grew heavy, the trapped men began to run the gaimt- 
let of fire back to their own lines. Union artillery began to play upon 
the position, outlining the Confederates in the bursts of shellfire. At 
9 o'clock the adjutant of Gordon's division ordered the regimental 
color bearers to rim through the Union fire and plant their colors 
back inside the Confederate lines. When the men saw that their colors 
had been withdrawn, they began to Avithdra^v first in small groups and 
then, aboHis,10 o'clock, with the mad rush of terror-stricken demoral- 
ized menV-William [. Walker, of the Sixth, Avrote, 

... it looked almost impossible for any of us to escape ■(s'hen 
we were ordered to retreat the grape and shell were comeing so 
thick that some laid down and was taken prisoners but ^dien I 
thought of Point Look[out] you better know I come out. ^£^ 

Both Bill and [ohn Walker escaped, but many other men in Com- 
pany K, the Sixth Regiment, and Le^\•is' brigade had not been so 
fortunate. Private fames Turner of Company I had been "killed dead" 
with a bullet through the head. Privates Levi Allen and Harvey 
Workman of the same company were ^\'Olmded severely. The company 
lost Bedford Merthes, William Miles, John Alerson, and Jacob Walker 
as prisoners. The Sixth Regiment lost five killed, t\\enty-five ^vounded, 
and thirty-nine missing. Colonel Tate was severely wounded and had 
to be retiuned home for the duration of the war. Many other regi- 
mental officers were woimded. Colonel Lewis lamented: 

Our loss ^^'as considerable. I lost all the field officers of my 
Brigade wounded. None of my staff were hurt. (£^ 

The brigade lost 271 men killed, wounded, and missing. Total loss 
for the Confederates was about 3,000. 

After the Confederates returned to their breastworks the firing 
ceased. General Leivis sent a flag of truce through the lines which 
was accepted by the Union forces at Fort Stedman. Lewis was then 
pennitted to send burial details to bury the dead and carry the 
wounded Confederates away. Then night finally fell over the battle- 
field. The darkness covered both sides, back in the same positions 
they had held in the early morning. The assault upon Fort Stdman 
had failed; Lee ^voidd never have another opportunity to break the 
strangle-hold which Grant had upon Petersburg, ^y 

After the excitement was over and Lewis' brigade was safe again 
in its position opposite Fort Stedman, the men had an opportunity 



Fort Stedman: One Last Tr\ 253 

to express their feelings over the repulse. These were considerably 
mixed, as might be expected. Those who had escaped were naturally 
glad to be alive. Lewis himself exjjressed the feelings of many of his 
meit : 

. . . you don't know ho^v thankful I am for my deliverance 
from death or mutilation dining this last fast. I think I was as 
much exposed to danger, as I ever have been in battle. Men 
were killed & -ivounded all around &; about me, & yet not even my 
clothes were touched. . . /^^ 

John K. W^alker expressed the feelings of the common soldier in 
the ranks of the Sixth uhen he asked his parents to tell a friend that 
"I got him the prettiest Yankee gun that I ever saw, and I am going 
to send it to him." Walker was especially proud of the performance 
of his brother Bill who "went through the fight safe." All the rest 
of the survivors of Company K were "well and hearty and in fine 
spirits," remarkable for men who had so recently suffered a heart- 
breaking repulse. Fortunately evei7thing was quiet along the regi- 
mental line "except pi(?fce|( firing." The men at least woidd have a 
brief opportunity to resWMost of the men could not know of General 
Lee's comment when he learned that his men had been repulsed: 

All the troops engaged including two brigades imder Brig 
Genl Ranson, behaved most handsomely. The conduct of the 
sharpshooters of Gordon's Corps, who led assault, desen^es the 
highest commendation. (^3^ 

As Afarch drew to a close the Sixth Regiment was "fareing toler- 
able well." Rations were poor and li\ing tjuarters were worse. It was 
intolerable to lie in the trenches all the time with enemy bidlets 
screeching overhead. The regiment kept up a steady picket fire all 
the time; and men could be "killed at any time." Private Sidney 
Stracher of Company I was badly wounded \\'hile walking down a 
trench. In spite of this, the old defiance remained. William J. Walker 
wrote home: ■ 

We are expecting the Yankees to make an attack on us at 
anvtime biu all I have to say that if they do and oiu' men ^vill 
stand up that they will get badly defeated./^") 

Walker ^vas proud to "inform" his father that he had been among 
the first in "the old 6th" to get into Fort Stedman. The 'Walker 
brothers had been fairly lucky in the attack, escaping without a 
scratch with booty which included two guns, three blankets, and 
"several other things." They planned to send these articles home at 
the first opporttmity./^/; 



254 The Bloody Sixth 

John W. Walker added a postscript to Bill's letter. He wanted a 
small box of food sent as soon as possible "as rashions is tolerable 
scarce." The brothers didn't need any clothing, only food. He didn't 
want his father to expect him home now that the spring campaign 
had begun, but he could always hope for a furlough. Then, a \\ord of 
advice to his younger brother, Levi, 

... if I ^\as in your place I \\'ould advise Levi not to come to 
this Regt. if the school is broken u]3 because he is yoimg and has 
got no better sense than to cpme here. I dont think it is vei^ 
healthy charging breast^vorks.(^ 

Others in the regiment still kept up their spirits. Private G. G. 
Dailey, reflecting over the pretty girls back home in Alamance, asked 
Garrison Walker to "give my best love and respects to the young 
ladies." He revealed the sadness of the last terrible days at Petersbin-g 
when he lamented, "this is the worst place I ever was at, for we have 
so much hard duty to doe hear we cant rest day nor night. 'I^^ 

It was true. The men of the Sixth were now subjected to constant 
duty, both day and night. On the night of March 2J, the regiment 
fell into line under arms; but it was a false alarm. ^^ 

When he was notified of Gordon's failure at Fort Stedman Lee 
wrote President Davis that "it will be impossible to prevent a junction 
bet^veen Grant and Sherman, nor do I deem it prudent that this 
army shoidd maintain its position until the latter shall approach too 
near." Sherman's force, no^v united at Goldsboro, North Carolina 
with the troops of Generals John ^[. Schofield and Alfied Teny, 
niunbered 100,000 men. Sherman and Grant cotdd unite easily on 
the Roanoke without any interference from Lee. Petersburg -ivould 
then have to be abandoned, the sooner, the better, i^^ 

On March 29, Sheridan's cavalry crossed Hatcher's Run at Monk's 
Neck Bridge. Lee sent three brioades under Pickett to meet this new 
threat. Gordon was directed to extend his already thin line two 
miles in the direction of Five Forks. In Evans' division this put the 
pressine on Colonel f. H. Lane, commanding Evans' old brigade. 
Lane was forced to extend his line fifty yards to the left to connect 
with the^-right of Lewis' brigade, itself stretched almost to the breaking 
point. (s*) 

Pickett's men, realizing that much depended on their efforts, 
attacked Sheridan and drove him back. The Confederates then 
advanced to Dinwiddle Court House, but were forced to withdraw on 
the morning of April 1. Then Sheridan, reinforced by Warren's Fifth 
Army Corps, attacked again and di'ove Pickett's 6,000 men from the 
field of Five Forks. Pickett's left Tvas turned with a loss of 3,244 men, 
1 ffun, and 1 1 flaa:s. Sheridan and ^Varren then advanced behind 
the Confederate right and attempted to roll it up/^g"/) 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 255 

"While Pickett was being defeated, Gordon's men, including 
Lewis' brigade, held their portion of the line from the Appomattox 
River to Fort Gregg, although the men were near complete exhaus- 
tion. At 11:00 P.iSL on the night of April 1, Gordon's picket posts were 
withdrawn. The first Confederate line was stormed by waves of blue- 
coated infantry by dawn, while the night was filled with the crashing 
noise of artillei^. Gordon was preparing to recover the ground his men 
had lost when he received an order from Lee to evacuate Petersburg, 
now untenable after Pickett's defeat. The army would retreat to 
Amelia Court House, a town on the Richmond-Danville Railroad 
some thirty-six miles north^vest of Petersburg. From here the road was 
clear^to North Carolina and possible union with Johnston's small 
arm^V^he historian of the Sixth has described the Confederate with- 
drawal from Petersburg: 

That night the army withdrew, and whilst fires were blazing 
up here and there, and heavy explosions which shook the vei"y 
groimd followed each other in rapid succession along the Con- 
federate lines from Petersbiug to Richmond, the Federals failed 
to move forward to ascertain the cause; and by daylight of the 
3rd the Confederates were all on the Chesterfield side, and well 
away from the two cities on the roads towards Amelia Court 
House, (sij 



The Sixth Regiment accompanied the rest of Gordon's corps as 
it marched rapidly towards a second crossing of the Apjx)mattox 
River at Goode's Bridge. On the afternoon of the 4th, Gordon's men, 
the rear guard of the army, reached Scott's Shop, five miles east of 
Amelia Court House. The efforts of the Confederate commissary to 
find food for the famished men in the vicinity of Amelia Court House 
had failed and a valuable day's head start had been lost. Wearily the 
men marched away in the direction of Rice's Station on the morning 
of April 5. It was necessary to push on to Farmville now — and then to 
Lynchburg through a little to^vn called ,\ppomattox. Sheridan's cd\- 
alry was operating close to the left flank of the army, while Grant's 
infantry was close behind snapping at the Confederate rear guard. 
The lines of retreat which led due south through Burkeville and 
Jetersville would haveto be abandoned because Sheridan had already 
reached those points.(f|/y 

Gordon, whose weary men ^vere struggling along as the army's rear 
guard, remembered the scene years later: 

On and on, hour after hour, from hilltop to hilkojj, the lines 
were alternately fighting, and retreating, making one almost con- 
tinuous shifting battle'.A'i'^ 

At 11:00 AM. on April 6, Gordon's corps was still covering the 
rear guard of the army. Sheridan's cavalry suddenly attacked and 



256 The Bloodv Sixth 

drove Gordon's men back. Now the fighting seesawed back and torth 
on the irarrow road which ran, at this point, through a dense forest. 
During the afternoon Gordon's corps was forced to fight for its life at 
the lower crossing of Sayler's Creek. Both Anderson and Ewell were 
trapped at the upper crossing and forced to surrender. Gordon would 
have been forced to follow this course, too, if his men hadn't put up 
such a stiff resistance. During the desperate fighting at Sayler's Creek 
the battle flag of the Sixth Regiment was captured by f^fivate Joseph 
Kimball of Company E, Second West Virginia Cavalry.C:5^ 
Gordon described the fighting at Sayler's Creek: 

Another Union column struck my command while we were 
endeavoring to push the ponderous wagon-trains through the bog, 
out of which the starved teams were unable to drag them. Many 
of these wagons, loaded ^^•ith annnunition, mired so deep in the 
mud that they had to be abandoned. It was necessar)' to charge 
and force back the Union lines in order to rescue my men from 
this ]3eriloiis position.(3'7) 

The enemy was finally repulsed and the Confederates column 
continued its painful retreat. On and on the men marched, their 
numbers depleted iimv by the loss of 1,700 men captured in the debacle 
at Sayler's Creek, dv 

Gordon moved his men across the Appomattox River to rejoin 
Longstreet in the retreat toivards Farmville. The men of the old 
Second Corps were marching in order now in regidar brigade forma- 
tion. At Famville the men bivouacked north of town, just across the 
Appomattox River bridge. On the morning of the 7th, they crossed 
the river and received two days's rations which the hungry men pro- 
ceeded to cook and eat. Before they had finished eating, Gordon 
received orders from Lee to move in support of Mahone's division 
near Cumberland Church, three miles north of Farmville. During 
the afternoon of the 7th, the Union Second Corps attacked Mahone 
with great fury. Gordon was forced to send him reinforcements to 
drive the enemy back. During this fighting Brigadier General Lewis 
was badly wounded and left in Union hands. Command of the 
brigade now devolved on Captain John Beard who had been com- 
manding the Fifty-seventh North Carolina Infanti-y.(£^ 

During the night the Second Corps passed through the village of 
New Store, about twenty miles northwest of Famiville. Men fell out 
by the score, exhausted by the long march, lack of food, and the hard| 
fighting of the day. Gordon's men were now moved forward to be the! 
advance guard of the army. Talk ^\•as passing among the officers ofl 
a possible smrender. Could this be so? If it ^vere, the ordinary soldierl 
in the ranks knew nothing of it as the Second Corps marched west-F 
wdid through the day. Late in the afternoon, the column reached! 



Fort Stedman: One Last Try 257 

Appomattox Court House, county seat of the little county of the same 
name. Here supplies were waiting. On the morrow the weary men 
would be fed and rested and then could push on to Lynchburg ia^ 
the safety of the mountains. The ^\'ar might be continued forever.Cr^ 

During the night of the 8th, Gordon mo\ed his corps fonvard 
through Appomattox Court House to a position half a mile -(vest of 
the village on the Lynchburg Road. Union troops had been discovered 
in the vicinity of the coiu't house. These troops, both infantry and 
cavalry, \\ere blocking the road to the ^\est. They had to be pushed 
aside and the march continued. At 5:00 A.^L, Gordon's three re- 
maining di\isions, Grimes's, Evans', and ^\'alker's, advanced quickly 
by the right flank. They were supported by Johnson's division of 
Longstreet's corps. The enemy had constructed light breastworks 
during the night, ^^-orks which Gordon's men canied ^vithout too 
mucli difficiUty. The enemy here was cavalry which yielded to Gor- 
don's attack. But, as the Confederates advanced past the breast- 
works, they saw Union infantry, which had been concealed in the 
woods to Gordon's right and rear. More L^nion cavalry demonstrated 
against Gordon's left. The Confederate general was now in a difficult 
position; Longsueet's corps was pressing fonvard in his rear, while 
the massed artillei^ of General Armistead L. Long and Colonel 
Thomas Carter barely kept the enemy at bay. At diis juncture 
Gordon asked Lee for help from Longstreet's corps. Lee, realizing 
that his army was siuroimded, ordered a flag of truce to appear on 
Gordon's line as he sorrowfully prepared to surrender the .\rmv of 
Northern Virginia to General U. S. Grant(_^ 

In the late afternoon of April 9, Lee rode back through his army 
after meeting ^^•ith Grant. The historian of the Sixth Regiment 
described the scene as Lee moved past the regiment; 

. . . the lines of battle broke and the men crowded up around 
him, anxious to take him by the hand. Many attempts have been 
made to describe the Great Soldier's farewell to his troops, as, 
overpo-ivered by his feelings, he sobbed; "Men, we have fought 
through the war together — 1 have done the best I could for you," 
and sadly rode away. The emotions of that scene — a great General 
and his brave, faithful^ soldiers weeping fareivell to each other, 
cannot be described. (j^ 

The Sixth Regiment surrendered 6 officers and 175 men com- 
manded by Captain J. H. Dickey. Second Lieutenant Demetrius C. 
Gunter of Company A, who had been badly wounded at Sharpsburg, 
was among them. So was Second Lieutenant \V. A. Mebane of Com- 
pany F. Twelve band members surrendered nith the infantn'. Possiblv 
the saddest note of all was the statement by Captain Dickev: "I 
certify, upon honor, that of the number of men on this roll, onlv 



258 The Bloody Sixth ^^ 

seventy two (72) were armed on the morning of 9th inst." It was all 
over except for the going home. According to the regimental historian, 

. . . the 6th Resnment had served out the time for which it 
had been enVistedi i^if-) 



Epilogue 



"After his parole he resumed the practice of civil engineering, 
which he carried on luith considerable success for more than 
thirty years. . . ." 

Statement on the life of William Gaston Lewis after the war in 
Ezra J. Warner's Generals in Gray, Lines of the Confederate Com- 
manders (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959) , 
p. 187. 



What happened to some of the men and officers who served in 
the Sixth North CaroHna Regiment during the war. Some of them, 
men hke Colonel Samuel McDowell Tate, continued to resist the in- 
evitable Northern victory even though they were home recuperating 
from wounds. Tate had been severely wounded in the desperate 
attack on Fort Stedman, and was at Morganton on furlough. In 
April, 1865, :vhen Union General George Stoneman's cavalry raided 
through western North Carolina, he joined other residents of Burke 
County in resisting their ad\ance at the Catawba River. 

Tate was elected President of the North Carolina Railroad Com- 
pany after the ^\-ar. During his tenure of office he repaired the rail- 
road, rebuilt bridges, modernized the engines and cars, and corrected 
the company's shattered finances. Although Provisional Governor 
William Woods Holden "turned him out of office," Tate returned to 
his position during the governorship of Jonathan Worth. He served 
in the lower house of the 1874, 1880, 1882, and 1884 legislatures, 
helping to pass laws favorable to the Western North Carolina Rail- 
road. He helped to create the Hospital for the Insane at Morganton. 
Tate later served as an Examiner of National Banks, a Federal posi- 
tion, in the district which stretched from West Virginia to, and in- 
cluding, Florida. 

Tate's home life \vas pleasant. In October, 1866, he married Jennie 
Pearson, daughter of the late Robert C. Pearson of Morganton. They 
were both members of the Presbyterian Church and had a large 
family of children. Tate was able to provide for this family "through 
prudence and good management " 

Samuel A. Ashe gives us a complete, although partially biased, 
description of Tate as he appeared in his old age. The ex-commander 
of the Sixth Regiment ivas of medium height, 

259 



260 The Bloody Sixth 

with a frame sinewy and adapted to long fatigue, a carnage 
dignified without being haughty, an address most channing when 
he chose to please, but in general undemonstrative and in keep- 
ing with his habitual taciturnity and reserve. His public business 
was transacted ivithout a ripple of excitement, but he probed 
every detail and ^vas always master of the subject on which he 
was engaged. His home-life was in hamiony with his character. 
Quietly he pursued the even tenor of his temperate way, esteemed 
by his neighbors, respected by his party, and conspicuous among 
that band of devoted men who in war and peace have upheld 
the modest, upright, consenative, liberty-loving, tyrant-hating 
character of oiu- dear mother. North Carolina; a manly man, 
thoughtful of those about him and enjoying to the fullest the 
affection and regard for those at his fireside. CP 

Tate passed away unexpectedly on June 25, 1897. He had recently 
been appointed state treasurer, and, at the time of his death, was 
about to entertain members of the Burke County Bar Association at 
his home in Morganton. He was biuied in the public cemetei7 in 
Morganton, a binial place "which commands one of the loveliest 
views in the State. "(3^ 

William Gaston Lewis, commander of the brigade in ^vhich the 
Sixth served in the valley campaign and at Petersburg, was woiuided 
and captined at Cumberland Church, near Farmville, Virginia, on 
April 7, 1865. After his parole he resumed his profession of civil 
engineering and continued to practice it for over thirty years. For 
thirteen years he was state engineer for North Carolina. He died at 
has home in Goldsboro on January 7, 1901, and is biuied in the 
Goldsboro City Cemetery. His beloved "Mitte," the wife he manied 
during the days of the Confederacy, lies by his side.C^ 

An interesting glimpse into the life of Major Richard W. York 
after the war is given by Brantley York, the famed Methodist preacher 
and founder of Trinity College, who also happened to be Afajor 
York's father. In early March, 1885, Brantley York and his wife 

. . . went aboard the train for New Hill Wake Co., and were 
met there by our son, Maj. York, and conducted to his house. . . . 
We continued here witli our sons. Major R. W. York, and Dr. 
N. D. York some three or four weeks, preaching at different 
places on the Sabbath, and sometimes in the week . . . .G^ 

Reverend Adolphus Williamson Mangimi, onetime chaplain to 
the Sixth Regiment, was paroled on June 13, 1865, at Salisbui7, 
North Carolina by Lieutenant Colonel Charles H. Butterfield, "Lt. 
Col. 9Ist Ind Vol. Inf'y., Commanding Post." Mangum and his wife 
rt'ent to Hillsl'joro and he began a brilliant career as a clergyman in 
the Methodist Church. (^ 






Epilogue 261 

There were other men, not so well known as the above, who 
should be mentioned. James T. Rosborough, once a captain of 
Company G, Sixth Regiment, continued his lo\ e lor the Confederacy, 
although he moved to Texarkana, Texas. He became a prosperous 
lumberman and planter, and "took up the ivork of rehabilitating a 
devastated land." Captain Rosborough's last public act was to assist 
in the dedication of a "beautifid Confederate moniunent in liis 
to'iv-n." He had been largely responsible for the monument, and he 
wanted to be there to see it dedicated. Captain Rosborough died on 
the morning of May 28, 1918; he was the same man who had been so 
anxious to see that his men were served edible meat when the Army of 
Northern \^ifeinia was encamped before Cedar Mountain in the 
fall of 1863.^ 

P. A. Copley, a Durham native and a pri\ate in Company C, 
moved to Montgomery, Alabama in 1870. He died on February 20, 
\9\9.G) 

Three brothers, Thomas, Neut, and John Wise, joined the Sixth 
Regiment at Company Shops in 1861. They came from the mountains 
of -ivestern North Carolina and were proud "of the old command," 
throughout the long years after the war. Their feelings could be 
shared by many members of the Sixth. The brothers coidd "give the 
history of their regiment pretty close to facts . . . and were proud of 
their ser^'ice and of each other," Thev lived "again in memorv those 
stirring days of service under Tee, Jackson, Johnston, and other great 
figines of the Confederacy." ®^ 

The same thing could be said of men like Private J. T. Wiley of 
Company A and Private \V. A. Myers of Company I. ^Viley and 
Myers both became solid citizens in their communities. Both died 
many years after the ■\var.tS' 

Others of the Sixth Regiment had no future after the ^\ar. These 
were those members of the luiit \\ho lav binued in cemeteries from 
Manassas to Petersburg. When the Southern Soldiers' Memorial As- 
sociation of She])herdstown, West Virginia dedicated their moniunent 
to the Confederate dead on June 6, 1870, they took note of 106 men 
who Avere buried in the local cemetei'y. The heroic inscription, 
located on the north, ^vest, and south faces of the monument, read, 
"True patriots, a nation's tear embalm their memory; To the un- 
known dead; though nameless, their deeds are not forgotten; We lie 
here in obedience to the command of oin- sovereign States." The list 
of names included J. C;. Agnew and Joseph Allan of the Sixth North 
Carolina. (^3^ 

Privates S. P. Thomas of Company G; G. Roberts of Company B; 
and John M. Shijjp, Company I ^vere buried in the cemeiery at 
Woodstock, Virginia in the heart of the Shenandoah Valley. Qjy 



262 The Bloody Sixth 

Some of the men in the Sixth are buried in Washington, D. C, a 
city which they fought hard to capture. Private D. W. Ben7 of Com- 
pany C and Private C. W. Riel are inchided in this number. iS?> 

The original Sixth Regiment is btit a memory now; still it is a 
memoi7 of stirring times and human beings ^rho reacted to those 
times. Their reactions, both heroic and cowardly, deserve to be 
remembered. 



Appendix A 



After the ^^•ar the original flag of the Sixth Regiment, the same 
flag ^vhich had been carefully made of silk in 1861 and decorated with 
the North Carolina state seal and motto, i\as preserved by Colonel 
Tate, the last colonel of the regiment. On November 11, 1893, 
Colonel Tate wrote to Miss Christine Fisher, sister of the late Colonel 
Charles F. Fisher: 

A Committee consisting of W. C. Coughenhour, J. A. Caldivell, 
Cicero R. Barker and A. H. Boyden, representing, the, "Colonel 
Charles F. Fisher Camp U. C. V. No. 319," have applied to me 
in writing, recjuesting the delivery to them of the Flag of the 
6th North Carolina Infantry, presented to the regiment by you, 
through your honored brother our lamented commander. 

This flag was never polluted by the touch of an enemy nor 
"trailed in the dust," but was ahvays advanced as far as the 
farthest, and is the only Confederate flag planted upon the 
enemy's Guns on Cemetery Heights, at Gettysburg! In my own 
bosom, after^\•ards, this flag was safely preserved and has not 
since been out of my possession until I proposed securing it in 
a glass case and depositing it with the State. North Carolina 
honors it above any relic of the Great Conflict, and in justice to 
the memory of our lamented dead and \our honored self, I feel 
that it shoidd be placed in the care of the State, that all North 
Carolinians may vie^v it, read its history and gain inspiration 
from it. ® 

Colonel Tate infonned Miss Fisher that the only portions of tlie 
"once beautiful" Hag that were still intact were the handi^vork "of 
your deft fingers." The remnants of the flag were rent ^\'ith "shot 
and shell, d\ed ^vith the blood of its defenders;" the Lord Himself 
had dea-eed that the flag "should be unharmed." 

Tate assured the anxious Miss Fisher that he had been "but the 
poor representative" of the men who had fallen under the folds of 
the flag. The survivors of the regiment, ^\ho had suffered in the 
flag's defense, loved "this flag above all earthly possessions." Tate 
concluded, in a tone of confidence and humility, in keeping with 
the occasion. 



263 



26 1 The Bloody Sixth 

I desire to manifest all respect for the wishes and proper 
affection for the representatives of my dear lamented friend and 
Commander, but I respectfidly suggest that it ^^'ill be best for 
them and for all concerned that this relic, with its histoi7, be 
saaedly preserved by the State, here, where it can be seen and 
read of all men.^^ 

Several days later Christine Fisher replied to Tate's letter of 
November 11. She thanked the colonel for his sentiments of '"regard 
for my brother and respect for myself -(vhich you express." The 
members of the committee who had applied to Tate for the flag 
had done so with the consent and approval of Colonel Fisher's 
daughter, Frances Fisher Tiernan [also known by her pen name 
Christian Reid]. Christine Fisher hoped that the flag would be 
returned to the possession of Colonel Fisher's family, but, "at least," 
would be glad to see the relic placed among the momentoes "which 
illustrate the glorious war-record of our State." The members of the 
flag committee \vere all honorable men, men who had all worn 
Confederate gray and avIio were "working to keep alive" the prin- 
ciples of the Confederacy. They wotild be "worthy custodians" of the 
regimental flag under which so many brave soldiers had died. Still, 
it was true that Tate, as surviving colonel of the Sixth Regiment, 
had a just claim to the flag. Miss Fisher informed Tate that hi.s 
claim to the flag "cannot be disputed," since he had preserved the flag.t 

This correspondence residted in Tate's presentation of the flag to 
Mrs. Frances Fisher Tiernan, Colonel Fisher's daughter. She, in turn, 
presented the relic to the North Carolina Historical Commission, 
forerunner of the modern North Carolina Department of Ardiives 
and History. The flag was accompanied by Colonel Fisher's unifonn 
dress, coat, hat, sword, and saddle-housing. These relics may still be 
seen in the Hall of History, located in the Education Building in the 
city of Raleigh. All of them, except for the flag, which is nearly in 
tatters, are in fairly good condition.^) 



Appendix B 

The earliest mention of any of the units which later were organized 
into the Sixth North Carolina State Troops is found in a letter tOi 
Governor John W. Ellis written on January 7, 1860. It desaibes the 
organization of the Cedar Fork Rifles, later Company I, Sixth Regi 
ment. This company was organized at Cedar Fork, then part of westernl 
Wake County, by a group of interested citizens who met at the Ceda: 
Fork Academy "for the purpose of forming a volunteer company.' 
Professor Richard Watt York, a teacher in the academy and late: 



Appendix 265 

Captain of Company I, organized the meeting "by calling Col. H. 
Weatherspoon to the chair and appointing S. Scott Secretary." Profes- 
sor York explained the purpose of the meeting by "reviewing the 
present agitation &; impending crisis of affairs relative to the South, 
and closed by urging his fellow citizens to prepare for any emergency 
that may arise." The "requisite" nimiber of men was then qiuckly 
enrolled in the company. 

Professor York moved that a committee of five be appointed to 
select a uniform for the company. The name of W'ake Riflemen was 
chosen. This was later changed to Cedar Fork Rifles. The officers 
selected were Colonel H. Weatherspoon, Captain: Colonel C. Lowe, 
First Lieutenant: M. Page, Second iLieutenant: Professor R. \V. York. 
Third Lieutenant: Dr. ^V. >L Lowe, Fourth Lieutenant: Sidney Scott, 
Esquire Orderly Sergeant. Professor York, who evidently was the 
guiding spirit at the meeting, then moved that "the commissioned 
officers of this company be instructed to visit Raleigh inmiediately, & 
call upon the Governor for the purpose [of] prociuing the Long 
Range Rifle." This motion was adopted. It was further resolved that 
a copy of the proceedings of the meeting should be forwarded to 
Governor Ellis and to the North CaroJina Standard and Raleigh 
Register "with a request to publish." 

On April 23, 1861, Captain Robert F. Webb was ordered by the 
adjutant general of North Carolina to take his company, the Flat 
River Guards from Orange Cotmty, to Raleigh "as soon as yoti can 
make the necessary arrangements." This order was coimtermanded 
on May 2. W^ebb was then directed to "remain at Hillsboro until 
further orders." The Flat River Guards later became Company A, 
Sixth North Carolina State Troops. 

Captain William J. Freeland of the Orange Greys, another Orange 
Coimty military unit, later Company C, Sixth North Carolina State 
Troops, was ordered to remain in Orange County "until further 
orders" on May 10, 1861. 

Unfortimately, this is all the material available on the various 
companies in the Sixth Regiment prior to their organization into the 
regiment on May 16, 1861. 



Appendix C 

A search was made for early histories of the Sixth North Carolina 
State Troops, especially histories which were written during the war. 
Only one of these was found, ^nitten by Colonel Robert F. Webb, 
then at Johnson's Island Prison, near Sandusky City, Ohio, to his 
friend and kinsman. Reverend Adolphus Williamson Mangtun. The 
sketch was written in April, 1864, and may be foimd in the Adolphus 



266 The Bloody Sixth 

Williamson Mangum Papers, Southern Historical Collection, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It is reproduced in full belo^w 

Battles in which the Sixth N. C. Regiment Participated 

Manassas July 21, the Regt. commanded by Col. Fisher — who 
was killed. Lt. Col. Lightfoot was in conmiand imtil Sept., 1861 — - 
when he Avas relieved by Col. Pender. 

Battle of Elthams Landing May 7th 1862. the Regt. conid by 
Col. Pender the only Regt. of the Brigade engaged — was honored 
by the Gen. to cary the Brigade flags. 

Battle of Seven Pines May 31st, 1862 the Regt. comd. by Col. 
Pender (had the honour to save the Regt. by deteeting the U. S. 
Flags among troops reported to be our friends) Pender promoted 
the comd. turned over to Maj. Webb, ungrateful conduct of 
Gov. Clark. Capt. Avery promoted Lt. Col. over Maj. Webb. 

Battle of Ganes Farm, the Regt. comd liy Col. Avei-y who was 
wounded. June 27, 1862, Splendid ]3ractice of Rowan Battery 
under Capt. Riley from the North side of Chicahominy. 

Battle of Malvern Hill July 1, 1862 the regt comd by Maj. 
Webb, gallant conduct of the Regt. under a heavy artillery fire 
for 10 hours loosing nearly 90 men Battle of Freemans ford, 
August 24, the Regt. comd by ^Laj. ^Vebb, Battle of Mansassas 
2nd. 29 & 30th August the Regt. comd. by ^Laj. 'Webb, see official 
report Gen. Hood & Laws Battle of Boonsboro Gap. Sept. 14th 
Regt. comd. by Maj. Webb see Report Hood & Laws. 

Battle of Sharpsburg Sept 19th 1862. the Regt. comd by Maj. 
Webb, who was wounded. Bloodiest fight of the -ivar. see of [ficial] 
report Hood & Laws. Avei7 retiuned to the Regt. promoted Col. 
Webb promoted Lt. Col. Battle of Fredericksburg Dec. 13th, 1862 
the Regt. comd by Col. .\very. 

Battle of Chancellorsville & Fredericksburg May 4, 1863 the 
Regt. comd. by Col. Avei^ who took command of the Brigade 
by Gen. Hoke being wounded. Col. Webb in charge of the Regt. 
gallant conduct of the 6[th] who pushed through the enemys line 
in a charge, being unsupported ^vhere in danger of being cut off, 
its own gallant firmness saved it. 

Battle of Winchester June 13, 1863. commanded by Lt. Col. 
^Vebb. 

Invasion of Maryland &: Pennsylvania. Col. Webb had to 
retire in conseqtience of the breaking out of his old wound. 

Battle of Gettysburg July 1st. & 2nd Comd by Maj. Tate. Col. 
AveiT killed — ^\'ebb promoted Col. 



Appendix 267 

Battle of Fairfield the Regt. Comd. bv Lt. Col. Tate Tulv 4, 
1863. ' -^ ' 

Battle of Somerville Fort, the Regt. conid by Col. Webb Sept. 
19, 1863. ^ 

Battle of Rappahannock Bridge Nov. 7. 1863. com by Col. 
Webb where the ^vhole concern \\'as gobbled up. 

Capt. York was in command a fen- days after the Battle of 
Sharpsbiirg. Gen. Pender woundeil at Gettysburg died at Stanton, 
Va. Col. Webb was sufering from his old' wound at Chancellors- 
ville went in the fight with his arm in a sling. 



Bibliographical Essay 



I. Resources. 



y 



The principal resources used in this study are the Division of 
Ardiives and Manuscripts, North CaroHna Department of ^Ajxhives 
and History, Raleigh, North Carolina (hereinafter referred to as 
"NCDAH") ; the Southern Historical Collection, University of North 
Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (hereinafter refeired 
to as "SHC") : the Division of Manuscripts, Duke University Libarary, 
Durham, North Carolina (hereinafter referred to as "DU") ; and the 
War Department Collection, Confederate Records Group 109 and 
William H. C. Whiting Military Papers collections in the National 
Archives, Washington, D. C. (hereinafter refeiTcd to as "NA") . 

II. Manuscript Collections. 

The various volumes in the Adjutant General's Records, located 
in NCDAH, form an important part of the materials used in this 
study. The Adjutant General's Quartermaster and Paymaster Records, 
Letters. 1861-1862 are useful in the compilation of quartemiaster's 
and paymaster's accounts. The appointment of officers in the Sixth 
Regiment is fully covered in the Adjutant General's List of Appoint- 
ments: die Adjutant General's Minutes of the Military Board; and 
the Militaiy Board: Appointments of Officers in the Amiy and Navy, 
6th Regiment of Infantry. An excellent historical sketch of the regi- 
ment is included in the "Historical Sketch of the Sixth Regiment 
N.C. Troops," in Adjutant General's Roll of Honor. Other volumes 
in the Adjutant General's Records ivhich were used extensively are 
Adjutant General's Ledger Conunissary Accounts 1861-1865: Adjutant 
General's Records, Letters. 1861-1862: Adjutant General's Letter Book, 
1861-1862: The Militaiy and Naval Board Letter Book, July 1-August 
19, 1861: Adjutant General's Telegram Record: Adjutant General's 
Roll of Honor, Register of Officers: Morning Reports of Regts. N. C. 
Troops 1861-1862: Letter Book North Carolina Troops 1862-1864; 
Registiy of North Carolina Troops 1861-1863: and Adjutant General's 
Roll of Honor Scrapbook. Another important collection found in 
NCDAH is the Governor John W. Ellis Papers 1861. These papers 
are important for the early period of military organization in the 
spring of 1861. The Governor Heniy T. Clark Papers, 1861-1862 and 
the Governor Zebulon B. Vance Papers, 1862-1865 complete the list 

268 



Bibliographical Essa^- 269 

of governor's papers used in this study. The outgoing conespondence 
of the governors is inckided in a series of letter books. Those used 
here are the Governor Hem-)' T. Clark Letter Book, 1861-1862 and 
the Governor Zebulon B. Vance Letter Books for 1862-1863 and 1863- 
1865. All these collections are in XCDAH. Other manuscript 
collections in the NCDAH Avhich relate to the Sixth Regiment are 
the Governor Henry Toole Clark Scrapbook 1861-1865, a collection 
of ne^vspaper clippings Avhich relate to North Carolina's role in the 
Civil War; the Miscellaneous Collection of Confederate Records, a 
varied collection of letters and military records: the Adjutant General's 
Roll of Honor Scrapbook, very similar to the Governor Heniy T. 
Clark Scrapbook, and the Oscar \V. Blacknall Memoir, a collection of 
the letters of Blacknall's father. Colonel Charles C. Blacknall, \vith a 
connecting narrative. 

Several large collections of manuscript materials were used at the 
SHC. These include the Charles F. Fisher Papers, an excellent ac- 
count of the organization of the Sixth Regiment: the Peter Hairston 
Papers, a collection of letters ^vritten by Hairston, a volunteer aide 
to General Jubal A. Early, to his ivife in North Carolina: the Peter 
"\V. Hairston 'War Diary, No\eml3er-Deceinber, 1863, ^rhich presents 
a lucid account of conditions in Early's division in the fall of 1863; 
the Adolphus Williamson Mangiun Papers, a series of letters from 
Mangum, chaplain to the Sixth Regiment for a brief period in the 
fall of 1861; the \Villiam Gaston Le^vis Papers, a collection of letters 
wTitten by Lewis to his wife; the William Dorsey Pender Papers, an 
important series of letters ivritten by Pender to his wife during the 
period 1861-1863; the Ruffin-Roulhac-Hamilton Papers: the \\'illiam 
A. Graham Papers; the Christian Thomas Pfohl Papers (on micro- 
film) ; and the Stephen D. Ramseur Papers, an interesting collection 
of letters from Ramseur to his wife, especially valuable for their 
information about the -i'alley campaign of 1864. 

Those collections which ivere used at DLT include Stephen B. 
Weeks's "Sketch of Col. Charles F. Fisher," in the Van Noppen Mss.; 
Archibald Henderson's "Charles Fisher," in United Confederate 
Veteran Mss.; the Isham Sims Upchurch Papers, an interesting series 
of letters from various soldiers in the Sixth Regiment to Upchurch 
who was a resident of Chatham County, North Carolina; M. J. Solo- 
mon's Scrapbook; and the John Kerr ^Valker Papers, an extensive 
collection of letters -initten by Walker, a member of the Sixth Regi- 
ment from Alamance County, North Carolina, to his family. 

The NA in AVashington, D. C. contains the War Department 
Collection, Confederate Records Group 109, Compiled Military Sen- 
ice Records of the various Union and Confederate Regiments and 
the William H. C. "Whiting Military Papers in the "^Var Department 
Collection. The Whiting Militaiy Papers contain order books, letters. 



270 The Bloody Sixth 

and other miltai7 papers of General Whiting who commanded the 
brigade in ^\-hich the Sixth Regiment A\as located for a time in the 
period 1861-1862. 

Other collections used to some extent in this study are the Samuel 
McDowell Tate Papers (SHC) : the Record of Events, part of Con- 
federate Records Group 109 (NA) ; the Waightstill Avery Papers 
(SHC) ; and the Card File, Division of Museums (NCDAH) . 

III. Physical Remains. 

The physical remains which were examined and included in this 
study are several. They include the inscription on the grave of Second 
Lieutenant William Preston Mangum, in the Mangum family ceme- 
tery near Rougemont, Durham County, North Carolina; a personal 
examination of the Dimrfries-Freestone Point, Virginia area by the 
author and Mr. George Nance of Fredericksburg, Virginia on Decem- 
ber 16, 1962: several detailed studies of the battlefields of Gettysburg, 
Plymouth, and Rappahannock Bridge which ivere made by the author 
during the past several years; and the original flag of the Sixth North 
Carolina State Troops, found in the collection of the Museinns 
Division, NCDAH. 

IV. Conversations. 

Conversations are, in a sense, physical remains, and are therefore 
included in this section of the bibliography. The author made only 
one recorded conversation with General Robert F. Hoke's daughter, 
Mrs. Hoke-Pollock, in Wilson, North Carolina. The conversation 
occurred during November, 1962. 

V. Newspapers. 

The ne^ivspapers used in this study were voluminous and varied. 
They include the Hillsborough Recorder, 1861-1865; the North Caro- 
lina Standard. Raleigh, North Carolina, 1861-1865; the State Journal. 
Raleigh, North Carolina, 1861-1865; the North Carolina Weekly 
State Journal, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1861; the Raleigh Register, 
1861-1864; the Salisbury Watchman, 1861-1865; the Charlotte Obser- 
ver, May 28 and June 4, 1893; and the Greensboroiigh Patriot, 1864. 

VI. Periodical Articles. 

Most of the periodical articles listed in this section may be found 
in The Confederate Veteran Magazine (38 volumes, Nashville: Con- 
federate Veteran Publishing Company, 1892-1930). These include 
C. W. Earle, "General Johnston Before First Manasas," XXIII, (Jan., 



Bibliographical Essay 271 

1915) ; T. P. Weakley, '^Scene on the Manassas Battle-Field," V, (Oct., 
1897) ; W. J. Chapman to B. L. Aycock, undated letter, XXXIII, 
(Feb., 1925); C. C. Chambers, "Mississippians at Gaines Mill," XIX, 
(Nov., 1911); N. A. Ramsey, "article concerning Robert F. ^Vebb 
(no title)," VI, (June, 1898); J. B. Policy to "Chamiing Nellie," 
October 8, 1862, in "Crossing Over Into Manland," IV, (Aug., 1896) ; 
Clarence R. Hatton, "Gen. Archibald Campbell Godwin," XXVIII, 
(April, 1920) ; John Purifoy, "Ewell's Attack at Gettysburg, July 2, 
1863," XXXI, (Dec, 1923) : anonymous author, "The Six Hunclred 
Confederate Officers," VII, (July. 1899); John Orr, "Prison Experi- 
ences," XIX, (Nov., 1911); Reverend E. A. Wright, "The Capture 
of Plymouth," XX, (Dec, 1912) ; \V. A. Day, "Life among Bullets— 
In the Rifle Pits," XXIX, (June, 1921) ; j. D. BaiTier, "Breaking 
Grant's Line," XXXllI, (Nov., 1925) ; and anonymous author, "Con- 
federate Flags at "Washington," I, (August., 1893) . 

^Valter Clark, editor, Histories of the Several Regiments and Bat- 
talions from North Carolina in the Great War 1861-65 (5 volumes, 
Goldsboro: Nash Brothers Book and Job Printers, 1901) contains 
several articles ^vhich pertain to the Sixth Regiment. These include 
A. C. Avei7, "Additional Sketch Sixth Regiment," I; Thomas L. 
Clingman, "The Battle of First Manassas," V; and Neil W. Ray, 
"Sketch of the Sixth Regiment N. C. State Troops," I. 

The Southern Historical Society Papers (38 volumes, Richmond: 
Published by the Society, 1872-1910), includes fi\'o articles about the 
Sixth Regiment; General William Smith, "Reminiscences of the First 
Battle of Manassas," X; and "Paroles of the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia," X\'. 

Edward \V. Phifer, "Saga of A Burke County Family," The Xorth 
Carolina Historical Revicic, XXXIX, (July, 1962) completes the list 
of periodical articles used. 

VII. Official Plblications. 

Only t^vo official publications ^\ere used in this study: The War 
of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union 
and Confederate Armies, Robert N. Scott, chief editor, in 128 volumes, 
(Washington; Government Printing Office, 1880-1901) ^Lud Public and 
Private Laics of North Carolina 1S60-1861. (Raleigh; John Spelman, 
Printer to the State, 1861) . 

VIII. MlLTnOLl'ME W^ORKS. 

Douglas S. Freeman's Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command, in 
3 volumes, (Ne^\- York; Charles Scribner's Sons, 1942) is an excellent 
study of the command system in the Army of Northern Virginia. It 



272 The Bloody Sixth 

contains little detailed information about regiments, but may be 
described as a good general study. Henry T. Shanks, ed., Tlte Papers 
of Willie P. Mangiun, in 5 volumes, (Raleigh: State Department of 
Archives and History, 1956) contains much information about Second 
Lieutenant William Preston Mangum, Sixth North Carolina Regi- 
ment. Dumas Malone and Allen Johnson, eds., The Dictionary of 
American Biography, in 30 volumes, (New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1943) is a standard work in its field. Other multivolume works 
consulted, all ^\■ell-known classics, are: D. H. Hill. Jr., Bethel to 
Sharpsburg: North Carolina in the War Betiveen the States, in 2 
volinnes, (Raleigh: Ed^vards and Broughton Company, 1926) , Samuel 
A'Cotn^t Ashe, ed., Biographical History of North Carolina, in 8 
volinnes, (Greensboro: Charles I^. Van Noppen Publishers, 1906), 
and Robert U. Johnson and Clarence C. Buel, eds.. Battles and 
Leaders of the C/ndl War. in 4 \'olumes, (Ne-w '^'ork: The Centui7 
Company, 1884, 1887-1888). 

IX. Monographs and Special Studies. 

The list of monographs and special studies used in the preparation 
of this book is a long and varied one. It includes Cecil K. Brown's, 
A State Movement in Railroad Development The Story of North 
Carolina's First Effort to Establisli an East and West Trunk Line 
Railroad, (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 
1928) ; John A. Sloan, North Carolina in the War Between the States, 

(Washington, D. C: Rufus H. Darby, 1883) : Hugh Lefler and Paul 
Wager, eds., A History of Orange County — 1752-1952, (Chapel Hill: 
Orange Printshop, 1953) ; Gilbert E. Govan and James W. Livingood, 
A Different Valor, The Story of General Joseph E. Johnston, C.S.A., 

(Indianapolis and Neiv York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1956) ; 
Clifford Dowdey and Louis H. Manarin, eds.. The Wartime Papers of 
R. E. Lee, (Boston and Toronto: Little, Bro^vn and Company, 1961) ; 
Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray, Lives of the Confederate Com- 
manders, (Baton Rogue: Louisiana State University Press, 1959) ; 
Edward J. Stackpole, Sheridan in the Shenandoah. Jubal Early's 
Nemesis, (Hanisburg: The Stackpole Company, 1961) ; and Allen P. 
Tankersley, John B. Gordon: A Study in Gallantry. (Atlanta: The 
Whitehall Press, 1955) . 

X. Autobiographies .\nd Personal Reminiscences. 

The list of autobiographies and personal reminiscences which 

were used in this study would not be complete without the following 

all-inclusive list: William W. Pierson, Jr., ed., Whipt 'Em Everytime 

The Diary of Bartlett Yancey Malone, Co. H 6th N. C. Regiment, 

(Jackson, Tennessee: AfcCo^vat-Mercer Press, 1960) ; John B. Hood, 



Bibliographical Essay 273 

Advance, and Retreat, Personal Experiences in the United States & 
Confederate States Armies, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 
1959) ; Jubal Anderson Early, Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative 
of The War Betiveen the States, {with Notes by R. H. Early), (Phila- 
delphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1912) ; Brantley 
York. Autobiography of Brantley York, (Durham: Seeman Printeiy, 
1910) ; and General John B. Gordon, Reminiscences of The Civil War, 
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904) . 

XI. Theses and Dissertations. 

Only one thesis was used in the preparation of this study, and that 
one only in a small way: Richard W. lobst, "Fort Fisher: A Study," 
unpublished M.A. thesis, University of North Carolina, 1962. 



The Sixth North Carolina Regiment 

Roster 



by 
Louis H. Manarin 



Preface 



The inclusion of a roster of troops in this volume serves 
two specific purposes. Primarily, it identifies for posterity 
those men ^vho served in the Sixth North Carolina Regiment. 
In addition, the preparation of the roster of the Sixth has 
served as a pilot for the North Carolina Confederate Cen- 
tennial Commission in its endeavor to publish a roster of all 
North Carolina troops Tvho ser\ed in the Civil War. The 
problems encountered and the solutions decided upon have 
pro\ed of inestimable valtie in the preparation of Volume I 
of the projected series. 

The commission is proud of the work of its competent 
editor, Mr. Louis H. Manarin, and is proud to present these 
first evidences of his laborious and painstaking research to 
the public. 

Norman C. Larson 

Executive Secretary 
North Carolina Confederate 
Centennial Commission 



Introduction 



A histon- of any military unit is generally a narrative relating the 
combined efforts of the men in that unit. Rarely is a writer able to 
delve into the lives of the individual soldiers except to illustrate some 
general characteristics of the men or for acts of heroism fierfonned 
on the field of battle. With the exception of prominent individuals 
and officers necessary for development of the unit's histoiy, brief 
biographical sketches of the men in the ranks are prohibited. The 
inclusion of this roster of the Sixth Regiment North Carolina State 
Troops presents the available infonnation on the individual men of 
the regiment. Since it is a separate publication, the entire service 
record of each man is given. Thus all service prior to transfer in or 
after transfer out is included. If a man transferred to another company 
or the Field and Staff of this regiment, then his ser\'ice record in each 
(Overs the specific period he served in that imit. Emphasis has been 
placed on including, whenever possible, the county of birth, residence, 
and enlistment; occupation; age on enlistment: date and period of 
enlistment; and all important events relati\e to his sen'ice during the 
^\-ar. 

In compiling this roster the editor has adhered to the date and 
])lace of enlistment as recorded by the company clerk on the muster 
rolls. There ivere approximatelv four dates on ivhich a man entered 
the ser\ice: date of enrollment; enlistment; muster into state service; 
and muster into Confederate service. For the initial roll, ivhich 
generally set the precedent for succeeding rolls, the company clerk 
either chose the date of enlistment or one of the muster in dates. Con- 
scripts were usually entered on the rolls as enlisting on the date they 
reported for duty either to their local officer or to the company. Fre- 
quently conscripts were sent to camps of instruction and then attached 
to the regiment. The company clerk ivould give the place of enlist- 
ment as either the county in which he was conscripted, the county or 
town in which he joined the regiment, or the camp of instruction 
from which he Avas assigned. No standard procedure was developed. 
F\en a company clerk might change his procedure at times. If the 
conscripts reported as a group, then they \vere usually listed as follows: 
date of enlistment recorded as date reported for duty to local officer; 
place of enlistment, either camp of instruction or county in which he 
was conscripted. If a conscript reported individually, then the clerk 
usually gave the date and place of enlistment as the date and place 
he joined the company. It should l)e noted that as the war progressed, 
^ and particularly in 1864, the latter method was generally used. 



280 The Bloody Sixth 

A roster should not be restricted to the names ol the men who 
served and their service career as gleaned from the available records. 
From these indivicUial seivice records it is possible to determine the 
strength of the regiment at any given time by constructing charts, to 
cover the entire period of the war, on ivhich are eniunerated, in proper 
columns, the individual service records. This was done for the Sixth 
Regiment North Carolina State Troops. In all, 1,888 men served in 
the regiment at sometime during the war. This figure is arrived at 
by combining the sum total of enlisted (1,851) and the number of 
men who transferred in (37) . Of this total, 182 ^vere discharged, 22 
resigned, 352 died of disease, 221 were killed, 30 were missing in 
action, 102 deserted, 50 transferred out. The balance at the end of 
the war M'ere either paroled in the field, detailed, absent sick, or in 
federal prisons. From July 1861 through April 1865 there were 883 
captures. This figure includes several multiple captures of one man, 
as in several cases one man was captiaed as many as three times dtning 
the war. Of the total number of captured (883) , 443 were paroled 
and exchanged before the end of the ^^•ar, 59 joined the United States 
service, and 1 escaped. The survivors of prison life, 214, were paroled 
at the end of the i\ar. 

The construction of charts also reveals the time and number of 
replacements sent to the regiment. After the initial enlistments, ^vhich 
totaled in July 1861, 846 (minus the Field and Staff), replacements 
were sent in the spring and fall of 1862 and 1864. During 1863, when 
the regiment suffered heavily in two major engagements, Gettysburg 
and Rappahannock Station, only 78 recriuts were assigned. At Gettys- 
burg the regiment lost 41 killed, 113 ivounded, 108 captured, and 8 
missing. The capture figin-e includes those captured during the retreat. 
At Rappahannock Station die losses were as follows: 5 killed; 15 
wounded; 317 captured; 9 missing. In these two engagements alone 
the losses were: 46 killed; 128 wounded; 425 captured, and 17 missing. 
Not taking into accoimt those ivho were ivounded and never retimaed 
and those Avho died of disease or deserted or were detailed, it will 
be seen that in 1863 only 78 men were sent up to fill the ranks. In 1864 
approximately 388 conscripted recruits were assigned to the regiment. 
This change in composition definitely effected the regiment's effective- 
ness in combat. In addition to the conscripts, prisoners of war were 
being paroled and exchanged up to late March 1865: however, these 
did not effect the strength as most of them occurred after October 
1864. The possible use of the roster to aiTi\e at more acciaate numbers 
of losses and strength dining partictdar periods of the war is thus 
presented in brief, as it is not the intention ol the editor to enter into 
any statistical analysis in the introduction. 



Introduction 281 

The materials used in compiling the roster \vere numerous and 
included both priniarv and secondai-)' sources. The basic collection 
used ^\as the Compiled Military Service Records file at the National 
Archives, Washington, D. C. This collection consists of jackets con- 
taining cards showing the military service records of individual men. 
The cards contain the follo^ving: name, rank, and organization of the 
individual: citations to documents on which his name appears; and 
the information contained in the documents. The records from which 
the information was taken include Confederate muster rolls, payrolls, 
rosters, appointment books, hospital registers, prison registers and 
rolls, parole rolls, inspection reports, and other records containing 
senice information. In the case of the North Carolina records, cards 
appear on all men listed in the Roll of Honor, as the War Department 
considered that work a printary somxe. These records were supple- 
mented by the state pension records for 1885 and 1901, records of 
the United Daughters of the Confederacy, cemetery registers, miscel- 
laneous records on file at the North Carolina Department of Archives 
and History, contemporarv ne^vspapers, and two published works: 
Roster of North Carolina Troops in the War Between the States, 
edited by John W. Moore, (Raleigh, 1882), and Histories of tlie 
Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina in the Great 
War 1861-1865, edited by Walter Clark, (Raleigh, 1901) . 

The editor would here like to express his thanks to those who 
assisted in this tmdertaking. To his ^vife, Jo Ann, Mrs. Hazel Madsen, 
and Mrs. Essel Parker, who assisted in the compilation, typing, and 
proofreading, a very special debt of thanks is recorded. Together we 
have called the long roll of the regiment many times. In addition, rec- 
ognition is given to the members of the staff at the National Archives 
who assisted in locating and researching the records of the men, espe- 
cially Mr. James D. Walker and Mr. James W. Moore for their assist- 
ance in locating the records of the men who joined the United States 
service. A special note of thanks to Mr. Richard lobst who provided 
typed copies of the enlistment papers of Companies E, F, and G; to 
Miss M. F. Henderson of Chapel Hill, N. C, for sending the original 
enlistment papers of Company K: and to Mr. Fleming C. Fraker, who, 
in the course of his research to compile a guide to Civil War material 
in the North Carolina Departntent of Archives and History, made 
available his references to material on deposit there. 

Louis H. Manarin 
Editor 



FIELD & STAFF 

COLONEL 

FISHER, CHARLES FREDERICK. Born in Rowan County where he resided as a 
farmer and president (if the North Carohna Railroad prior to appointment as 
Colonel bv Governor Ellis to rank from May 16. 18(51. Killed in Battle of First 
Manassas Jidy 21, 1861. 

PENDER, WILLIAM DORSEY. Born in Edgecombe County and resigned his 
commission as 1st Lieutenant in the United States .\nny effective March 21, 
1861. .Appointed Captain of .-Artillery, Confederate States Army, to rank from 
March 16, 1861. Commissioned Colonel by Goveriror Ellis to rank from May 
16, 1861 and assigned as commander of camp of instruction at Garysburg. 
Elected Colonel of the Ijth Regiment N. C. Troops {3rd Regiment N. C. 
Volunteers) May 27, 1861. Resigned as Colonel 13th Regiment X. C. Troops 
(3rd Regiment N. C. Volunteers) upon election and appointment as Colonel 
of the 6th Regiment N. C. State Troops to take effect .August 17. 1861. Promoted 
to Brigadier General June 11, 1862 to rank from June 3, 1862. Wounded dur- 
ing Seven Days, June 27— July 1, 1862; at Battle of Second Manassas, August 
28-29, 1862: and at Chancellorsville, Va., May 1-5, 1863. Promoted to Major 
General .May 27, 1863 to rank from that date. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July 2, 1863 and died at Staunton, Va., July 18, 1863 after leg amputated. 

AVERY, IS.A.AC E. Transferred from Company E, this regiment, upon promotion 
to Lieutenant Colonel June 1, 1862. Promoted to Colonel June 11, 1862. 
Wounded at Malvern Hill, \'a., Julv 1, 1862. .Mortally wounded at Gettysburg, 
Pa., Julv 2. 1863. Died July 3, 1863.' 

WEBB, ROBERT F. Transferred from Company B, this regiment, upon promo- 
tion to .Major July 11. 1861. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel June 11, 1862. 
Wounded at Sharpsburg. Md.. September 17, 1862. Promoted to Colonel July 
2-3, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., Xoxember 7, 1863 and 
confined at Johiisoir's Island, Ohio, until released after taking Oath of .Alle- 
giance July 25, 1865. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL 

DORTCH, WILLIAM THEOPHILUS. Resided in Wayne County and appointed 
Lieutenant Colonel by Governor Ellis to rank from May 16, 1861. Resigned 
July 11, 1861 to assume duties as Speaker of the House of Commons, State 
Legislature. 

LIGHTFOOT, CHARLES E. .Appointed Major by Governor Ellis to rank from 
.May 16. 1861. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel July 11, 1861. Wounded in 
Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861. Elected Colonel of the 22nd Regiment 
N. C. Troops (12th Regiment X. C. \'olunteers) March 29, 1862 and trans- 
ferred to that command. Captured at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862 and con- 
fined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing. 
Va., .August 5, 1862. While a prisoner of war he was defeated upon reorganization 
of the regiment June 13, 1862 and was no longer colonel of the 22nd Regiment 
X. C. Troops (12th Regiment X. C. Volunteers). .Appointed Lieutenant Colonel 
of .Artillery October 7, 1862 to rank from .August 18, 1862 and assigned to 
command of the outer line of artillery of the Richmond defenses. Served in 
Richmond defenses for balance of war. Paroled at Richmond, \'a., .April 24, 1865 

283 



284 The Bloody Sixth 

TATE, SAMUEL McDOWELL. Tiansferred from Company D. this regimeiU, 
upon promotion to Majin- June 11, 1862. Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md.. Septem- 
ber 17. 1S62. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel July 3. 18(33. ^Vounded at Cedar 
Creek. Va., October 19, 1864. Paroled at Morganton May 16. 1865 and again 
at Salisbury June 17, 1865. 

MAJOR 

YORK, RICHARD WATT. Tiansferred from Company I. this regiment, upon 
promotion to Major July 3, 1863. Wounded at Fisher's Hill. Va., September 
22-23, 1864 and carried as absent wounded through February 1865. 

ADJUTANT 

LOWRIE, HOUSTON B. Enlisted at age 22, May 16, 1861 and appointed .A-djutant 
with the rank of 1st Lieutenant to rank from May 20, 1861. Position vacated 
August 20. 1861 by an Act of the State Convention. Transferred to Company 

C, this regiment. 

SMITH, BENJAMIN RUSH. Transferred with the rank of 1st Lieutenant from 
Company G, this regiment, and appointed AdjtUant September 1, 1861. Trans- 
ferred back to Company G upon promotion as Captain of that company July 
17, 1862. 

MEBANE, CORNELIUS. Transferred from Company F. this regiment, upon 
appointment as Quartermaster Sergeant September 14, 1861. Appointed Ser- 
geant Major about November 29, 1861. Wounded at Soiuh Mountain, Md., 
September 14. 1862. Promoted to AdjtUant with the rank of 1st Lieutenant 
September 16. 1862. Wounded at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 
1863 and carried as absent woinided through December 1864. 

ASSISTANT QUARTERMASTER 

SCALES, N. E. Resided in Rockingham County and enlisted at age 30. .Appointed 
Captain, .-\ssistant Quarterinaster, to rank from May 16, 1861 and assigned to 
the 6th Regiment N. C. State Troops. Promoted to Major July 16, 1862 to rank 
from Jiuie 13. 1862. .Assigned as Chief Quartermaster Pender's Brigade and 
later to Division Quartermaster. .Assigned as Chief Quartermaster Wilcox's 
Division Deceml)er 1863. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 
1865. 

PAGE, MALCUS W. Transferred from Company L this regiment, upon promo- 
tion to Captain, .Assistant Quartermaster, September 16, 1862. Resigned April 
29, 1863, 

BRAME, TIGNAL H, Resided as a teacher in Granville County where he en- 
listed at age 30, .April 26. 1861 for one year. Mustered in as Sergeant Company 

D, 12th Regiment N. C. Troops (2nd Regiment N. C. \'olunteers). Appointed 
Captain. Assistant Quartermaster, 54th Regiment N. C. Troops July 1, 1862 
to rank from May 1, 1862. Appointed Captain, .Assistant Commissary of Sub- 
sistence, 54th Regiment N. C. Troops July 31. 1862 to rank from July 1. 1862. 
Appointed Captain. .Assistant Quartermaster, 6th Regiment N. C. State Troops 
May 12, 1863. Reassigned as .Assistant to Pirigade Quartermaster. Hoke's Brigade 
September 15. 1864. Present or accounted for through March 1865. 



Roster 285 

ASSISTANT COMMISSARY OF SUBSISTENCE 

ALEXANDER, WALLACE H. Resided in Lincoln County and enlisted at age 
38. Appointed Captain. .Assistant Commissai7 of Sulwistence. July 10. 1861 and 
assigned to this regiment. Dropped when position abolished May 29. 1863. 

SURGEON 

NESBITT, A. M. Resided in Rowan County and enlisted at age 45. .\ppointed 
Surgeon, this regiment. May 1861. Appointed Singeon. 53rd Regiment Virginia 
Infantry July 10-15. 1861. Recalled for duty in North Carolina by the Medical 
Department October 1862. Paroled at Salisbuiy May 29, 1865. 

HOLT, PLEASANT A. Resided in .Alamance County and enlisted at age 45. 
Temporarily attached to the 12th Regiment N. C. Troops (2nd Regiment N. C. 
Volunteers) in June 1861. Appointed Surgeon July 19. 1861 and assigned to 
the 6th Regiment N. C. State Troops. Relieved from duty with this regiment 
August 23. 1862 and assigned as Brigade Surgeon of Pender's Brigade. Ser\ed 
as Chief Surgeon, Wilcox's Division July 1863 through June 1864. Appointed 
Chief Surgeon, District of Western North Carolina July 5, 1864. Present or ac- 
counted for through March 1865. 

HARDY, JOHN GEDDINGS. Resided in Burke County where he enlisted at age 
31. .April 27, 1861 for six months. Mustered in as Sergeant, Company E, 1st 
Regiment N. C. Infantry (6 raos. — 1861). Promoted to .Assistant Surgeon to rank 
from May 18, 1861. Appointed Acting Surgeon. 64th Regiment N. C. Troops 
October 25. 1862. Ordered to report to the 6th Regiment N. C. State Troops 
as Surgeon January 5, 1863. Appointed Surgeon April 4. 1863 to rank from 
October 25. 1862. Present or accounted for with this regiment through December 



1864. 



ASSISTANT SURGEON 



CALDWELL, JULIUS A. Resided in Rowan County and enlisted at age 32. 
Appointed Assistant Surgeon, this regiment, to rank from Mav 16, 1861. Resigned 
August 18. 1861 by reason of ill health. Appointed Surgeon .April 4, 1863 to 
rank from October 30, 1862 and assigned to the 57th Rcginrent X. C. Troops 
with which he had been serving as Acting Surgeon since October 1862. Took 
Oath of Allegiance at Salisbury May 29, 1865. 

HENDERSON, C. A. Resided in Rowan County and enlisted at age 26. Ap- 
pointed 2nd .Assistant Surgeon, this regiment, to rank from May 16. 1861. Posi- 
tion vacated by .Act of State Convention August 20. 1861. Resigned December 
1862 by reason of ill health. Re-appointed Assistant Surgeon, this regiment, 
October 14. 1862 to take rank from September 16, 1862. Took Oath of Allegiance 
at Salisbury May 27, 1865. 

COLLETT, W. A. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at age 32. Appointed 
Assistant Surgeon, this regiment. September 2. 1861. Appointed Surgeon August 
11, 1862 to rank froirr July 29, 1862 and assigned to the 58th Regiment N. C. 
Troops. Dropped .August 11, 1863 after failure to submit to examination. 

DAVIS, JOHN IGNATIUS. Entered service at age 24, as Contract Surgeon Septem- 
ber 10, 1862. .Assigned as Assistant Surgeon, this regiment. Transfen'ed to Hood's 
Division March 1. 1863. .Appointed Surgeon May 17. 1863 to rank from January 
19, 1863 and assigned to the 15th Regiinent Alabama Infantrv. 



286 The Bloody Sixth 

REESE, WILLIAM LEWIS. Resided in Georgia and appointed Assistant Surgeon 
June 10, 1863 to rank from Januai^ 20, 1863. Assigned to this regiment February 
12, 1863. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., where he had been left to tend the 
wounded, July 5. 1863. Paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., November 

21, 1863. Ordered to report to Marietta, Ga., November 27, 1863 for assignment 
and assigned to hospital at La Grange, Ga., December 5, 1863. 

BICKERS, WILLIAM A. Born in Virginia and appointed Assistant Surgeon 
December 4, 1862 to rank from August 20, 1862. Assigned to the 1st Regiment 
Georgia Regulars and transferred to this regiment November 3, 1863. Present 
or accounted for through February 1865. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, 
Va., April 9, 1865. 

CHAPLAIN 

MANGUM, ADOLPHUS W., D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Re 

sided in Rowan County and enlisted at age 27 and appointed Chaplain to 
this regiment. Resigned October 31, 1861 and returned to Salisbui7 where 
he served as Chaplain at Salisbury Prison in addition to his other pastoral 
duties. Paroled at Salisbury June 12. 1865. 

SERGEANT-MAJOR 

MEBANE, DAVID A. Transferred from Company F, this regiment, June 20, 
1861 upon appointment as Sergeant-Major. Reduced to ranks November 29, 

1861 and returned to Company F, this regiment. 

BASON, GEORGE F. Transferred from Company F, this regiment, October 1, 

1862 upon appointment as Sergeant-Major. Transferred to Brigadier General 
William D. Pender's staff January 27. 1863. Appointed 1st Lieutenant of Artil- 
ler)' March 26, 1864 to take rank from February 25, 1864 and assigned as 
Ordnance Officer Brigadier General .-Vlfred M. Scales' Brigade. Appointed 
Captain of Artillery March 31, 1865. 

WHITE, JOHN JOHNSTON. Transferred from Company F, this regiment, 
iMarch 1, 1863 upon appointment as Sergeant-Major. Reduced to ranks August 
1, 1863 and returned to Company F, this regiment, and detailed as .Acting Com- 
missary Sergeant. 

ANDERSON, QUINTIN T. Transferred from Company H, this regiment, 
October 1, 1863 upon appointment as Sergeant-Major. Captured at Rappahan- 
nock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until 
paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., March 5, 1865. 

FRITTS, DANIEL H. Transferred from Company D. this regiment, December 

22. 1864 upon appointment as Sergeant-Major. Present or accounted for through 



December 1864 



QUARTERMASTER SERGEANT 



MLTRPHY, SAMUEL G. Transferred from Company F. this regiment. July 12. 
1861 upon appointment as Quartermaster Sergeant. Discharged at Richmond, 
Va., October 18, 1861 by reason of disability. 



Roster 287 

SMITH, WILLIAM M. Transferred from Company A, this regiment, January 5, 
1862 upon appointment as Quartennaster Sergeant. Detailed as a machinist 
on the Richmond and Dan\illc Railroad February 1, 1864. Detail extended 
through December 1864. 

COMMISSARY SERGEANT 

ALLEN, NATHANIEL M. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 20, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Appointed Commissary Sergeant July 1, 1861. Reduced to ranks 
February 25, 1862 and assigned to Company I, this regiment. Detailed as 
Acting Commissary Sergeant until captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7, 1863. 

HOSPITAL STEWARD 

CURRIE, DAVID M. Transferred from Company H, this regiment, October 1, 
1861 upon appointment as Hospital Steward. Present or accounted for through 
December 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court House. Va., April 9, 1865. 

BAND 

ALBRIGHT, JOHN S., Musician. Born in .Alamance County where he resided as 
a fanner and enlisted at age 34, March 1, 1862 for the war. Originally en- 
listed in Company F, this regiment, and transferred to the Band December 6, 
1862. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at Appomattox 
Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

COOPER, WILLIAM R., Musician. Born in Caswell County where lie resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 19, February 25, 1862 for the war. Originally 
enlisted in Company H, this regiment, and transferred to the Band November 
1, 1862. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at .Ap- 
pomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

COZ.iRT, JAMES H., Chief Musician. Born in Person County and resided in 
Granville County as a merchant prior to his enlistment in Orange County at 
age 26. May 1, 1861 for the war. Originally enlisted in Company B, this 
regiment, and transferred to the Band November 1, 1862. Present or accounted 
for through December 1864. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., April 
9, 1865. 

COZART, T. G., Musician. Resided in Granville County and enlisted at Rapidan, 
Va., .August 31, 1863 for the war. Originally enlisted in Company B, this 
regiment, and transferred to the Band September— October 1863. Present or 
accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, 
Va., April 9, 1865. 

DAWSON, FRANK H., Musician. Born in Randolph County and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment in Mecklenburg County at age 28, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Originally enlisted in Ccmipany .A, this regiment, and transfeiTed 
to the Band November 1. 1862. Present or accoimted for through Decembei 
1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

FOWLER, THOMAS H., Musician. Born in Chatham or Orange County and 
resided as a farmer prior to enlistment in Mecklenburg County at age 22, May 
28, 1861 for the war. Originally enlisted in Company F. this regiment. \Voundtd 
at Seven Pines. Va., May 31, 1862, Transferred to the Band December 6, 1862. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at Appomattox 
Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 



288 The Bloody Sixth 

HOLLOVVAV, KINCHEN, Musician. Born in Orange County where he resided 
as a fanner and enlisted at age 19. May 1, 1861 for the war. Originally enlisted 
in Company C, this regiment, and transferred to the Band November 1. 1862. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at Appomattox 
Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

HORN, JAIMES E., Musician. Born in .Alamance County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 20. June 21, 1861 for the war. Originally enlisted in 
Company K, this regiment, and transferred to the Band December 6, 1862, 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at .Appomattox Court 
House, Va., April 9. 1865. 

HOUK, JOHN ALLISON, Musician. Born in Burke County where he resided as 
a fanner prior to cnlislment in .\lamancc County at age 27, June 17, 1861 for 
the war. Originally enlisted in Company D, this regiment. Captured at Seven 
Pines, Va., May 31, 1862 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled 
and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va.. August 5. 1862. Transferred to the 
Band November 1, 1862. Captured at Winchester, Va.. July 20, 1864 and con- 
fined at Camp Chase. Ohio, where he joined the U. S. service April 22, 1865. 
Mustered into Company E, 5th Regiment U. S. Volunteers at Alton. III., May 
2, 1865 for three years. Deserted September 17. 1865 on the march from Fort 
Kearney to Cotton Wood, Nebraska Territory. 

KING, LEONIDAS M., Musician. Born in Wake County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 19. May 28. 1861 for the war. Originally enlisted 
in Company I, this regiment, and transferred to the Band November 1, 1862. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court 
House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

LEATHERS, JOHN MOSES, Musician. Born in Orange County where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 17, May 1, 1861 for the war. Originally en- 
listed in Company C, this regiment, and transferred to the Band November 1, 
1862. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at .Ap- 
pomattox Court House, Va.. April 9, 1865. 

LUNSFORD, NATHAN L., Musician. Both in Person County where he resided 
as a farmer prior to enlistment in Orange County at age 19, May 1, 1861 for 
the war. Originally enlisted in Company B, this regiment, and tiansferred to 
the Band November 1, 1862. Present or accounted for tlirough December 1864. 
Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., .April 9, 1865. 

PIPER, JOSEPH G., Musician (Sergeant). Born in Orange County where he 
resided as a fanner and enlisted at age 21, May 1, 1861 for the war. Originaliy 
eirlisted in Company B, this regiment. Mustered in as Private and appointed 
Corporal September 28, 1861. Promoted to Sergeant January-February 1862. 
TransfeiTed to the Band November 1. 1862. Present or accounted for through 
December 1864. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va.. .April 9, 1865. 

RATHBONE, JAMES H., Musician. Born in Yancey or Burke County and resided 
as a fanner prior to enlistment in Mecklenburg Cxjunty at age 21. May 28. 1861. 
Originally enlisted in Company E, this regiment, and transferred to the Band 
December 6, 1862. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 186.? 
and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's 
Landing. Va., February 25-March 3, 1865. 

SLOOP, DAVID ALEXANDER, Musician. Born hi Ro^van County where he 
resided as a farmer prior to enlistment in Mecklenburg County at age 23. May 
29, 1861 for the war. Originally enlisted in Company G. this regiment. Wounded 






Roster 289 

at Gaines' Mill, Va.. June 27. 1862. Transferred to the Band November 1, 1862. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court 
House. Va., April 9. 1865. 

COMPANY A 

OFFICERS 
CAPTAINS 

McKINNEY, ROBERT M. Originally a resident of Lynchburg, Va.. he was seri'- 
ing as Commandant and Professor at the North Carolina Military Institute, 
Charlotte, when he enlisted at age 26. May 16, 1861. Commissioned as Captain 
by Governor Ellis May 24. 1861. Elected Colonel of the 15th Regiment N. C. 
Troops June 24. 1861. Killed in action at Lee's Farm near ^\'illiamsburg. Va., 
April 16. 1862. 

KIRKLAND, SAMUEL S. Enlisted May 16. 1861 and appointed 1st Lieutenant. 
Promoted to Captain June 24, 1861 to rank from May 20. 1861. Resigned because 
of ill health July 29. 1862 and appointed ist Lieutenant of Artillery July 29, 
1862 to take effect on that date to serve as Ordnance Officer on the staff of 
Brigadier General \Villiam Dorsey Pender. .Appointed 1st Lieutenant and 
aide-de-camp to General Pender April 23, 1863 to take effect December 13, 
1862. On June 13. 1863 he became Captain, Assistant Adjutant General on 
staff of Brigadier General Alfred M. Scales, who assumed command of Pender's 
Brigade. Resigned July 18, 1863 on the death of General Pender. Declined ap- 
pointment as Captain tendered September 28, 1863. Appointed Captain, Assist- 
ant Quartermaster, October 16. 1863 to take rank from that date. Sened as 
Post Quartenriaster at Hillsboro. Paroled April 26, 1865. 

TURNER, JAMES CALDER. Resided in Rowan County and enlisted May 16, 
1861. Appointed 1st Lieutenant July 11. 1861 to take rank from May 20. 1861. 
\V'ounded at Mahern Hill. \a.. July 1, 1862. Promoted to Captain July 29. 1862. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Johnson's Island, Ohio, imtil released on taking Oath of Allegiance June 13, 
1865. 

LIEUTENANTS 

COX, MILTON H., 2nd Lieutenant. Resided in Guilford County and enlisted in 
.-\lamance County at age 21. July 1. 1861 for the war and mustered in as Private. 
Appointed Corporal December 1, 1861. Promoted to 2nd Lieutenant February 
4, 1863 and wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1. 1863. Captured at Rappahan- 
nock Station. Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at Johnson's Island. Ohio, 
until released on taking Oath of Allegiance June 12, 1865. 

HARDIN, DOCTOR Z., 2nd Lieutenant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 26. May 

28. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal July 
19, 1862. Elected 2nd Lieutenant November 7, 1863. 'Wounded at Cedar Creek, 
\'a., October 19, 1864. Captured at Sayler's Creek. \'a., April 6, 1865 and con- 
fined at Johnson's Island. Ohio, until released on taking Oath of Allegiance 
June 18. 1865. 

KIRKL.4ND, ALEXANDER M., 2nd Lieutenant. Resided in Orange County as 
a gentleman. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant to rank from May 20, 1861. Resigned 
October 19, 1861. Enlisted as a Private in Company E. 41st Regiinent N. C. 
Troops (3rd Regiment N. C. Cavalry) October 7, 1861 for one vear. Served in 



290 The Bloody Sixth 

said company until mustered into 2nd Company G, 40th Regiment N. C. Troops 
(3rd Regiment N. C. Artillery) at Hillsboro at the age of 23, March 15, 1862 for 
the war. Mustered in as a Private and appointed Sergeant April 6, 1862. 
Promoted to 1st Sergeant July 10. 1862. Elected Jr 2nd Lieutenant December 
18, 1862 and promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant January 6. 1863. Promoted to 
1st Lieutenant April 1, 1863. By Special Order No. 66, November 4, 1863, 
2nd Company G, 40th Regiment N. C. Troops (3rd Regiment N. C. Artil- 
lery) became Company E, 13th Battalion N. C. Light Artillery. Resigned by 
reason of charges and specifications of court martial March 31, 1864 and 
resignation accepted April 12. 1864. 

PRICE, THOMAS A., 1st Lieutenant. Resided in Rowan County and enlisted at 
Charlotte April 25. 1861. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant July 11. 1861 to rank 
from May 20, 1861. Wounded at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861. Promoted 
to 1st Lieutenant July 29, 1862. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Johnson's Island, Ohio, until released on 
taking Oath of .Mlegiance June 13. 1865. 

SMITH, ERNEST H., 2nd Lieutenant. Resided in .Alamance County and enlisted 
at Charlotte at age 20, May 28. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and 
appointed Sergeant June 1. 1861 and 1st Sergeant September 13. 1861. Appointed 
Jr 2nd Lieutenant November 29, 1861. Wounded at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 
1862. Promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant July 29. 1862 and dropped from rolls 
June 12, 1863 by reason of prolonged absence without leave, having been absent 
sick since August 27, 1862. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES 

ALSTON, JOSEPH O., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 20, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. \Voinuicd at Gettysburg. Pa.. July 1. 1863. Died of disease June 3, 
1864 at Charlotte. 

ARMFIELD, NATHANIEL M., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 19, May 28, 

1861 for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at 
Greensboro May 3, 1865. 

BANKHART, GEORGE, Private. Born in Baltimore, Md., and resided as a fanner 
and mechanic prior to his enlistment at Charlotte at age 23. May 28. 1861 
for the war. Admitted to hospital at Richmond. Va.. June 7, 1864 wounded. 
Captured at Strasburg. Va., September 23. 1864 and confined at Point 
Lookout, Md. Joined the U. S. service October 12, 1864 and mustered 
into Company A, 4th Regiment U. S. Volunteers at Fort Monroe. Va.. October 
31, 1864 for three years. Deserted at St. Louis, Mo., May 12. 1865. 

HARDEN, J. E., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 1864 for 
the war. Wounded at Plymouth April 19, 1864. Carried as absent in hospital on 
Muster Rolls through December 1864. 

BECKERDITE, J., Private. Resided in Randolph County. Enlisted at Camp 
Stokes. Charlotte. November 15. 1864 for the war. Deserted near Petersburg. \'a., 
December 11, 1864 and took Oath of .\mnesty at City Point, Va., December 
13, 1864. 

BEDSOLE, W., Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 14, 1863 for the war. Died 
of gunshot wounds at Richmond. Va., June 12, 1864. 



Roster 291 

BELL, W. F., Private. Resided in Randolph County. Enlisted at Camp Stokes, 
Cliarloue, November 15, 1864 for the war. Deserted near Petersburg, Va., 
December 11. 1864. Took Oath of .Amnesty at City Point. Va., December 13, 
1864. 

BL.AKELEY, JOHN R., Private. Enlisted at Greensboro February 22, 1862 for 
the war. Wounded at Port Republic, Va.. September 27, 1864. .Absent in hos- 
pital through December 1864. 

BLANEY, BARNEY, Private. Born in Ireland. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 28, 
Mav 28. 1861 for the war. Killed in action at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 
1861. 

BOGUS, ELIJAH, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 54. May 28. 1861 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Detailed as shoemakei 
at Kinsion, September 15. 1864 through December 1864. 

BOLES, ALBERT, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 1864 
for the war. Deserted at Washington, N. C, May 1, 1864. 

BOON, J., Private. .Admitted to Chimborazo Hospital No. 4, Richmond, Va., 
June I. 1862 with gunshot wound, and returned to duty June 14. 1862. 

BOWMAN, JAMES M., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. W'onnded at Malvern Hill. Va.. July 1, 1862. Captured at Rappahan- 
nock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md 
Paroled and exchanged November 15. 1864 at Venus Point, Savannah Rivei. 

BRADSHAW, CHARLES, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 
for the war. Deserted near Flintville. Va.. June 13, 1863 and joined from 
desertion December 16. 1863. Placed in aiTest through February 1864. Deserted 
again near Woodstock, Va., November 10. 1864. 

BRADSHAW, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Burke Countv September 20. 1863 for 
the KcW. Sent to hospital December 21. 1863 and died in hospital, date un- 
known. Claim for effects filed May 23, 1864. 

BRADY, S. B., Private. Captured in Hanover County, Va., May 30. 1864 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., June 8, 1864. Exchanged at Venus Point, 
Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. 

BRENN.AN, BARNEY, Private. Born in Ireland. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 50. 
May 28. 1861 for the war. Wounded at Battle of First Manassas July 21. 1861 
and died at General Hospital, Charlottesville, Va., of woinids .August 9. 1861 

BROWN, , Private. Enlisted in Wake County March 20, 1864. Detailed. 

BROWN, JOHN T., Private. Enlisted at High Point February 28. 1862 for the 
war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 1863 and confined 
at Point Lookout, Md. Took Oath of .Allegiance and joined the LI. S. service 
January 21. 1864. 

BROWN, JOSEPH H., Private. Enlisted at High Point February 28, 1862 for the 
war. Detached as Teamster on Division Ordnance Train from January 28, 1863 
through December 1864. Paroled at Greensboro. May 5, 1865. 

BROWN, JULIUS S., Private. Enlisted at High Point March 5. 1862 for the war. 
^Vounded in action at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27. 1862. Captured at Rappa- 
hannock Station, Va.. \o\ember 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., 
until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing. Va.. Feliruary 24. 1865. Paroled 
at .Appomattox Coiut House, \'a.. .April 9, 1865. 



292 The Bloody Sixth 

BROWN, W. A., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 1864. 
Wounded near Richmond and sent to hospital June 4, 1864. Absent wounded 
through December 1864. 

BUCKLEY, JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 19. May 28, 1861 for the 
war. .\ppointed Musician June 1. 1861. Reduced to ranks .August 31, 1861. Present 
or accounted for through October 1864; however, carried as absent sick after 
July 17, 1863. 

BUCKLEY, PATRICK, Private. Born in Ireland, occupation laborer. Enlisted at 
Charlotte at age 44, May 28, 1861 for the war. Discharged November 30. 1861 
by reason of disabilitv. 

BURGESS, ISAAC \\'., Private. Resided in Randolph County and enlisted at 
Company Shops at age 26. July 1. 1861 for the war. Captured near Boonesboro, 
Md,, September 14, 1862 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled 
and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va.. October 2, 1862. Wounded at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va., May 4. 1863, Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., Novembei 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing. May 8, 1864, Wounded at Cedar Creek. Va., October 19, 1864. 
Captured near Petersburg. Va.. March 25. 1865 and confined at Point Lookout 
until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 23, 1865. 

BURGESS, JAMES R., Private. Resided in Randolph County and enlisted at 
Company Shops at age 18, July 1, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, Va.. November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va.. May 8. 1864. Captured at 
Strasbiu-g, Va,, November 13, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout until released 
after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 23, 1865. 

BURNS, D.4NIEL, Private. Born in Ireland and resided in Petersburg. Va., as a 
laborer. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 30, May 28, 1861 for the war. ^\'ounded 
at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861. Detailed as ambulance driver in 
Richmond, Va., September 6, 1863. Captured at .Amelia Court House, \'a.. April 
6, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until released after taking Oath 
of Allegiance June 23, 1865, 

BURNS, STEPHEN, Private. Born in Ireland, occupation stonecutter. Enlisted 
at Charlotte at age 34, May 28. 1861 lor the war. Discharged .August 31. 1863 by 
reason of disability. 

BURROW, CHARLES W., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Captured at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861. Confined at 
Fort McHenry. Md., until transferred to Fort Monroe, Va„ where he was 
paroled and exchanged in November 1862, Wounded, missing and presumed 
killed at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 2, 1863. 

C.4RBORO, P.VTRICK, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 39, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Died of disease at Richmond. \'a.. December 22, 1862. 

CASEY, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 27, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Deserted at Lynchburg, \'a.. June 13, 1862. 

CASEY, P.ATRICK, Private. Originally a resident of Lancaster County, Pa., and 
enlisted at Charlotte at age 30. May 28, 1861 for the war. Wounded and 
captured at Gettysburg. Pa., July 3. 1863. Confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until 
released after taking Oath of Allegiance May 3, 1865. 



Roster 293 

CASS, A., Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance, Raleigh. October 1, 1864 for the war. 
Captured at Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va.. March 28, 1865. 

CAUBLE, EDW.-VRD, I^vate. Enlisted at Salisbury May 15. 1862 for the war. 
Deserted from hospital March 30, 1863. 

CHAMBERS, JESSE, Private. Enlisted at High Point February 24, 1862 for the 
war. AVounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Captured at South Mountain, 
Md., July 4. 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., where he died October 
7, 1863. Buried in National Cemetery. Finn's Point. N. J. 

CHAPMAN, JOSHUA, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22. 1862 
for the war. ^\'ounded at Gettysburg. Pa.. July 1. 1863 and died in liospital at 
Staunton, Va., September 19, 1863 from wounds. 

CHAPMAN, RICHARD, Private. Resided in Btuke County and enlisted at Camp 
Stokes October 28, 1864 for the war. Captured at Burkeville, Va., April 6, 1865. 
Admitted to Caner U. S. General Hospital with gunshot wound -April 16, 1865. 
Died April 21, 1865. 

CLARK, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 34, June 7, 1861 for the 
war. Discharged September 14, 1861 by reason of disease. 

COLETRANE, JOHN W., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 20, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, \'a., July 1. 1862 and died of wounds 
July 7, 1862. Buried in Hollywood Cemetery. Richmond, Va. 

COLETRANE, LEONARD M., Private. Born in Randolph County and resided 
as a fanner prior to his enlistment at Charlotte at age 19, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va.. November 7. 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout. Md. Released after taking Oath of .Allegiance and 
joining the U. S. service February 5, 1864. Mustered in as a Sergeant at Norfolk, 
Va.. May 1, 1864 into Company F, 1st Regiment U. S. Volunteers for three 
years. Reduced to ranks September 10, 1864 and deserted at Camp Reno, Mil- 
waukee, Wis., September 14, 1864. Enlisted as a substitute for David A. Gage 
under an assumed name. Milton Cox, in Company A, 42nd Regiment Illinois 
Infantry at Chicago. 111., November 12, 1864. Mustered out at Port Lavaca, 
Texas. December 16, 1865. 

COLTR.4NE, DANIEL F., Private. Enlisted at High Point at age 16. March 10, 
1862 for the war. Died of disease at Richmond, Va.. June 13. 1862. 

COPEL.4ND, JAMES P., Private. Born in Cleveland County, occupation mason. 
Enlisted at Charlotte at age 26. May 28, 1861 for the war. Killed at Battle of 
Second Manassas .Vugust 29, 1862. 

CRANFORD, L., Private. Paroled at Salisbury May 23, 1865. 

CROKER, WILLIAM R., Private. Enlisted at High Point at age 30, February 24, 
1862. Captured at Fair Oaks. Va., June 2, 1862 and confined at Fort Delaware, 
Del., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing. Va.. .August 5, 1862. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863. Confined at Point 
Lookout, Md. Released after taking the Oath of Allegiance and joining the 
U. S. service Januai^' 24, 1864. 

CROKER, ZEBEDEE C, Private. Enlisted at High Point February 24, 1862 for 
the war. Captined at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Aid. Took Oath of .Allegiance and joined the U. S. 
service January 24, 1864. 



294 The Bloody Sixth 

CROSSETT, S. J., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes October 20, 1864 for the 
war. Captured near Petersburg. \'a.. March 25. 1865 and confined at Point 
Lookout, Md. 

CRUST, GEORGE, Private. Resided in Alexandria. Va., and enlisted at Richmond, 
Va., July 18, 1861. Captured at Williamsport. Md.. July 2. 1863. Took Oath 
of Allegiance November 17, 1863 and remained in employ of L'. S. government. 

CURTIS, JOHN M., Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 28. May 28, 1861 
for tlie war. .-Appointed Corporal June 1. 1861. Promoted to Sergeant .\pril 
1863. Wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa,. July 2, 1863, Paroled and 
exchanged at City Point, Va„ August 28. 1863. Detailed with regimental bag- 
gage train at Tarboro September— October 1864. Paroled at Richmond, Va.. 
April 18. 1865. 

CUTTING, JONATHAN, Private. Enlisted at Lexington February 28. 1862 for 
the war. Wounded near Richmond, Va,, September 27, 1862. Captured at Rap- 
pahannock Station, Va,, November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., 
until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, \'a., February 24, 1865, 

DAVIS, JOHN H., Private. Born in Davidson County, occupation laborer. En- 
listed at Charlotte at age 19, May 28, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va.. May 4, 1863. Discharged December 30, 1864 by reason of dis- 
ability. 

DELAY, ROBERT JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 26, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Deserted at Lyncliburg. Va., June 13, 1862. 

DEMPSEY, HUMPHREY, Private. Resided in Pottsville, Pa. Enlisted at Charlotte 
at age 24. May 28, 1861 for the war. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2. 1863 
and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until released on taking Oath of Alle- 
giance May 3, 1865. 

DENTON, EMANUEL, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 15, 1862 for 
the war. Detached on hospital duty in Richmond January 13, 1863 through 
August 1863. Paroled at Burkeville,' Va., .April 14-17. 1865. 

DENTON, THOM.4S, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 15. 1862 foi 
the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

DENTON, WILLIAM A., Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22. 1862 
for the war. Died in camp near Fredericksburg. \'a., November 22, 1862 of 
disease. 

DICKSON, JAMES ROBERT, Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21, May 28, 
1861 for the war, .Appointed Sergeant June 1. 1861. and promoted to 1st Sergeant 
April 1, 1863. Wounded at Gaines' Mill, \'a., June 27, 1862, and at Chancellors- 
ville, Va., May 4, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing. Va., February 24, 1865. Paroled at General Hospital, Thomas- 
ville. May 1, 1865, 

DIXON, J., Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes No\ember 15, 1864 for the war. 
Deserted at Mt. Crawford, Va., December 6, 1864, 

DUDDY, MICH.AEL, Private. Resided in Mecklenburg County. Deserted at Little 
York. Pa.. Julv 1, 1863. Took Oath of .Allegiance and released at Philadelphia, 
Pa., November 4. 1863. 



Roster 295 

DUVAL, EUGENE ALEXANDER, Private. Born in New Orleans. La. Enlisted 
at Charlotte at age 27, May 28. 1861 for the war. Captnred at Frederick, Md., 
September 12. 1862 and confined at Fort Delaware. Del., until paroled and 
exchanged November 10. 1862 at .-Aiken's Landing, Va. Captured at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., May 3, 1863 and confined at Fort Delavvare, Del., until paroled at 
Fort Delaware and sent to City Point. Va., May 23, 1863 for exchange. Deserted 
near Calidian Iron 'Works, Pa., June 25, 1863. 

EDMONDS, P., Private. Took Oath of .-Vllegiance and paroled at Morganton, 
May 29, 186,5. 

ELLIOT, J. L., Private. Captured at South Mountain, Md., September 15. 1802, 
and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged November 
10, 1862 at .Aiken's Landing, \'a. Died soon after exchange. 

ELLIOTT, JAMES T., Private. Enlisted at High Point February 28, 1862 for 
the war. Wounded at Gaines' Mill. Va„ June 27, 1862. Died of disease at 
Jordans' Springs Hospital near \Vinchester, Va., June 22, 1863. 

ELLIOTT, ROS'WELL L., Private. Born in Randolph County where he resided 
as a farmer prior to his enlistment at Salisbun .March 6. 1862 for the war. 
Wounded at Gaines' Mill. Va.. June 27. 1862. Captured at South Mountain, 
Md., September 14, 1862 and exchanged. Captured again at Winchester, Va., 
July 21, 1864 and confined at Camp Chase. Ohio, where he enlisted in the 
U. S. Arniy .\pril 22. 1865. Mustered in at Alton. 111.. May 2. 1865 in Company 
E, 5th Regiment U. S. \'olunteers for three years. Mustered out at Fort 
Kearney, Nebraska Territor)', October 11, 1806. 

EPLEY, ANDREW R., Private. Resided in Morganton and enlisted in Burke 
County September 22, 1862 for the war. Carried on Company Muster Rolls 
through October 1804 as absent sick. 

EPLEY, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 for the 
war. Captured at Strasburg, \'a.. October 19, 1804 and confined at Point Look- 
out. Md. Paroled at Point Lookout, however he died aboard the U. S. .Army 
Hospital steamer "Baltic" on November 9. 1804. of disease, and was buried at 
sea. 

EPLEY, PETER, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22. 1802 for the 
war. ^Vounded at Chancellorsville, \'a., May 4, 1863. Paroled at Appomattox 
Court House, Va., .April 9, 1865. 

ESSICK, RANSOM, Private. Born in Davidson County, occupation farmer. En- 
listed at Company Shops at age 18, June 12, 1861 for the war. Discharged 
December 27, 1801, by reason of physical disability. 

EVERHEART, J., Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes. Charlotte, November 15, 
1864, for the war. Deserted at Lacey Spring, Va., November 23, 1864. 

EZZELL, HENRY E., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 
1864 for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

FIELDS, C. S., Private. Enlisted at Camp Hohries, Raleigh, March 20, 1864 for 
the war. Paroled at Greensboro May 10, 1865. 

FEN'CHMAN, A. J., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 1861 
for the war. Deserted Mav 1, 1864 at Washington, N. C. 



296 The Bloodv Sixth 

FLEMING, JOHN, Private. Originally a resident of New York City, he enlisted 
at Charlotte at age 29, May 28, 1861 for the war. Wounded July 2, 1862. 
Wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 4, 186.S. Confined at Fort 
Delaware, Del., luitil released after taking Oath of .\llegiance Februai^ 27, 
1865. 

FORLEY, TIMOTHY, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 30, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Detailed as Hospital Guard at Lynchburg, Va., November 6, 1863 be- 
cause of sickness. Remained on detail and paroled at Lynchburg April 15, 1865. 

GALLIMORE, JE.SSE, Private. Enlisted at Salisbury March 15. 1862 for the war. 
Captured at Bermuda Hundred, Va., October 9, 1864 and released after tak- 
ing Oath of Allegiance October 12, 1864 at Washington, D. C. 

GLEASON, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 36, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Wounded at Seven Pines, Va., May 1862. Sent to hospital sick. May 2, 
1863 and detailed as Hospital Guard at Lynchburg, Va., November 1. 1863. 
Remained on detail and paroled at Lynchbing .\pril 13, 1865. 

GOBLE, JOHN G., Private. Enlisted in Iredell County September 15, 1862 for 
the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863, and 
confined at Point Lookoiu, Md., until paroled and exchanged at .\iken's Land- 
ing, Va., March 3, 1865. Admitted to hospital at Richmond, Va., after exchanged. 

GORRAL, JAMES G., Private. Born in Guilford County, occupation carpenter. 
Enlisted at Charlotte at age 18, May 28, 1861 for the war. Died at Camp 
Jones, near Bristoe Station, Va., September 17, 1861 of disease. 

GRAHAM, E., Private. Resided in Orange County and enlisted at Camp Holmes, 
Raleigh, October 20, 1864 lor the war. Captured at Farmville, Va., April 6, 
1865 and confined at Newport News, Va.. until released on taking Oath of Alle- 
giance June 26, 1865. 

GRIFFIN, JAMES R., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23. May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Wounded in engagements near Richmond, Va., July 1. 1862. Captured 
at South Mountain. Md., September 14, 1862 and confined at Fort Delaware, 
Del., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., November 10, 1862. 
Deserted after exchanged. 

GROSS, JACOB, Private. Captured at Fredericksburg. Va., May 3, 1863 and con- 
fined at Fort Delaware. Del. Sent to City Point. Va., May 23, 1863 for ex- 
change. 

HALL, JAMES D., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 22, September 22, 
1862 for the war. Wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Sent 
to General Hospital \\'est's Building. Baltimore. Md., from Gettysburg and 
paroled there and exchanged at City Point, Va., September 27, 1863. Present 
through December 1864. ! 

HANNAH, RODY, Private. Born in Guilford County, occupation fanner. En- 
listed at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, at age 26, March 20, 1864 for the war. Dis- 
charged January 26, 1865 at Camp Godwin, Va., by reason of disability. 

HANNER, WILLIAM D., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Killed in action at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861. 

HAWKINS, H. B., Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Camp 
Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 1864 for the war. Captured near Petersburg, Va., 
March 25, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released on taking 
Oath of .Allegiance Juire 27, 1865. 



Roster 297 

HEFFERMAN, MICHAEL E., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 25. May 28. 

1861 for the war. Deserted near Berlin. Pa.. Jinie 27, 1863. 

HEMPHILL, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 20. September 22, 

1862 for the war. Killed at Chancellorsville. \a.. May 4. 1863. 

HEREVG, A. M., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh. March 20. 186-1 
for the war. Wounded at Charlestown. Va.. August 21. 1864. 

HINELE, D., Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes November 15. 1864 for the war. 
Deserted at Lacev Spring, \'a.. November 23, 1864. 

HITCHCOCK, SOLOMON, Private. Enlisted at High Point February 24, 1863 
for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until he joined the U. S. ser\ice Januaiy 24, 
1864. after taking Oath of .Allegiance. 

HOEKINS, H. B., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh. March 10, 1864 
lor the war. C^arried on Company Muster Roll for November— December 1864 
as absent in arrest. Reason not given. 

HOLDER, DAVID M., Private. Enlisted at Asheboro, February 28. 1862 for the 
war. Died in hospital at .\shland, Va.. .-April 9. 1862. cause unkown. 

HOLLAND, H. A., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. March 20, 1864 
for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at .Ap- 
pomattox Court House, Va.. .April 9. 1865. 

HOOD, J., Private. Died at Washington. N. C of disease May 15, 1864. 

HOUKE, LEANDER, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 23, September 22, 
1862. Captured at Cold Harbor, Va.. June 7, 1864 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va.. March 14, 1865. 

HOWD, L., Private. Captured on Chickahominy River near Richinond, \'a., June 
6, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., until exchanged March 11, 1865. 

IRVIN, MILAS H., Corporal. Enlisted at Lexington, February 28, 1862 for the 
war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal February 1, 1863. Paroled 
at Farmville, Va., .April 14, 1865. 

JEFFREY, JACOB, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 29. May 28. 1861 for the 
war. ^Vounded at Malvern Hill. \'a., July 1. 1862. \Vounded in action at Somer- 
ville Ford. Va., September 16, 1863. Carried on subsec[uent Muster Rolls as 
absent, retired. Paroled at Burkexille. \ a.. .April 14. 1865. 

JONES, CHARLES, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. March 20. 1804 
for the war. Deserted .April 14. 1864 at Goldsboro. 

JORDAN, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh, March 20, 
1864 tor the war. Deserted March 28. 1864 at Kinston. 

KEEF, JOHN O., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 30. May 28, 1861 for the 
war. AVounded in action at Seven Pines, Va., June 1. 1862. Detailed for duty 
in the C. S. Laboratory Department at Richmond December 13. 1862 because 
of disability. Remained there until December 1863. Present with company 
until wounded in action near Richmond. Va.. June 6, 1864. 

KEENAN, THOMAS, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 22, May 28, 1861 tor 
the war. Wounded at Gaines' Mill. \'a.. June 27. 1862. Mortallv wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 



298 The Bloody Sixth 

KEPLEY, WILLIAM HENRY, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 19, May 28, 

1861 for the war. Discharged August 20, 1861 by reason of disability. 

KING, W., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, July 1, 1864 for the war. 
Carried as present through December 1864. 

KIRKMAN, ALLEN, Private. Enlisted at Company Shops at age 25. tor the war 

July 1. 1861. Deserted March 28. 1864 at Kinston. Paroled at Greensboro. May 
9, 1865. 

LANGLEY, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Hanover Junction. Va., May 1, 1864 
for the war. Wounded at Cedar Creek. Va., October 19. 1864. and sent to hos- 
pital. Carried on Muster Rolls as absent in hospital tlirough December 1864. 

LANGLEY, JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20. 1864 
for the war. \Vounded in action at Winchester, Va., September 19. 1864 and 
sent to hospital. Carried on Muster Rolls as absent in hospital through 
December 1864. 

LATON, J. R., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 1864 for 
the war. Carried on Muster Rolls through December 1864 as having been left 
sick on march near Liberty, Va. 

LEAHY, JEREMIAH, Private. Resided at Pleasant Retreat. McDowell County, 
and enlisted at Charlotte at age 40, May 28, 1861 tor the war. Wounded at 
Seven Pines. Va.. May 1862. .'\dmitted to hospital, Richmond. Va.. .April 2, 
1865 with disease and captured in hospital .April 3. 1865. Took Oath of .Alle- 
giance and released .April 18, 1865. 

LEARY, MICHAEL, Private. Enlisted at Cliarlotte at age 35, May 28. 1861 for 
the war. Died June 24, 1861 at Company Shops of disease. 

LENTZ, GEORGE E., Private. Enlisted at Company Shops at age 17, June 14, 

1862 for the war. Wounded at South Mountain, Md.. September 14. 1862. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout, Md. Released on January 24, 1864 after taking the Oath of .Alle- 
giance and joining the U. S. service. 

LEONARD, WILLIAM ANDERSON, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21, 
May 28, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \'a.. No\ember 7, 

1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md. Released January 23, 1864 on taking 
Oath of Allegiance and joining the U. S. senice. Recruited for 1st Regiment 
U. S. Voliuiteers. but never sened with regiment. 

MABE, W., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh. March 20. 1864 for the 
war. Admitted to Jackson Hospital, Richmond, Va., January 12. 1865 with 
disease and furloughed for thirty days March 20, 1865. 

MALPASS, L., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 1864 for 
the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

MANNING, THOMAS, Private. Born in Ireland. Enlisted at Company Shops 
at age 40, July 1, 1861 for the war. Died FebruaiT 27, 1862 at Camp Fisher, Va., 
of disease. 

MARIS, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, October 20, 1864 
for the war. Present through December 1864. 

MATHIS, LEVI, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 15. 1862 for the 
war. Deserted near Roberson River, \"a.. July 29, 1863 and returned. Wounded 
at Mt. Jackson, Va., September 23, 1864. Transferred to Company I, 45th 
Regiment N. C. Troops November 1864. Paroled at Salisbury May 25, 1865. 



Roster 299 

McAfee, JOHN, Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 48, May 28, 18(31 for 
the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Sergeant September 13. 18G1. 
Detached as Ordnance Sergeant from June 23. 1862 through May 11. 1863. Sick 
in hospital from May 24, 1863 until he deserted from hospital July 2, 1863. 

McCUA, JOHN, Private. Took Oath of Allegiance and paroled at Greensboro 
May 12, 1865. 

McKINEY, G. W., Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes November 15, 1864 for the 
war. Deserted near Mt. Crawford, Va., December 6, 1864. 

McMURRAY, C, Private. Enlisted November 1864 in Wake County. 

McMURRAY, J. M., Private. Resided in Jefferson. Tenn. Enlisted at Cam> 
Stokes, Charlotte, November 15, 1864 tor the war. Deserted at Petersburg, Va. 
and took Oath of .\llegiance at City Point, Va., December 13, 1864. 

MILICHAN, C., Private. Resided in Randolph County and enlisted at Camp 
Stokes, Charlotte, November 15, 1864 for the war. Deserted at Petersburg, Va., 
December 11, 1864 and took Oath of .'\mnesty at City Point, Va„ December 
13. 1864. 

MOON, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 17. May 28, 1861 foi 
the war. Died Februarv 18, 1862 at Camp Fisher, Va., from disease. 

MOR.AN. JOHN F., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 36, June 7, 1861 for 
the war. Wounded at Mahern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Captured at Rappahan- 
nock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., luitil 
paroled at Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864, 

MORGAN, HUGH A., Private. Enlisted at Salisbury March 15, 1862 for the 
war. Deserted near Charles City, Va., July 6, 1862. 

MORGAN, ROMULUS, Private. Enlisted at Chariotte at age 21, May 28. 1861 
for the war. Deserted at Manassas. \'a., .\ugust 28. 1862. 

MORRISON, JOHN A., Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 
for the war. Killed at Gettvsburg, Pa.. Julv 1. 1863. 

MORRISON, LEANDER, Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at 
Camp Holmes, Raleigh, .March 10. 1864 for the war. Captured at Farmville. 
Va., .-\pril 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va. Released after taking 
Oath of .Allegiance June 26, 1865. 

MORRISON, RICHARD, Private. Born in Ireland, occupation laborer. En- 
listed at Company Shops at age 43, July 1, 1861 for the war. Dischargeti 
February 25, 1862 at Camp Fisher, Va., by reason of disability. 

MORRISON, THOMAS L., Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 
1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., No\ ember 7, 186.5 
and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Coxes 
Landing, James River, Va., February 15, 1865. Sent to Camp Lee, near 
Richmond, \ a., after exchanged. 

MURPHY, J, C, Private. Resided in Orange County and enlisted at Camp Holmes. 
Raleigh, October 20. 1864 for the war. Captured near Petersburg, \'a., March 
25, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released after taking Oath 
of .\llegiance June 29, 1865. 

MURRAY', PATRICK, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 33, May 28. 1861 for 
the war. Died at Petersburg, Va., .-\ugust 27, 1862 of knife woinids. 



300 The Bloody Sixth 

NEAL, ALEXANDER, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. March 20, 
1864 for the war. Carried on Company Muster Roll for December 1864 as 
having been left sick on march near Natural Bridge, Va. 

NEELAND, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 25, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Deserted at Richmond. Va.. June 10, 1862. 

NOONAN, DANIEL, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 42, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Discharged October 28. 1862 by reason of physical disability. 

NOTT, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Yadkin County at age 18, September 15, 1862 
for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Land- 
ing, Va.. March 3, 1865. Sent to hospital in Richmond. Va.. after exchanged. 

O'DANIEL, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Lexington March 6. 1862 for the 
war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined 
at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing, James 
Ri\er, \a., February 15, 1865. 

PAEMER, C, Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes November 15. 1864 for the war. 
Deserted at Mt. Crawford, Va., December 6, 1864. 

PARSONS, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte May 28, 1861 for the war. Ap- 
pointed Sergeant June 1, 1861. Wounded at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 
1861. Discharged September 9, 1861 and reduced to ranks due to the uncertainty 
of his return. 

PITMAN, THOMAS, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes March 20, 1864 for the 
war. Deserted, date unknown, and returned to company October 16, 1864. 
Carried on December 1864 Muster Roll as absent in arrest. 

POINTENDEXTER, M., Private. Resided in Surry County, occupation collier. 
Enlisted at Camp \'ance October 1. 1864 for the war. Captured at Strasburg, 
Va., October 19. 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md. Released after tak- 
ing Oath of Allegiance May 14, 1865. 

POPE, ISAAC, Private. Born in Davidson County, occupation driver. Enlisted 
at High Point at age 22. February 24, 1862 for the war. Died at hospital, Ash- 
land, Va.. April 13, 1863, cause unknown. 

POPE, AVILLIAM, Private. Born in Davidson County, occupation driver. Enlisted 
at High Point at age 19. February 24, 1862 for the war. Died at .\shland, Va., 
."Vpril 9, 1862, cause unknown. 

PRESNELL, CALVIN J. C, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 15, 
1862 for the war. Served as ambulance driver from June 27, 1863 through 
September 19, 1864 when he was wounded and captured at ^Vinchester, Va., 
and sent to U. S. Aniiv Depot Field Hospital, Winchester. Died September 28, 
1864. 

RAGS, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted September 15, 1862. 

RAINN, JOHN T., Private. Paroled as Prisoner of 'War at the office of the 
Provost Marshal General, .^miy of the Potomac, September 30. 1862. 

REAGAN, ANDY, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 26, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. .A.ppointed Corporal June 1, 1861. Reduced to ranks for being absent with- 



Roster 301 

out leave from Jiilv 19. 1862 through February 1863. Present with company 
from March 1. 1863 until he deserted near ^V'aynesboro. Pa., July 6. 1863. 

RECTOR, JOHN A., Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 15, 1862 for 
the war. ^Vounded at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 1, 1863 and absent wounded 
through February 1864 when he was detailed at Tarboro. Retired to the Invalid 
Corps January 3, 1865. 

REDMAN, F. S., Private. Died June 28. 1864 of disease at Liberty. \a. 

RENDLEMAN, GEORGE W., Private. Resided as a farmer in Yadkin County 
where he enlisted September 15. 1862 for the war. Captured at ^Vinchester. Va., 
Jidv 20. 1864 and confined at Camp Chase. Ohio. Released after taking Oath 
of .-\llegiance June 10, 1863 at age 34 at Camp Chase. 

RICH, JOHN L., Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22. 1862 for the 
war. \Vounded at Gettysburg. Pa.. July 1. 1863. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station. Va.. November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until 
released January 23. 1864 after taking Oath of .Allegiance and joining the V. S. 
service. 

ROBERTS, WILLIAM, Piivate. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. March 20. 
1864 for the war. Sent to hospital sick May 20. 1864. 

ROLLENS, J., Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes, Charlotte, November 15. 1864 
for the war. Deserted at Mt. Crawford. Va.. December 6. 1864. 

ROPER, B.ARNEY, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22. 1862 for 
the war. Died January 31, 1863 at Lynchburg, \'a., of measles. 

ROSS, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 15, 1862 for the 
war. \\'ounded in action at Winchester, Va., September 19, 1864. Captured in 
hospital at Richmond, Va., .\pril 3, 1865 and escaped May 4, 1865. 

Rl'ST, WILLIAM B., Private. Took Oath of .Allegiance at Morganton June 13, 
1865. 

SEALS, THOM.AS A., Private. Resided in Burke County where he enlisted 
September 22. 1862 for the war. ^Vounded and captured at ^Vinchester, Va., 
September 19. 1864. Transferred from U. S. .Amiv General Hospital. West's 
Buildings. Baltimore, .Md.. to U. S. Aimy General Hospital. Point Lookout, Md., 
January 31, 1865. Released fi'om hospital after taking Oath of Allegiance June 
26, 1865. 

SETTLEMIRE, CYRUS, Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Camp 
Stokes, Charlotte, October 28, 1864 for the war. Captured at Farmville, Va., 
April 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, \'a. Transferred to U. S. AiTiiy 
General Hospital. Fort Monroe, Va.. June 16. 1865 and discharged from h.'>s- 
pital on taking Oath of .Allegiance June 18, 1865, at age 45. 

SHERRILL, MILAS, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 for 
the ^var. Present or accoimted for on Company Muster Rolls lurtil December 
1864 when he is carried as absent in arrest. 

SHOEM.AKER, M., Private. Enlisted at Camp \'auce October 1, 1864 for the 
war. Captured at Strasburg. \a.. October 19, 1864 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md.. where he died May 26. 1865 of disease. 

SIDNEY, PATRICK, Private. Enlisted May 28, 1861. \\'ounded at Battle of Sec- 
ond Manassas .August 1862. 



302 The Bloody Sixth 

SMITH, EDWARD, Coqjoral. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 28, June 7, 1861 for 
the war. Mustered in as Private. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va.. July 1, 1862. 
Promoted to Corporal about March 30, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, Va„ November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. 

SMITH, JACKSON, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 for 
the war. Died at Riclimond, Va., December 3. 1862 ot measles. 

SMITH, MARTIN, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 for 
the war. Killed at Chancellorsville, \'a.. May 4, 1863. 

SMITH, SAMUEL H., Private. Born in .^nson County, occupation farmer. En- 
listed at High Point March 5, 1862 for the war. Discharged February 5, 1863 
at age 62, by reason of disability. 

SMITH, WILLIAM M., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Quartermaster Sergeant 
January 5, 1862 and transferred to the Field and Staff. 

SOUTHERN, J. A., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20, 1864 
for the war. Paroled at Burkeville, Va., .April 17, 1865, 

STOUT, JOHN P., Private. Enlisted at Lexington March 6, 1862 for the war. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout, Md. Paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., March 
3, 1865, Sent to hospital at Richmond, Va., after exchanged. 

STRADER, JAMES, Private. Born in Guilford County. Enlisted at Charlotte 
at age 18, May 28, 1861 for the war. Died Deceinber 31. 1861 at Petersburg, Va„ 
of disease. 

STRADER, SIDNEY L., Sergeant. Born in Guilford County and resided in 
Alamance County as a fanner prior to his enlistment at Charlotte at age 21, 
May 28, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private. Wounded at Rappahannock 
Station, Va., November 7, 1863. Promoted to Corporal March— .August 1864. 
Admitted to Jackson Hospital, Richmond, Va., March 30, 1865 with gunshot 
wounds. Rank given as Sergeant. Captured in hospital at Richmond April 
3, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md. Released after taking Oath of 
.Allegiance June 26, 1865. 

STUART, H., Private. Resided in Randolph County and enlisted at Camp Stokes 
Xoxember 15, 1864 for the war. Deserted at Petersburg, \'a., December 11, 1864 
and took Oath of Allegiance at ^Vashington. D. C. December 15, 1864. 

SULLIVAN, PATRICK, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 25, May 28. 1861 
for the war. .Appointed Corporal June 1, 1861 and promoted to Sergeant April 
1, 1862. Wounded at Malvern Hill. Va., July 1, 1862. Missing in action at 
South Mountain, Md., September 14, 1862, Reduced to ranks September 30, 1862. 

SWAFFORD, JOHN R., Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 28, May 28, 1861 
for the war. .Appointed Corporal June 1, 1861 and promoted to Sergeant 
December 1, 1861. Wounded at Gaines' Mill, Va.. Jtnie 27, 1862. Captured at 
Frederick, Md., October 7, 1862 and confined at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Md., 
where he was paroled November 12, 1862. Exchanged at City Point, Va., No- 
vember 21, 1862. Sent to General Hospital, Petersburg. Va., with gunshot 
wounds until furloughed November 29, 1862 for sixty days. Detailed for duty 
as tax collector, Franklinville, Randolph County. December 1, 1863. 






Roster 303 

TARPLEY, WILLIAM W., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23, May 28, 

1861 for the war. Appointed Sergeant June 1. 1861. Promoted to 1st Sergeant 

December 1, 1861. Reduced to ranks and detailed as mechanic on railroad 
at Company Shops. 

THOMAS, HENRY H., Private. Enlisted at High Point February 24, 1862 for 
the war. Deserted near Charles City, Va., July 6, 1862. 

TINNERLY, PATRICK, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 42. May 28. 1861 
for the war. \Vounded at Battle of Second Manassas August 29. 1862. Disabled 
from wounds and detailed as hospital attendant, Hoke's Division. Paroled at 
High Point, May 2, 1865. 

TURNER. WESLEY J., Private. Enlisted at Greensboro February 22. 1862 for 
the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, V'a.. November 7. 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout. Md., until paroled. Died October 15. 1864 on flag of 
truce boat while being transferred to Coxes Wharf, James River, Va., for ex- 
change. 

VARNER, ANDREW, Private. Born in Davidson Coimty, occupation farmer. 
Enlisted at Lexington at age 19, March 6, 1862 for the war. Discharged July 
20, 1862 near Richmond, Va., by reason of disease. 

WALLIS, SAMUEL, Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance October 1. 1864 for the 
war. Deserted at New Market, Va., November 6, 1864. 

WARD, THOMAS, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 30, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Captured at Monocacy. Md.. July 10, 1864 and admitted to U. S. .'\rmy 
General Hospital, Frederick. Md. Transferred to U. S. Army General Hos- 
pital. ^Vest's Building, Baltimore, Md.. until confined at Point Lookout. Md. 
Paroled and exchanged at \enus Point. Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 
1864. 

WAY, SULLIVAN, Private. Resided in .-Mamance Countv. Captured at Winchester, 
Va., July 20, 1864 and confined at Camp Cliase, Ohio, until released on taking 
Oath of Allegiance May 15, 1865. 

WELLS, W. R., Private. Enlisted November 15. 1864 in Wake County. 

WHITEHURST, A. J., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh. March 20. 
1864 for the war. Absent sick in hospital from April 10, 1864. 

WILEY, JAMES CARTER, Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23. May 28, 
1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal October I, 
1862. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va.. July 1, 1862. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, Va.. November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md. Paroled 
and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River. Ga., November 15, 1864. .\ppears 
as Sergeant on hospital register, Farmville. Va., being admitted with gunshot 
wound. Paroled at Farmville. Va.. April 21, 1865. 

WILLIAMS, A., Private. Enlisted November 15, 1864 in Mecklenbing County. 

WILLIAMS, JOHN W., Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 33, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Mustered in as Private but appeai-s as Corporal after May 1862. 
Appointed Sergeant October 1, 1862. Killed at Rappahannock Station. Va., 
November 7. 1863. 

WILLIAMS, MARTIN, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. March 20, 
1864 for the war. Deserted March 28, 1864 at Kinston. 



304 The Bloody Sixth 

AVILLIAMS, NOAH, Private. Resided in Jefferson, Tenn.. and enlisted at Camp 
Stokes, Cliarlotte. Noxember 15, 1864 for the war. Deserted at Petersburg, Va., 
December 11, 1864 and took Oath of .-Amnesty at City Point. \a.. December 
13, 1864. 

WINFIELD, N. M., Private. Paroled at Greensboro, 1865. 

WINKLE, D., Private. Enlisted November 15. 1864 in Wake Coimty. 

COMPANY B 

OFFICERS 
CAPTAINS 

WEBB, ROBERT F. Resided as a farmer in Orange County and enlisted there 
at age 38. May 1. 1861 for the war. .Appointed Captain by Governor Ellis May 
20. 1861. Promoted to Major July 11. 1861 and transfeiTed to Field & Staff. 

PARRISH, WILLIAM K. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 30. May 

16. 1861 for the war and commissioned 1st Lieutenant by Governor Ellis May 

20, 1861. Promoted to Captain July 11. 1861. Wounded at Gaines' Mill. Va.. June 
27. 1862. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va.. November 7, 1863 and con- 
fined at Johnson's Island, Ohio, until transferred to Point Lookout, Md., March 

21, 1865. Transferred to Fort Delaware. Del., .-\pril 28, 1865 and released after 
taking Oath of .Allegiance June 12, 1865. 

LIEUTENANTS 

COOLEY, THOMAS L., 1st Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 32, June 24, 1861 for the war. .Appointed Sergeant July 1. 1861 and 
promoted to 2nd Lieutenant September 17, 1861. \\'ounded at Battle of Second 
Manassas -August 30. 1862 and promoted to 1st Lieutenant October 29, 1862. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Johnson's Island. Ohio. Released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 12. 1865. 

LOCKH.ART, JOHN S., 2nd Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Corporal and promoted to 
Sergeant September 28, 1861. Promoted to Jr 2nd Lieutenant January 28. 1862 
and to Sr 2nd Lieutenant October 29, 1862. Wounded May 6, 1863. Detailed 
as Enrolling Officer in Orange County from September 14. 1863 through 
February 1864. Captured at Sayler's Creek, Va., April 6, 1865 and confined at 
Johnson's Island, Ohio. Released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 18. 1865. 

McMANNING, WILLIAM E., 1st Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
County at age 19, May 16, 1861 for the war. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant by 
Governor Ellis May 20, 1861. Promoted to 1st Lieutenant July 11, 1861. Resigned 
October 30, 1861. 

MANGUM, WILLIAM PRESTON, JR., 2iul Lieutenant. Resigned and enlisted 
in Orange County at age 23, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private 
and promoted to Jr 2nd Lieutenant July 11, 1861 to rank from May 20, 1861. 
Wounded at Battle of First Manassas July 21. 1861 and died of wounds July 
29. 1861. 

SPEED, EDWARD A., 2nd Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to 
Corporal September 28, 1861. Promoted to Sergeant October 1, 1862 and to 



V 



Roster 305 

2nd Lieutenant February 4. 1863. Captured at Gettysburg. Pa., July 2-3, 1863 and 
confined at Jolmson's Island, Ohio. Paroled and exchanged at Coxes Wharf, 
James River, Va., March 22, 1865 . 

UMSTEAD, ALVIS K., 1st Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in Orange Comity at 
age 21, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Sergeant and promoted to 
1st Sergeant September 2, 1861. .'Appointed 2ud Lieiuenant September 17, 

1861 and promoted to 1st Lieutenant January 28, 1862. Resigned October 29, 
1862. Re-enlisted as Private in Company K, 19th Regiment N. C. State Troops 
(2nd Regiment N. C. Cavalry) February 14, 1863. Promoted to Sergeant-Major 
July 17, 1863. Present or accounted for through September 1864. 

.WALTON, JOHN M., 2nd Lieutenant. Resided in Burke County and attended 
Hillsboro Military Academy prior to his enlistment at age 16. at Yorktovvn, Va., 
in Company G, 1st Regiment N. C. Infantry (6 mos. — 1861). Mustered out 
at Richmond. Va., November 12, 1861. Served in Company F, 41st Regiment 
N. C. Troops (3rd Regiment N. C. Cavalry) prior to his appointment as a 
Cadet on October 20, 1863. .Assigned as 2nd Lieutenant to Company B. 6th 
Regiment N. C. State Troops, March 22, 1864. Present or accounted for through 
February 1865. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES 

ADCOCK, ROBERT H., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as 
a farmer and enlisted at age 19, March 1, 1862 for the war. Captured near 
Fredericksburg, Va., May 3. 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware. Del., until 
paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va.. Mav 23, 1863. Captured near Green- 
castle. Pa., July 3-5, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md. Released after 
joining the U. S. Anny on June 15, 1864. Mustered into Company K, Isl 
Regiment U. S. Volunteers at Norfolk, Va„ June 28, 1864 for three years. 
Mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, November 27, 1865. 

ALLEN, WILLIAM J., Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

ALLISON, JOSEPH C, Corporal. Enlisted in Orange County May 25. 1861 for 
the war. Promoted to Corporal January 1, 1863. \\'ounded near Fredericks- 
burg. Va., May 4, 1863. Captured at Gettysburg. Pa., July 2, 1863 and confined 
at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing, James 
River, Va., February 14-15, 1865. Detailed at Camp Lee, near Riclunond, Va., 
after exchanged. 

ANDERSON, JOHN, Private. Union Prisoner of \\'ar records state that he was 
captured in Irvine Countv. Kv.. Julv 31, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., 
March 8. 1864. 

ASHLEY, ROBERT, Private. Enlisted in Orange County at age 21, May 1, 1861 
for the war. Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. Killed at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. 

BAILEY, SIDNEY J., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 25, September 22, 

1862 for the war. \Vounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. 
Paroled at DeCamp General Hospital, N. Y., and exchanged at City Point, Va., 
October 28, 1863. Retired February 3, 1865 by reason of "pennanent disability." 

BATCHELOR, HENRY C, Private. Resided in Orange County where he en- 
listed at age 18, May 1, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, 
Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., until released after 
taking Oath of Allegiance June 23, 1865. 



306 The Bloody Sixth 

BENNETT, D. S., Private. Resided in Anson County and enlisted at Kinston 
April 1. 1864 for the war. Captured at Farmville. Va.. .April 6, 1863 and con- 
fined at Newport New.s. Va.. until released after taking Oath of Allegiance 
June 25. 1865. 

BERRY, ROBERT, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 17, 
May 1. 1861 for the war. Died of disease at Camp Jones. Va., September 22, 1861. ( 

BOBBITT, GREEN, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh October 18. 1864 for the war. 

Paroled at Burkeville, \a.. .April 14-17. 1865. 

( 
CAIN, DAVID, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided and enlisted 

at age 21. June 24. 1861 for the war. Died of disease at Camp Fisher, Va., 

December 26, 1861. 

CARRINGTON, ARTHUR S., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 26, May 1. 1861 for the war, and mustered in as Corporal. Wounded 
at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861. Promoted to Sergeant September 
28, 1861. Reduced to ranks September 30, 1862. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until 
paroled and e.vchanged at Coxes Landing, James River. Va., Februarv 14-15, 
1865. 



CARRINGTON, JOHN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 36. February 10, 1863 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md. 

CARRINGTON, JOHN D., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 20, May 25, 1861 for the war. Wotuided at Fredericksburg, Va.. December 
13. 1862. Transferred to Company A, 66th Regiment N. C. Troops on return 
from hospital in February 1863. .Attached to Regimental Band. 66th Regiment 
N. C. Troops ,\pi-il— .-August 1864. 

CASH, AVILLIAM, Private. Born in Orange County ^vhere he resided and en- 
listed at age 22. March 1. 1862 f(n' the war. Died of pneumonia at Williamsburg, 
Va., May 1, 1862. 

CATES, ABNER, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided and enlisted 
at age 33, May 25, 1861 for the war. Died of disease at Petersburg, Va., December 
22, 1861. 

CATES, JOHN I., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 34, May 

25, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, Va., February 24, 1865, Paroled at Greensboro May 17, 1865. 

CATES, STANFORD, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
20, May 25, 1861 for the war. Died of disease June 5, 1862. 

C.4TES, THOMAS M., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
31, May 25, 1861 for tlie war. Present or accounted for through October 1863, 
when he appears on Company Muster Roll with the remark: ".Absent without 
leave since June 14, 1863. Straggled near Newtown. \'a." 

CATES, WILEY A., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 27, 
May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. "Missing in 
action" at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863. 

CATES, WILLIAM F., Private. Resided as a farmer in Orange County where he 
enlisted at age 24, May 1, 1861 for the war. Present or accounted for on Muster 



Roster 307 

Rolls through August 1863 when he appears with the remark: "Deserted June 
20, 1863." Union Prisoner of Wzr records indicate he was captured at Carlisle, 
Pa., July 8, 1863 and joined the 3rd Regiment Maryland Cavalry, U. S. A., 
September 18, 1863. Mustered in at Baltimore. Md.. September 23, 1863 and 
deserted at Baltimore January 30, 1864. 

CHILDERS, JAMES, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided and en- 
listed at age 25, September 22, 1868 for the war. Died of disease at Charlottes- 
ville, \'a., Xo\ember 10, 1862, 

CLARK, ADAM, Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1, 1864 for the war. Captured 
at Farmville, \'a., .April 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va., until 
paroled after taking Oath of .-Mlegiance June 26, 1865, 

CLAYTON, H. F., Private. Enlisted at Kinston .April 1, 1864 tor the war. Present 
or accounted for through December 1864. 

COTTINGHAM, DINWIDDIE, Private. Resided in .Anson County and enlisted 
at Kinston .April 1, 1864 for the war. Captured near Petersburg. \'a.. February 
6, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released after taking Oath 
of .Allegiance June 24. 1865, 

COUCH, CHESLEY P., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
23, June 24, 1861 for the war. \Vounded at Gaines' Mill, \a., June 27, 1862, 
^Vounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Confined at DeCamp 
General Hospital, David's Island, N. Y. Harbor, until paroled and exchanged 
at City Point, Va„ September 16, 1863. Returned to company and captured near 
Petersburg, \'a., March 25, 1865, Confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released 
after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 26, 1865. 

COUCH, 'WILLIAM, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 21, 
June 24, 1861 for the war. Muster Roll for June 20-August 31, 1861, states that 
he "deserted Julv 10, 1861 whilst on N. C. Railroad." 

CRABTREE, ARTHUR S., Corporal. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 18, May 1, 1861 for the war. \Vounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa,, 
July 1. 1863. Confined at DeCamp General Hospital, David's Island, N. V. Har- 
bor, until paroled and exchanged at City Point, \'a., September 8, 1863. Promot- 
ed to Corporal November— December 1864. Captured at Farmville, Va., .April 
6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va.. until released after taking Oath 
of Allegiance June 26. 1865. 

CR.\BTREE, CLEMENT W., Private. Resided in Orange County and enlisted 
in Prince \Villiam County. Va.. at age 28, Februai-y 3, 1862 for the war as a sub- 
stitute for James A, Henderson. ^Vounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 
1862, Wounded near Fredericksburg, Va., May 4, 1863. Absent accounted for 
through December 1864. 

CROMER, J.AMES E., Private. Enlisted at Kinston .April 1, 1864 for the war. 
Died of disease at Richmond, ^'a., December 22, 1864, 

CROUCH, JACOB, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County September 
22, 1862 for the war. Present or accotnited for through December 1864. Paroled 
at Morganton May 16, 1865. 

DAVIS, ALBERT, Private. Enlisted at Kinston .April 1, 1864 for the war. Present 
or accounted for through December 1864. 

DAVIS, DeWITT, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 17. 
March 1, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 



308 The Bloody Sixth 

7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., until paroled for exchange 
September 30, 1864. Captured near Petersbtng, Va.. March 25. 1865 and confined 
at Point Lookout, Md.. until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 26, 
1865. 

DAVIS, JOHN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 46. March 
1, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 1863 
and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's 
Wharf, James River, \'a.. January 21. 1865. Paroled at Goldsboro May 18. 1865. 

DAVIS, ^VILLIAM T., Private. Resided in Anson County and enlisted at Kinston 
.'\pril 1. 1864 for the v\ar. Died of pneumonia at home November 4, 1864. 

DICKEY, EGBERT M., Private. Enlisted in Orange County at age 42, March 1, 
1862 for the war. .Admitted to hospital at Charlottesville. Va., wounded. July 
30. 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

DOLLAR, WILLIAM D., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided and 
enlisted at age 22. May 25, 1S61 for the war. Discharged May 26, 1862 at Camp 
near Richmond, Va., by reason of "hypertrophy and valvular disease of the 
heart." 

DUKE, BUSHROD, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 18, 

May 25, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Coxes Landing, James River, Va., February 14-15, 1865. Detailed at Camp Lee, 
near Richmond, Va.. after exchanged, 

DUKE, NASH, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 47, March 
1, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station. \'a.. November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md.. where he died June 24. 1864. 

EDWARDS, WALTER E., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as 
a merchant and enlisted at age 25. May 1. 1861 for the war. Discharged by 
reason of disability September 6. 1863. 

ETCHISON, DANIEL, Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance and joined company in 
Shenandoah Valley, Va.. October 16. 1864. Captured at Strasburg, Va., October 
19, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Coxes Landing, James River, Va., February 14-15, 1865. 

FISHEL, L., Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1, 1864 for the war. Died of typhoid 
pneumonia at Lynchburg, \'a., January 3, 1865. 

FRANKLIN, J. E., Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 25, 
September 22. 1862 for the war. Deserted near Fredericksburg, Va.. November 
29, 1862. 

FRANKLIN, JOHN V., Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 
27, September 22. 1862 for the war. Deserted near Fredericksburg, Va., Noveinber 
29, 1862 and dropped from Roll. Captured near Petersburg, Va., March 25, 
1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released after taking Oath o£ 
Allegiance June 27, 1865. 

FRANKLIN, LEWIS, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 33, 
September 22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. No- 
vember 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged 
at Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. 



Roster 309 

FRANKLIN, SAMUEL, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 
30. September 22. 1862 for the war. Deserted near Fredericksburg. \'a.. No- 
vember 29. 1862. 

GATES, GEORGE T., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
20, May 25. 1861 for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 
Captured in hospital at Richmond, Va., April 3, 1865 and paroled April 28, 
1865. 

GLAZENER, A. T., Private. Enlisted in Orange County. Va., December 20, 1863 
for the war. Deserted February 7, 1864. 

GLENN, GEORGE W., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
25, March 1. 1862. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Sensed 
as a teamster in Brigade Quartermaster Department from April 27, 1863 through 
December 1864. 

GLENN, WILLIAM, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
mechanic and enlisted at age 29, March 1. 1862 for the war. Killed at Seven 
Pines, Va.. May 31. 1862. 

GOOCH, McKINSEY, Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1. 1864 for the war. 
'Wounded and captured at \Vinchester. Va., September 19, 1864. Confined at 
Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah 
River. Ga.. November 15, 1864. 

GOOCH, W. T., Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1, 1864 for the war. Captured 
at Strasburg, Va.. October 19, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing, James River, Va., February 14-15. 
1865. Detailed at Camp Lee near Richmond, Va., after exchanged. 

GORDON, S., Private. Resided in Guilford Countv. Paroled at Greensboro May 
1, 1865. 

HAMPTON, JAMES €., Private. Resided in Gran\ille County and enlisted in 
Orange County at age 18, May 1, 1861 for the war. Died of typhoid fever at 
Camp Jones, Va., September 14, 1861. 

HARRIS, DURRELL L., Private. Resided in Granville County and enlisted in 
Orange County at age 20. March 1. 1862 for the war. Died of fever at Ashland, 
Va., May 6, 1862. 

HARKIS, HENRY S., Private. Resided in Granville County and enlisted in 
Orange County at age 22. May 1, 1861 for the war. Killed at Seven Pines. Va., 
May 31, 1862.' 

HARRIS, SANDY G., Private. Resided in Granville County and enlisted in 
Orange County at age 22, March 1, 1862 for the war. Died of fever at .-\shlana, 
Va., May 1. 1862. 

HENDERSON, H. S. Confined at Military Prison, Camp Hamilton. \a.. May 6, 
1864, and released May 7, 1864. Carried as "rebel deserter." 

HENDERSON, JAMES A., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
20, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged February 3. 1862 after providing 
Clement W. Crabtree as his substitute. 

HENRY, THOMAS B., Private. Resided in Henderson County and enlisted at 
Kinston April 1. 1864 for the war. Captured at FarmviUe. \'a.. .\pril 6. 1865 
and confined at Newport News, \'a.. until released after taking Oath of .-Vlle- 
giance June 26. 1865. 



310 The Bloody Sixth 

HENSHAW, MABIN, Private. Resided in Randolph County. Captured near 
Petersburg. Va., March 25, 1865 and confnied at Point Lookout, Md.. until 
released after taking Oath of Allegiance June 27, 1865. 

HILDRETH, MARSHALL, Pi-ivate. Enlisted at Kinston April 1. 1864 for the 
war. Killed at Mt. Jackson, Va., September 23, 1864. 

HOLEMAN, HENRY T., Private. Resided in Granville County and enlisted at 
at Kinston April 1. 1864 for the war. Captured at Fannville, Va., April 6, 
1865 and confined at Newport News, Va., until released after taking Oath of 
Allegiance June 26, 1865. 

HOPKLNS, JAMES P., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
25, May 1, 1861 for the war. Captured at South Mountain, Md., September 14, 
1862 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, Va., November 10, 1862. Deserted and gave himself up at 
South Mountain, Md., June 26, 1863, and was confined at Fort Mifflin, Pa. 
Escaped from Fort Mifflin November 9, 1863. Appears on September 15— October 
31, 1864 Muster Roll with the remark: "Deserted September 28, 1864, near 
Waynesboro, Va." 

HORN, JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1. 1864 for the war. Captured 
at Fannville, Va., April 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News. Va., until re- 
leased after taking Oath of Allegiance June 26, 1865. 

JACKSON, FREDERICK J., Private. Resided as a student in Orange County 
where he enlisted at age 18, May 25, 1861 for the war. Captured at Williamsport, 
Md., July 21. 1863 and confined at Camp Chase. Ohio. Transferred to Fort 
Delaware, Del., February 29, 1864 and released after taking Oath of Allegiance 
May 20, 1865. 

JACKSON, HENDERSON S., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 19, May 25, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Statioir, Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and ex- 
changed at Coxes Landing, James River, Va., February 14-15, 1865. Detailed at 
Cami^ Lee, near Richmond, \'a., after exchanged. 

JAMES, JEFFERSON, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided and 
enlisted at age 21, May 25, 1861 for the war. Died of pneumonia at Camp 
Fisher, Va., Februai7 24, 1862. 

JAMES, JOHN W., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 18, 
May 25, 1861 for the war. Captured at Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863 and 
confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., 
Mav 23. 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Land- 
ing, Va., February 25— March 3, 1865. Admitted to hospital at Richmond, Va., 
March 4, 1865 and furloughed March 10 for 60 days. 

JOHNSTON, A., Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1, 1864. Absent sick from 
April 10 through December 1864. 

LAIL, DANIEL, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 for the 
war. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, 
Del., until transferred to Point Lookout, Md., October 15, 1863. Paroled and 
exchanged at Coxes Wharf, James River, Va., February 20-21, 1865. 



Roster 3 1 1 

LAIL, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Culpeper Court House, Va., November 7. 
18(53 for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. .\dmitted 
to hospital at Richmond, Va., March 51, 1865, wounded in left foot. Captured 
in hospital April 3, 1865 and released after taking Oath of Allegiance July 
5, 1865. 

LANGLY, DAVID, Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1, 1864. Transferred to 
Company G, 43rd Regiment N. C. Troops, December 21, 1864. Present or ac- 
counted for through February 1865. 

LANS, D. H., Private. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged February 
24, 1865. 

LATTA, PRESLEY, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 24, 
May 1. 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, \a., March 14, 1865. Admitted to hospital at Richmond, Va., 
March 17, 1865 and furloughed March 24 for 30 days. 

LATTA, SIMPSON J., Private. Born in Orange Comity where he resided as a 
fanner and enlisted at age 22, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged May 26, 
1862 by reason of "debilitas and peritonitis chronic." 

LATTA, AVILLIAM, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 22, 
May 1. 1861 for the war. AVounded at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 1, 1863. Captured 
at Rappaliannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Mil., luitil paroled and e.xchanged at Aiken's Landing, \'a., February 25— 
March 3, 1865. 

LAWS, ALEXANDER E., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 18. March 1, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 

17. 1862 and at Gettysburg. Pa., July 2, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, 
Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled after 
taking Oath of Allegiance June 28, 1865. 

LAWS, GUILFORD, Private. Born in Granville County and resided in Orange 
County as a student, where he enlisted at age 22, May 25. 1861 for the war. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout, Md. Released October 15, 1864 on joining the U. S. Anny. 
Mustered into Company A, 4th Regiment U. S. Volunteers as Private, at Fort 
Monroe, Va., October 3, 1864 for three years. Promoted to Corporal March 1, 
1865. Mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, June 19, 1866. 

[LAWS, GUILFORD T., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 

18, May 25, 1861 for the war. \Vounded at South Mountain, Md., September 14, 
1862, and at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. Missing in action at Rap- 
pahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863. 

LAWS, JOHN, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a student 
and enlisted at age 20, May 25, 1861 for the war. Discharged October 2, 1862 
at Richmond, Va., by reason of "valvular disease of the heart." 






LAWS, WESLEY, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 18, May 

25, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until released after taking Oath of 
Allegiance Jiuie 3, 1865. 



312 The Bloody Sixth 

LEATHERS, ALSEY M., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange Countv at age 
24, May 1, 1861 for tlie war. Promoted to Sergeant March— April 1862. Reduced 
to ranks February 3, 1863 by sentence of Regimental Court Martial. Transferred 
to Co. K, 19th Regiment N. C. State Troops (2nd Regiment X. C. Caxalrv) .\pril 
20. 1863. Present or accounted for through September 1864. 

LEATHERS, J. D., Private. Died of wounds at Charlestown. Va.. .August 21. 1864. 

LEATHERS, JOSEPH A., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 22. May 1, 1861 tor the war. Died at Camp Jones. \'a.. of pneumonia and 
typhoid September 27. 1861. 

LUNSFORD, JOSEPH G., Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 22, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to 
Corporal July 1, 1863. Appears as Sergeant beginning with September 15— 
October 31, 1864 Muster Roll. Present or accounted tor through December 
1864. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, \'a., .April 9, 1865. 

LUNSFORD, WILLIAM A., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged at Camp Fisher, Va., January 
15, 1862 by reason of "inguinal liernia." 

LVON, JAMES W., Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1, 1864 tor the war. Paroled 
at .Appomattox Cimrt House, \'a., .April 9, 1865. 

MAGHAR, DENNIS, Private. Resided in Orange County and enlisted in Alam- 
ance County at age 21, August 29, 1862 for the war. Transferred from Company 
A, 66th Regiment N. C. Troops February 1, 1863 and deserted March 15, 1863. 

MANGUM, ACADMUS, Piivate. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
18, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa„ July 1, 1863. Captured 
at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., February 25— 
March 3, 1865. 

MANGUM, ANALPHUS, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
24, May 1, 1861 for the war. .Appointed Sergeant May 21, 1861 and promoted 
to 1st Sergeant September 28, 1861, Absent sick from November 26. 1862 through 
December 1864. .Appears as Private on November— Deceml>er 1864 Muster Roll 
with the remark: ".Absent in N. C. (sick) on application to be retired." 

MANGUM, DeWITT C, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh October 18, 1864 for the 
war. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

MANGUM, John ¥., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 21, 
May 1, 1861 tor the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md„ until paroled and exchanged at 
Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga,, November 15, 1864. 

MANGUM, PERSONS, Private. Born and resided in Orange County as a farmer 
and enlisted in Prince \Villiam County, Va., at age 29, February 25, 1862 for 
the war. Died at Richmond, Va., of "chronic dianhea" February 24, 1863. 

MANGUM, RUFUS, Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 14. 1864 for the war 
Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

MANGUM, SAMUEL C, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange Comity at 
age 23, May 1. 1861 for the war. Present or accounted tor through December 
1864. Captured near Petersburg, Va., March 25. 1865 and confined at Point 
Lookout, Md., until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 29, 1865. 






RosTiR 313 

MANGUM, SANDY G., Private. Born in Oiange County where he resided as 
a fanner and enUsted at age 22, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Sharps- 
burg. Md.. September 17. 1862. Discharged at Lynchburg. Va., by reason of 
"phthisis pulmonalis, cavity in apex of left lung" September 1. 1863. 

MANGUM, WILLIE P., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 

30, July 15, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannnock Station. Va., No- 
\ember 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and ex- 
changed at City Point, Va., March 20, 1864. Retired August 27, 1864 and assigned 
to the Invalid Corps and stationed at Raleigh. 

MANN, HENRY A., Private. Conscripted .April 1. 1864. Captured at Mechanics- 
ville. \'a.. May 30, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md„ until transfeiTed 
to Elmira, N, Y., July 9. 1864. Released after taking Oath of Allegiance May 29, 
1865. 

McC.\BE, ^VIIXIAM, Private. Born in Orange County and resided in Granville 
Countv as a mechanic. Enlisted in Orange County at age 37. March 1. 1862 for 
tlie war. Died at Danville. Va., of smallpox December 10. 1862. 

McCORKLE, W. H., Private. Captured in hospital at Richmond, Xs... April 3, 
1865 and turned over to Provost Marshal .April 14, 1865. 

McF.\RL.\ND, JOHN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 18, 
Mav 1. 1861 for the war. Died at Richmond. \'a.. of fever August 23. 1862. 

McGRATH, JOHN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 24, 
September 22, 1862 for the war. Killed at Gettysburg. Pa., July 2, 1863. 

McKEE, JOHN K., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 22, 

Mav 25, 1861 for the war. Died at Camp Jones, Va., of "phthisis ptdmonalis" 
September 24, 1861. 

MEADO'WS, WILLIE, Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
23. Mav 1. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private, ^\■ounded at Malvern Hill, 
Va., Julv 1, 1862. .Appointed Corporal .April 1, 1863. Captured at Fredericks- 
burg. Va., May 4, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled ami 
exchanged May 23, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, \'a„ September 22, 1864. Paroled as Sergeant at .Appomattox 
Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

MERCER, L. B., Private. Enlisted at Kinston .April 1. 1864 for the war. Dis- 
charged July 2. 1864 by reason of "chronic cystitis." 

MESSER, D.ANIEL, Private. Enlisted in Orange County. \'a.. December 1, 1863 
for tlie war. Deserted February 7. 1864. 

MILLS, JAMES D., Private. Enlisted in Lenoir County March 14, 1864. 

MOIZE, ORFORD, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 49, 
March 1, 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

MONTAGUE, ADOLPHUS M., Private. Resided in Granville County and en- 
listed at Kinston April 1, 1864 for the war. Detailed at Jackson Hospital, Rich- 
mond, \'a., March 15, 1865, where he had been on detached service since 
November 23, 1864. Captured in hospital at Richmond, \'a., .April 3, 1865 and 
transferred to Newport News. \'a., April 21, 1865. Released after taking Oath 
of .Allegiance June 30. 1865. 



314 The Bloody Sixth 

MOORE, JOSEPH J., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 19, 
May 25, 1861 for the war. Killed at Seven Pines, Va.. May 31, 1862. 

MOSES, ALEXANDER M., Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at 
age 18, September 22, 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through 
December 1864. 

MOSS, ^VILLIAM B., Private. Enlisted at Kinston April 1. 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at .Appomattox Court House. Va., .April 9, 1865. 

NICHOLS, BARTLET Y., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as 
a farmer and enlisted at age 24, March 1, 1862 for the war. Died at Charlottes- 
ville, Va., of typhoid fever July 29, 1863. 

NICHOLS, FRANCIS, Private. Born in Orange Comity where he resided and en- 
listed at age 25. September 22. 1862 for the war. Died at Richmond, \'a., of 
pneumonia December 16. 1862. 

NICHOLS, JAMES O. KELLY, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 25. March 1, 1862 for the war. Died at Peters- 
burg, Va., of brain fever Jinie 19, 1862. 

NICHOLS, MEREDITH F., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 30, March I, 1862 for the war. Died at Lynchburg, Va.. of "diarrhea 
chronic" January 29, 1863. 

NICHOLS, SAMUEL A., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
22, March 1. 1862 for the war. Died of fever at Richmond. \'a.. May 1862. 

NICHOLS, WILSON, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 18, March I, 1862 for the war. Died at Charlottes- 
ville, \'a., of typhoid fever June 28, 1862. 

NORMAN, LEWIS, Private. Enlisted as a substitute for Herbert H. Sims .August 
4, 1862 and deserted August 6, 1862. 

0.4KEY, VAN BUREN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
18. May 25, 1861 for the war. Killed at Battle of First Manassas July 21. 1861. 

PARKER, BENJAMIN H., Private. Born in Orange County and enlisted in 
Prince William County, Va., at age 18, Januaiy 1, 1862 for the war. Died at 
Riclimond, Va., of pneinnonia May 2, 1862. 

PARKER, DUDLEY H., Private. Resided in Orange Cotuity and enlisted in j 
Prince William County, Va., at age 42, February 25, 1862 for the war. Mustered j 
in as Private and promoted to Corporal Januai7 1, 1863. Reduced to ranks 
April 1, 1863. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

PARKER, JESSE E., Private. Resided in Orange County and enlisted at Kinston 
February 21, 1864 for the war. Captured at Faniiville, \'a., .April 6, 1865 and 
confined at Newport News, Va., until released after taking the Oath of Alle- 
giance June 26, 1865. 

PARKER, JESSE AV., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 36, 
May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appears as Corporal on 
January— February 1862 Muster Roll. Promoted to Sergeant .April 1, 1863. Ap- 
pears as Private on September 15— October 31, 1864 Muster Roll with the! 
remark: "Absent sick since May 1, 1863," 



Roster 315 

PARKER, JOHN, Private. Resided in Orange County. Admitted to hospital at 
Petersburg. \'a., March 25. 1865 with gunshot wound. Transferred to Richmond, 
Va., March 30, 1865. Captured in hospital April 3, 1865 and confined at New- 
port News, Va., until released after taking Oath of Allegiance June 30, 1865. 

PARKER, NATHANIEL H., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27. 1862. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at \'enus Point. Savannah 
River. Ga.. November 15, 1864. Captured near Petersburg. Va., FebruaiT 6. 1865 
and confined at Point Lookout. Md. Released after taking Oatir of Allegiance 
June 17, 1865. 

PARRISH, .\LJLEN C, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange Countv at age 
23. May 1, 1861 for the war. Died of disease January 18. 1864. 

PARRISH, DOCTOR H., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 18. May 1, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., where he died of 
"chronic dysentery" March 3, 1865. 

PARRISH, NELSON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
36, February 10, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, Va.. February 25-26, 1865. Furloughed from hospital at Rich- 
mond, Va.. for 30 days March 6. 1865. 

PORTER, CHARLES W., Private. Enlisted at Kinston .April 1. 1864 for the 
war. Admitted to hospital at Charlotte May 15. 1964 and furloughed October 
23. 1864 with "laryngitis chronic." 

POWELL, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Orange. \'a.. December 20. 1863 for the 
war. Deserted February 7. 1864. 

R.4Y, WILLIAM G., Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
19. May 25. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to Corporal 
September 28. 1861. Promoted to Sergeant January 1, 1863. Killed at Gettys- 
burg. Pa.. July 1, 1863. 

RAY, WILLIAM K., Private. Resided in Orange Countv and enlisted at age 24, 
Mav 25. 1861. 

RA'iTIELD, JAMES A., Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke Countv at age 
27. September 22. 1862 for tlie war. Captured at F'redericksburg. Va., Mav 3, 
1863 and confined at Fort Delaware. Del., until paroled and exchanged at 
City Point, Va., May 23, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., No- 
vember 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and ex- 
changed at Aiken's Landing. \'a.. Februarv 25— March 3, 1865. -Admitted to 
hospital at Richmond. Va., March 5, 1865 and returned to duty March 24, 1865. 

REECE, E., Priiate. Enlisted in Orange County, Va., December 1. 1863 for the 
war. .Absent sick from January 25, 1864 through December 1864. 

REVIS, WILLIAM S., Private. Resided in Yadkin County. Enlisted in Shenandoah 
\'alley. \'z.. October 16. 1864 for the war. Captured near Petersburg, Va., 
February 6, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md. Released after taking 
Oath of Allegiance Jiuie 17. 1865. 



316 The Bloody Sixth 

RICHARDSON, L. M., Private. Captured near Washington, D. C, July 14. 1864 
and confined at Elmira. N. Y., where he died of "chronic diarrhea" January 
27, 1865. 

RIGGS, WILLIAM R., Private. Born in Orange County where lie resided as a 
fanner and enlisted at age 24. May 25, 1861. Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., 
December 14, 1862. Discharged by reason of disability September 13, 1863. 

ROBERTS, ANDREW J., Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County ai 
age 32, May 1. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as 1st Sergeant. Discharged at 
Camp Jones, Va., by reason of disability September 23, 1861. 

ROBERTS, DAVID C, Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
27, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Sergeant. Wounded at Battle of 
First Manassas July 21, 1861. Died of wounds at home September 1, 1861. 

ROBERTS, GREEN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 45, 
March 1, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gaines' Mill. Va.. June 27, 1862. 
Mortally wounded at Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 1864. 

ROBERTS, WILLIAM K., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 18. September 10, 1862 for the war. Originally enlisted in Company K, 
19th Regiment N. C. State Troops (2nd Regiment N. C. Cavah^) but transferred 
to Company B, 6th Regiment N. C. State Troops .-^pril 30, 1863. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., February 25-March 
3, 1865. 

ROBERTS, ^VILLIE U., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 20. February 25, 1862 for the war. Killed at Battle 
of Second Manassas .August 29, 1862. 

SAFERIGHT, EMSLEY, Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 11. 1865. 

SANDERS, ANDREW, Private. Resided in Forsyth County and enlisted at Kins- 
ton April 1. 1864 for the war. Captured at Fisher's Hill, Va.. September 22. 1864 
and confined at Point Lookout. Md., until released after taking Oath of .Alle- 
egiance June 20. 1865. 

SANDERS, JAMES E., Private. Enlisted at Kinston .^pril 1, 1864 for the war. 
Wounded at Plymouth April 19, 1864. Present or accounted for through 
December 1864. Paroled at Lynchburg, Va.. .April 15, 1865. 

SANDERS, JAMES M., Private. Resided in Anson County and enlisted at Kinston 
April 1, 1864 for the war. Wounded and admitted to hospital at Raleigh 
October 6. 1864. Retired to Invalid Corps January 6. 1865. 

SCOTT, JAMES C, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
blacksmith and enlisted at age 20. May 25, 1861 for the war. Wounded near 
Richmond, Va., June 5, 1862. Discharged November 7, 1862 by reason of 
"ankylosis of the left wrist and loss of the use of the hand caused by gun- 
shot through the wrist joint." 

SEAGO, THOMAS, Private. Resided in Henderson County and enlisted at Kins- 
ton April 1. 1864 for the war. Captured at Faniiville. Va., .April 6, 1865 and 
confined at Newport News, Va.. until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance 
April 26, 1865, 



Roster 317 

SHAMEL. Jacob W., Private. Resided in Forsyth County as a fanner and en- 
listed at age 45 Match 15. 1864. Captured at \Vinchester. Va.. July 20. 18(54 
and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, where he died of "gangrene" and "fever" 
Xo\ember 27, 1864. 

SH.\MEL, WILEY N., Private. Resided in Forsyth County as a fanner and en- 
listed at age 18. Captured at Winchester, Va., July 20. 1864 and confined at 
Camp Chase. Ohio. Released after taking Oath of Allegiance February 18. 1865. 

SHORE, J. A., Private. Died of disease at Staunton, \'a.. July 14. 1864. 

SIRES, RICHMOND A., Private. Enlisted at Kinston .April 1, 1864 for the war. 
Wounded and furloughed about September 23, 1864. Furlough extended at 
Salisbury December 2. 1864 for 30 days. 

SIMS, HERBERT H., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 29, 
jtuie 10. 1861 for the war. Discharged .August 1, 1862 when he furnished Lewis 
Norman as a substitute. 

SMITH, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Kinston ,\pril 1. 1864 for the war. Killed 
at Cedar Creek. \'a.. October 19. 1864. 

SMITH. L. M., Private. Enlisted in Slienandoah \aUey. \'a.. October 16. 1864 
for the war. .Absent sick from October 26 through December 1864. 

SP.AINHOl'R, SOLOMON, Private. Enlisted at Kinston .April 1. 1864 for the 
war. Captured at Fisher's Hill, Va.. September 22. 1864 and confined at Point 
Lookout. Md., where he died February 27, 1865 of "chronic dianhea and scurvy." 

ST.AMV, M.ARTIN. Private. Resided and enlisted in Bmke County at age 28, 
September 22. 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through February 
1864. 

STAMY, WILLIAM, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 31. 
September 22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., where he died of 
"chronic diarrhea" January 23, 1865. 

SUTTON, W. M., Private. Captured at Richmond, \'a., .April 3, 1865 and con- 
fined at Newport News, \'a. 

T.ALTON, J., Private. Died of disease at Middletown, \'a., July 21. 1864. 

TALTON, R., Private. Enlisted at Kinston .April 1, 1864 for the war. Captured 
at Fisher's Hill, Va., September 22, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., 
until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing. \'a., March 19, 1865. 

TAYLOR, DUNCAN, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 41, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged at Camp 
near Fredericksburg. \'a., by reason of "debility, old age, and chronic diarrhea" 
April 7. 1863. 

TEASLEY, NICHOLAS H., Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 14, 1864 for the 
war. Wotinded in action in Shenandoah Valley. \"a., September 29. 1864. Died 
of fever in Orange County Noveirrber 10, 1864. 

TILLEY, ALLEN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 42, May 

1. 1861 for the war. \\'ounded at Battle of First Manassas July 21. 1861 and 
at Chancellorsville. Va., May 4, 1863. Retired to In\alid Corps October 7, 1834. 



318 The Bloody Sixth 

TILLEV, DeWITT C, Private. Enlisted in Orange County March 1, 1862 for the 
war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 1863 and confined 
at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., 
February 25-March 3. 186.5. 

TILLEY, ELISHA H., Private. Enlisted in Orange County September 22. 1862 
for the war. Woimded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 4. 1863. Present or accounted 
for through December 1864. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., April 
9, 1865. 

TILLEY, HAYWOOD, Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County May 1, 
1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and wounded at Mahern Hill, Va., 
July 1. 1862. Promoted to Corporal October 1, 1862 and to Sergeant February 
1, 1863. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, 
Del., until transferred to Point Lookout. Md., October 18. 1863. Paroled and 
exchanged at .-Viken's Landing. Va., February 25— March 3, 1865. 

TILLEY, JAMES D., Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 14, 1864 for the war. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864, Paroled at Burkeville, Va., 
April 14-17, 1865. 

TILLEY, AVILLIAM H., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Died at Camp Fisher, 
Va., of "pneumonia" January 5. 1862. 

TRAYWICK, J. B., Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 22, 1864 for the war. 
Captured at Fisher's Hill. Va... September 22. 1864 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Wharf, James River, Va., 
Febniai'y 20-21, 1865. Detailed at Camp Lee, near Richmond, Va., after ex- 
changed. 

TURRENTINE, SAMUEL W., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 22, May 1, 1861 for the war. Detailed as nurse January 7, 1863 and as- 
signed to General Hospital, Petersburg, Va., March 1, 1863. Appears on Muster 
Rolls as absent on detached service through December 1864. Paroled at Ap- 
pomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

UMSTEAD, GEORGE W., Sergeant. Resided in Orange County and enlisted at 
Kinston April 1, 1864 for the war. ,\ppears as Sergeant on September la- 
October 31, 1864 Muster Roll. Captured at Farmville. Va., April 6, 1865 and 
confined at Newport News, Va. Released after taking Oath of Allegiance June 
26, 1865. 

UMSTEAD, KENNETH R., Sergeant. Born in Orange County where he enlisted 
at age 20, May 1, 1861 for the war. Promoted to Corporal June 20— .August 
31, 1861, and to Sergeant on September 28, 1861. Died at Camp Fisher, Va., 
of fever December 4, 1861 . 

VAN HOOK, JAMES, Private. Enlisted in Caroline County, Va., at age 18, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1863 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., where he died of "chronic diarrhea" 
February 16, 1865. 

■VAUGHAN, 'WILLIAM, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
20, May 1, 1861 for the war. Deserted June 23, 1863. 

VAUGHN, MONROE, Corporal. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 28, 
May 1, 1861 for the war and mustered in as Corporal. Present or accounted for 
through December 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 
1865. 



Roster 319 

VEAZEY, FIELDIN L., Private. Born in Orange County where he enhsted at 
age 20. March 1. 1862 for the war. Died at Richmond, Va., of fever July 13, 
1862. 

VE.4ZEY, WILLIAM E., Private. Enlisted in Orange County at age 19. March 
1, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Varina. Va.. September 22, 1864. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., 
April 9. 1865. 

WADDLE, W. R., Private. Enlisted at Wadesboro March 1864 for the war. 
Captured near Chickahominy Swamp. Va., June 7, 1864 and confined at Point 
Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing. James River, 
Va., February 14-15, 1865. 

WAGNER, WILLIAM P., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 19. March 1. 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettvsburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout. Md., until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 3. 1865. 

WATSON, WILLIAM S., Private. Resided as a fanner in Orange County where 
he enlisted at age 20, May 25, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, 
Va.. July 1. 1862 and at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md. Released January 23, 1864 on taking the Oath of .Allegiance and 
joining the U. S. .Army. Mustered into Company .A. 1st Regiment U. S. 
Volunteers at Norfolk. Va., May 1, 1864 for three years. Musterccl out at Fort 
Leavenworth, Kansas, May 10, 1866. 

WEDDING, HENRY W., CorporaL Born in Orange County where he resided 
as a minister and enlisted in Henrico County. \'a., at age 22, May 22, 1862 
for the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to Corporal October 1, 
1862. Killed at Fredericksburg, \'a., December 13. 1862. 

WEDDING, JOHN T., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
fanner and enlisted at age 18, May 25, 1861 for the war. Died May 17, 1862 
of wounds received in the Battle of Eltham's Landing. \'a. 

WEIVEL, ALBERT W., Private. Resided in Forsyth County and enlisted at 
Kinston .April 1, 1864 for the war. Wounded and admitted to hospital at 
Richmond, Va., .April 2, 1865, where he was captured .April 3. 1865. Confined 
at Newport News. Va.. until released after taking Oath of -Allegiance June 30, 
1865. 

WILEY', K., Private. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 
and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's 
Landing, \'a., March 16, 1865. 

WILKERSON, ALEXANDER, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 21, May 21, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, .Md.. until paroled and 
exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., February 25— .March 3, 1865. 

WILKERSON, RICHARD, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 19. May 25. 1861 for the war. Present or accounted for through April 
1862. Transferred to 1st Maryland Regiment; howe\er, does not appear on 
en rolls of that regiment. 



320 The Blood\ Sixth 

WILLIAMS, GEORGE, Private. Resided in Anson County and enlisted at Kins- 
ton April 1, 1864 for the war. Captured at Farmville, Va.. .\pril 6, 1865 and con- 
fined at Newport News, Va., until released after taking Oath of Allegiance 
June 30. 1865. 

WILLIAMS, WILLIAM F., Private. Born in Halifax County and resided in 
Warren County as a farmer and enlisted at age 17. February 14, 1862. Mustered 
in as Private in Company G, 43rd Regiment N. C. Troops. Promoted to Corporal 
September— October 1862 and appointed courier November-December 1863. 
Transferred to Company B, 6th Regiment N. C. State Troops December 21, 1864 
and served as courier. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

WILSON, JOHN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 34, 
September 22. 1862 for the war. Deserted July 19, 1863 and captured in western 
Virginia during the week ending July 31, 1863 and took Oath of .\llegiance. 

WILSON, LEANDER, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 25, 
September 22. 1862 for the war. Captured at Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863 
and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroleti and exchanged at City 
Point, Va., May 23, 1863. Transferred to Company D this regiment December 
11, 1863. 

WILSON, PHILO D., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
20. May 25, 1861 for the war. Killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 4. 1863. 

WILSON, THOMAS H., Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
18, May 25, 1861 for the war. Promoted to Corporal FebruaiT 1. 1863 and to 
Sergeant July 1, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. Novemljer 7, 

1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, Va., September 22, 1864. Captured at Fannville. Va., .\pril 6, 
1865 and confined at Newport News, Va. Released after taking Oath of Alle- 
giance June 26, 1865. 

WRIGHT, JAMES, Private. Enlisted in Shenandoah Valley, Va., October 16, 

1864 for the war. Captured at Strasburg, Va., October 19, 1864 and confined 
at Point Lookoiu, Md.. where he died December 7, 1864. 



COMPANY C 

OFFICERS 
->> CAPTAINS 

FREELAND, WILLL4M JOHNSON. Resided in Orange County where he en- 
listed at age 32, Mav 1. 1861 for the war. Commissioned Captain by Governor 
Ellis to rank from May 16, 1861. Wounded and captured at Seven Pines, Va., 
May 31, 1862. Died of wound in U. S. Army Hospital, Fort Monroe, Va., June 
21. 1862. 

LOWRIE, HOUSTON B. Transferred from Field & Staff and appointed 1st 
Lieutenant September— October 1861. Promoted to Captain June 1862. Killed 
at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17. 1862. 

GUESS, WILLIAM G. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 28, .May 1. 
1861 for the war. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant by Governor Ellis to rank 
from May 16, 1861. Wounded at Malvern Hill, \'a., July 1, 1862. Promcted to 



Roster 321 

1st Lieutenant Julv 15, 1862. Wounded at Sharpsburg. Md.. September 17, 
1862 and promoted to Captain same day. Woinided at Chancellorsx ille, Va., 
May 4, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Johnson's Island, Ohio, until paroled on taking Oath of Alle- 
giance June 13, 1865. 

LIEUTENANTS 

DURHAM, WILLIAM J. H., 1st Lieutenant. Commissioned 1st Lieutenant by 
Governor Ellis to take rank from May 16, 1861. Promoted to Captain of Com- 
panv H this regiment September 27, 1861. 

CHRISTIAN, WILLI.^M JASPER, 1st Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
County at age 20, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Corporal and 
promoted to Sergeant April 1, 1862. Elected 2nd Lieutenant July 15, 1862 
and promoted to 1st Lieutenant September 17, 1862. ^Vounded at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 1, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 
and confined at Johnson's Island, Ohio, until released on taking Oath of Alle- 
giance June 12, 1865. 

CHEEK, ALLEN JASPER, 2nd Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
County at age 25, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Corporal and 
promoted to Sergeant September— October 1861. Promoted to Jr 2nd Lieutenant 
December 2, 1862. Killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-2, 1863. 

CLINTON, WILLIAM STEPHEN, 2nd Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in 
Orange County at age 33, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Sergeant and 
promoted to 1st Sergeant October 1, 1862. Sened as Orderly Sergeant from 
November 1, 1862 until appointed 2nd Lieutenant December 2, 1862. Wounded 
at Plymouth .April 20. 1864. Retired to Invalid Corps .March 6, 1865 and assigned 
to duty with Reserve Forces of North Carolina March 9, 1865, 

GRESHAM, WILLIAM T., 2nd Lieutenant. Resided in Orange County as a 
carpenter where he enlisted at age 23, May I, 1861 for the war. Mustered in 
as Private and wounded at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862. Promoted to Cor- 
poral December 1, 1863. Captured at Winchester, \a., July 20, 1864 and con- 
fined at Camp Chase, Ohio, until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., 
March 2, 1865. Appears as 2nd Lieutenant on records relating to his capture 
and imprisonment. 

TURNER, EVANS, 2nd Lieutenant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 30, May 1861 for the war. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant by Governor 
Ellis to rank from May 16, 1861. Promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant June 1862 
and wounded at Gaines' Mill, \'a., June 27, 1862. Resigned July 30, 1862. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES 

ADAMS, WILLIAM HENRY, Private. Resided in Chatham County and enlisted 
at Durham at age 22, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va., 
July 1, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va.. December 1862. and at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July 1, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, 
Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, 
Va., April 9, 1865. 

AMONS, JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20. 1864 for the war. Present 
cr accounted for through December 1864. 



322 The Bloody Sixth 

BARBEE, JOHN WESLEY, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 24, May 1, 1861 for the war. Captured at Strasburg. Va., September 2*5, 
1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, Va,, March 19. 1865, 

BLALOCK, A. J., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided and enlisted 
at age 30, March 1, 1862 for the war. Died at Ashland, \'a.. of fever May 1, 1862. 

BLALOCK, EGBERT N., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 37, March 1, 1862 for the war. Died at Richmond, Va.. of wounds received 
at .Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862, 

BLALOCK, LEWIS D. H., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as 
a famier and enlisted at age 18, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged at Camp 
Jones, Va., by reason of "hernia" September 18, 1861. 

BLALOCK, MARTIN V., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as 
a fanner and enlisted at age 25, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as 
Corporal and reduced to ranks March— .\pril 1862. W^ounded and captured 
at Seven Pines, Va„ May 31, 1862 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until 
paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va,, August 5, 1862, Wounded 
at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862 and discharged at Staunton, Va„ 
February 13, 1863 by reason of "gunshot wound both hips." 

BL.\LOCK, WILLIAM D., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 23, May 1, 1861 for the war, ^Vounded at Sharpsburg, Md,, September 17, 
1862 and at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, 
Va., April 9, 1865. 

BLALOCK, WILLIAM JASPER, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 19. May 1. 1861 for the war. Captured at Malvern Hill, Va,, July 12, 
1862 and confined at Fort AV'ool, Va., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's 
Landing, \a.. .August 26. 1862. Deserted at Fredericksbiug. Va.. .April 30. 1863 
and captured near Fredericksburg, Va., May 1, 1863, Released "to go north" 
after taking Oath of Allegiance May 2, 1863, 

BLEDSOE, ALSEY M., Private. Enlisted at Durham at age 24. May 1, 1861 for 
the war. Discharged Jiuie 10, 1862 by reason of disability. "Died soon after 
reaching home." 

BLEDSOE, WILLIAM GILES, Private. Bom in Orange County where he resided 

as a blacksmith and enlisted at age 27, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged 
at Camp Fisher. Va.. by reason of "rheumatism" October 1. 1861. 

BRASSFIELD, REUBEN, Private. Enlisted at Camp Bartow. Va.. at age 18, March 
25, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Killed at 
Gettysburg. Pa., July 1, 1863, 

BRINKLEY', RANSON, Private. Resided in Wake County. Captured at Salisbury 
April 12, 1865 and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio. Released after taking Oath 
of .Allegiance June 19, 1865. 

BROWN, E., Private. Resided at .Albany. Ga., as a farmer. Captured near Peters- 
burg. Va., March 25, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md. Released after 
taking Oath of .Allegiance May 12-14, 1865, 

BROWN, JOHN M,, Private. Resided in Towns Coimty, Ga,, and surrendered 
at Chambersburg, Pa., July 1864. Confined at Fort Delaware. Del., until released 
after taking Oath of Allegiance May 10, 1865. 



Roster 323 

BROWN, JOHN MOORE, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 30. May 24, 1861 fov the war. Died of disease at Richmond. Va.. in May 
1862, and buried in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Va., May 11. 1862. 

BRO^VNING, JEFFERSON, Private. Enlisted in Orange County at age 25, May 

1. 1861 for the war. Discharged at Camp Hill. Va., by reason of "hernia" 
September 20, 1861. 

BROWNING, WILLI.AM H., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 27. March 1. 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863 
aird captured in hospital at Gettysburg. Confined at DeCamp General Hospital, 
David's Island. N. Y. Harbor, until paroled and exchanged at City Point, 
\'a.. September 16. 1863. Paroled at .Appomattox Court Hotise, Va.. .April 9. 1865. 

BUCHANAN, JOSEPH, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20, 1864 for the war. 
Captured near Little Washington, N. C, .April 30, 1864 and confined at Point 
Lookoiu, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River, 
Ga., November 15. 1864. 

GARDEN, WILLL-VM HARRISON, Private. Born in Orange County where he 
resided as a fanner and eirlisted at age 20, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded 
at Battle of First Manassas July 21. 1861 and discharged at Camp Fisher. Va., 
December 14, 1861 by reason of disability caused by wounds. 

CARLTON, JOHN W., Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange Cotuity at age 
18. March 7, 1862 for the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to Cor- 
poral January 1, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Coxes ^Vharf, James River. \'a., October 15, 1864. Had been promoted to 
Sergeant December 1. 1863 while a prisoner of war. Captured at Farmville, Va., 
.April 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va., until released after taking 
Oath of Allegiance June 26, 1865. 

CARRINGTON, JAMES, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as 
a farmer and enlisted at age 38, May 1, 1861 for the war. Present or accounted 
for through December 1864. Discharged March 28. 1865 by reason of "general 
incapacity." 

CARROL, ANDREW JACKSON, Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
County at age 27, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Sergeant. Captured 
at Seven Pines, \'a., May 31, 1862 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until 
paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., -August 5, 1862. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va.. February 25- 
March 3. 1865. 

CARROLL, JAMES, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 25, 
May 1, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at 
\'enus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15. 1864. Captured at Fannville, 
Va., April 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va.. until released after 
taking Oath of Allegiance June 26, 1865. 

CARROLL, JOHN GASTON, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 32. May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged at 
Camp near Richmond. Va.. Jidy 18, 1862 by reason of "general physical pros- 
tration induced by an attack of typhoid fever 12 months ago." 



324 The Bloody Sixth 

CARROLL, LEVI, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a fanner 
and enlisted at age 22, September 15, 1862. Died at Richmond, Va., o£ typhoid 
fever December 3, 1862. 

CARROLL, PAGE, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a faiTner 
and enlisted at age 28. Februai7 25, 1862 for the war. Discharged at Richmond, 
Va., by reason of "chronic diarrhea" July 18, 1862. 

CHAMBLEE, WILLIAM J., Private. Enlisted in Orange County at age 21, May 
1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862. Present or 
accounted for through February 1864. 

CLEMENTS, JOHN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 28, 
February 22, 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through February 
1864. 

CLEVLAND, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Orange County February 22, 1862. 
Wounded August 2, 1864. 

CLOER, JOHN A., Private. Enlisted March 20, 1864. Died of wounds in hos- 
pital at \Vilson June 6. 1864. 

CLOER, N., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20, 1864 for the war. Present or 
accounted for through December 1864. 

COPLEY, AUGUSTUS POTTER, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
Comity at age 26, May 1. 1861 for the war. Present or accounted for through 
December 1864. 

COPLEY, JAMES L., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 17, 
May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

CURTIS, W. L., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20. 1864 for the war. Wounded 
and admitted to hospital August 20, 1864. 

DAVIS, JOHN EDWARD, Private. Born in Orange Comity where he resided as 
a fanner and enlisted at age 20, May 1. 1861 for the war. Wounded at Battle 
of First Manassas July 21, 1861 and died of wounds at Louisa Court House, 
Va., August 8, 1861. 

DAVIS, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted in Orange County at age 18. May 1, 1861 
for the war. .•Admitted to hospital at Richmond, Va.. wounded, January 7, 1863. 
Detailed in hospital at Charlotte October 7, 1864 and attached to a company 
of Detailed Men at Charlotte. 

DAWSON, JOHN, Private. Died of debility at Point Lookout, Md., February 
22, 1865. 

DESERN, EDWARD, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 34, 
September 22, 1862 for the war. Died at Lynchburg, \'a., of typhoid fever 
January 29, 1863. 

DICKERS, H., Corporal. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged 
September 30, 1864. 

DILLON, JOHN J., Private. Paroled at Creensboro May 4, 1865. 

DOLLAR, THOMAS, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 30, 
Februai7 22, 1862 for the war. Killed near Frederickburg, \'a.. May 4, 1863. 



Roster 325 

DORSETT, W., Private. Paroled at Burkeville, Va., April 1-1-17, 1865. 

DOSSETT, SIMPSON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 19, 
May 1, 18(51 for the war. Deserted at Fredericksburg, Va.. April 30, 1863 and 
captured May 1, 1863. Paroled "to go north" after taking Oath of .\llegiance 
May 2. 1863.' 

ELLIS, R. M., Private. Captured and paroled at Warrenton, Va., September 29, 
1862. 

FALKNER, ROBERT HENRY, Private. Born in Orange County where he re- 
sided as a farmer and enlisted at age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Killed at 
Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861. 

FAUCETT, ELIJAH GRAVES, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 37, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 1. 1863 
and again on August 20, 1864. 

FERRELL, JAMES T., Private. Resided and enlisted iir Orange County at age 
17, February 22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Fredericksburg, \'a., May 3, 
1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at 
City Point. \'a.. May 23, 1863. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. 
Captured at Farmville, Va., April 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va., 
until released after taking Oath of Allegiance June 25, 1865. 

FREEMAN, SPENCER B., Private. Born in Wake County and resided as a 
farmer in Orange Comity where he enlisted at age 22. May 1, 1861 for the war. 
^Vounded at Battle of First Manassas July 21. 1861 and discharged at Camp 
Fisher. \'a.. by reason of "a compound fracture" December 12, 1861. 

GAINEY, A. G., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a farmer 
and enlisted at age 27, Febrtiary 25, 1862 for the war. Died at Richmond. Va., 
of typhoid fever April 28, 1862. 

GARR.\RD, SHERWOOD H., Private. Born in Orange County where he re- 
sided as a farmer and enlisted at age 41, February 22, 1862 for the war. W'ounded 
at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862. Discharged at Camp near Fredericksburg, 
\'a.. bv reason of wounds March 22, 1863. 

GILBERT, WILLIAM RILEY, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 37, May 1, 1861 for the war. Died of wounds at \\'inchester, Va., July 
26, 1864. 

GILLESPIE, M., Private. Died in hospital at Richmond, Va., of disease at age 39, 
July 20, 1864. 

GLENN, ALLISON SKIDMORE, Private. Born in Orange County where he 
resided and enlisted at age 22. May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Battle 
of First Manassas Jidy 21, 1861 and died of wouncis at Louisa Court House, \'a , 
September 10, 1861. 

GLENN, H. COSLETT, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
22, September 22, 1862 for the war. Woinided at Gettvsbing, Pa.. July 1, 1863 
and died of wound July 4, 1863. 

GLENN, VINYARD COLVIN, Private. Born in Orange Comity where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 30, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged at 
Camp Fisher, \'a., by reason of "spinal disease" February 24, 1862. Conscripted 



326 The Bloody Sixth 

in Orange County September 22, 1862 and attached to Company. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing. James River. Va., February 
14-15, 1865. Detailed at Camp Lee. Richmond, Va., after exchanged. 

GLIMPS, JAMES L., Private. Captured near Washington. D. C, July 13, 1864 and 
confined at Elmira. N. Y.. where he died of "chronic diarrhea" March 29, 1865. 

GREGORY, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20. 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

GUFFY, W., Private. Died at Plymouth of disease April 22, 1864. 

HAILEY, THOMAS R., Private. Born in Orange Coimty where he resided as a 
fanner and enlisted at age 18, February 22, 1862 for the war. \Vounded at 
Gettvsburg, Pa., July 1, 1863 and detailed for guard duty at Macon. Ga., April 
5, 1864 because wound had rendered him unfit for field service. Captured at 
Macon, Ga., April 20-21, 1865. 

HAILEY, WILLIAM PERVIS, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 20, May 1. 1861 for the war. Wounded at Battle of First Manassas July 
21, 1861 and discharged by reason of disability August 16. 1861. Re-enlisted at 
Durham March 6, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 
Retired to Invalid Corps November 14. 1864 and stationed at Hillsboro. .Assigned 
to light duty at Raleigh December 16, 1864. 

HALL, CHARLES, Private. Resided in Orange County. Captured at Hagerstown, 
Md., July 1864 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del. Released after taking Oath 
of Allegiance May 11, 1865. 

HALL, JAME^S T., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 25, 
February 22, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Seven Pines, Va.. May 31, 1862. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va„ 
February 25-March 3, 1865. 

HARRIS, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20. 1864 for the war. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

HEIATH, G. B., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, October 19, 186t 
for the war. Died in hospital at Richmond, Va., of "enteritis" January 17, 1865. 

HERNDON, ALVIN M., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 26, May 1, 1861 for the war. Died at Louisa Court House, Va., of fever 
August 8, 1861. 

HERNDON, MATCHARINE C, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 24, May 1, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and ex- 
changed at Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. Paroled 
at .Appomattox Court House, Ya., April 9, 1865 and again at Raleigh May 25, 
1865. 

HERNDON, WILLIAM HENRY H., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
County at age 23, May 1. 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, 
Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and 
exchanged at Aiken's Landing, \'a., March 19, 1865. Paroled at Appomattox 
Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

HERNDON, ZACARIAH, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 23. February 22, 1862. Died at Camp Bartow. Va., March 25, 1862. 



Roster 327 

HICKS, JAMES, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange Conntv at age 47, May 

1. 1861 for the war. Died at Camp Junes. \'a.. of typhoid fever September 10, 
1861. 

HICKS, KINCHEON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
30, May I. 1861 for the war. Wounded at Battle of Second Manassas .August 31, 
1862. Captured at Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 1864 and confined at Point 
Lookout, Md., luitil paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., March 
30, 1865. 

HICKS, W, D,, Corporal, Enlisted at Richmond, Va., December 7, 1863 for the 
war and mustered in as Private. Promoted to Corporal November 1, 1864, 
Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, \'a.. .April 9, 1865. 

HOLLAND, DAVID, Private. Enlisted at Richmond. Va., June 10. 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

HOLLOWAY, JAMES, Private, Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
22, .Augrrst 12, 1861 for the war. Captured at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862 
and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's 
Landing, \'a.. .August 5, 1862. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. No- 
vember 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and ex- 
changed at \enus Point, Savannali River, Ga., November 15. 1864. Admitted to 
hospital at Richmond, Va., wounded, March 28, 1865 and captured in hospital 
.April 3, 1865. Turned over to Provost Marshal April 14, 1865. 

HOLLOWAV, JOHN N,, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 18. February 24, 1862 for the war. Wounded and captured at Winchester, 
Va., September 19, 1864, 

HOLLOWAV, KINCHEN, Private, Born in Orange County where he resided as 
a farmer and enlisted at age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Transferred to Regi- 
mental Band November 1, 1863. 

HOLLOWAY, WILLIAM J,, Private, Enlisted at Durham August 12, 1861 for 
the war. Present or accounted for through April 1862. 

HOLT, MICHAEL, Private, Enlisted at Camp Holmes Novemlier 1, 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

HUSKEY, JA.MES, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 25 
June 11, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862. Capture<l 
at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2. 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del. Released 
after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 19, 1865. 

HUSKEY, JOHN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 23. 
May 1, 1861 for the war. Detailed on extra duty in Quartennaster Department 
from July 15, 1861 through May 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \'a.. 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and ex- 
changed March 3, 1864. 

HUTCHINS, ANDREW JACKSON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
County at age 28, .Mav 1, 1861 for the war. Killed at Gettysburg. Pa.. JiUy 1, 
1863. 

HUTCHINS, JAMES T., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
35, March 8, 1862 for the war. \\'ounded and captured at Winchester. Va., 
September 19, 1864. Paroled and exchanged at Boulware's Wharf, James Rivei, 
Va., January 21. 1865. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House. \'a.. .April 9. 1865. 



328 The Bloody Sixth 

HUTCHINS, JOHN ACHOR, Private. Born in Orange County wliere lie resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Killed at Battle 
of First Manassas July 21, 1861. 

HUTCHINS, SILAS, Private. Born in Orange Comity where he resided as a 
fanner and enlisted at age 24. May 1, 1861 for the war. ^Vounded at Battle 
of First Manassas July 21, 1861 and captured at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862. 
Confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Land- 
ing, Va., August 5, 1862. \Vounded at Sharpsburg, Md.. September 17, 1862 and 
absent on furlough until discharged by reason of wound January 17, 1865. 

INGRAHAM, ADDISON, Private. Captured near Petersburg, Va., October 27, 
1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at 
Boulware's Wharf, James River, Va., March 30, 1865. 

JACKSON, JOHN JOHNSON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 25. May 1, 1861 for the war. \Vounded at Battle of Second Manassas 
August 31, 1862 and detailed to Provost Guard. Raleigh, September 28, 1863 
because of wound. Paroled at Raleigh April 22. 1865. 

KELLER, THOMAS, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 34, 
September 22, 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through December 
1864. Killed near Petersburg, Va., March 25. 1865. 

KILLGROVE, JOHN LAYETTE, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 21. May 1, 1861 for the war. ^\'ounded at Gaines' Mill, Va.. June 27. 1862. 
Wounded and captured at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862 and confined 
at Fort McHenry, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., 
November 10, 1862. Deserted near Newtown. Va., November 8, 1864. 

LAMB, EDMON S., Private. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3. 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., 
March 20, 1864. 

LAYCOCK, WILLIAM JONES, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 23, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Seven Pines, Va.. May 31, 1862 
and at Chancellorsville, Va., May 4. 1863. Missing in action at Rappahannock 
Station. Va., November 7. 1863. 

LEIGH, JAMES SAUNDERS, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 22, May 1, 1861 for the war. Missing in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 
1863. 

LEIGH, J. W., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes March 20, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., .April 9, 1865. 

LEIGH, NAZOR OWEN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
23, February 22, 1862 for the war. Died at Richmond, Va.. July 5, 1862 of 
wounds received at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862. 

LEIGH, P. R., Private. Born in Orange County wlieie he enlisted at age 22, 
February 22. 1862 for the war. Died at .Ashland, \'a.. of measles .April 25, 1862 

LONG, 'VV. T., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20, 1864 for the war. Present 
or accounted for through December 1864. 

LOWMAN, JACOB, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 30, 
September 22. 1862 for the war. \Vounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3, 1863. 
Paroled at Burkeville, \'a.. April 14-17, 1865. 



Roster 329 

LOWMAN, LEVI, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 34, 
September 22, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg. Pa., and captured in 
hospital at Gettysburg where he died of wound July 8, 1863. 

LVON, J.AMES EDWIN, Sergeant. Born in Orange County where he resided 
as a ianner and enlisted at age 21. May 1. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as 
Pri\ate and promoted to Corporal May 1— October 31, 1862 and to Sergeant 
January 1. 1863. Promoted to 1st Sergeant December 1. 1863. \Vounded at 
Fisher's Hill, \'a., September 22, 1864 and discharged because of wound 
January 27, 1865. 

MARKHAM, ALEXANDER M., Private. Born in Orange County where he 
resided as a fanner and enlisted February 24. 1862 for the war. Died at Rich- 
mond. Va., at age 19 of "chronic diarrhea" March 13, 1863. 

MARKHAM, ISALVH P., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 25, May I, 1861 for the war. Discharged on Surgeon's Certificafe of Dis- 
ability October 24, 1861. 

MARKHAM, JOHN HENRY, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 25. May 1, 1861 for the war. Killed at Chancellorsville. \'a.. May 4. 1863. 

M.ARKHAM, LEVI, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 38, 
May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Sharpsburg. .Md., September 17. 1862 and 
at Chancellorsville, \'a.. May 4, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, 
Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled 
after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 4, 1865. 

MARKHAM, MATTHEW, Sergeant. Born in Orange County where he resided 
and enlisted at age 25. May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as 1st Sergeant. 
Killed at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. 

MASSEY, RUFUS, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 20, 
February 22. 1862 for the war. Captured at .Malvern Hill. \a.. July 12, 1862 and 
confined at Fort Wool, Va., until paroled and exchanged at .'Aiken's Landing, 
Va., .\ugust 26, 1862. Wounded about October 25. 1862. Captured at Fredericks- 
burg, Va., May 3, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware. Del., until paroled and 
exchanged at City Point, \'a.. May 23. 1863. \Vounded and captured at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July 1-4, 1863 and confined at DeCamp General Hospital, David's 
Island, N. Y. Harbor, until paroled and exchanged at City Point, \a., Septem- 
ber 8. 1863. .\bsent on detached service from November 18, 1863 until retired 
to Invalid Corps December 23, 1864. 

MAY, HENRY, Private. Resided in Orange County. Surrendered at Coosa- 
whatchie, S. C, January 23. 1865 and sent to Provost Marshal General, New 
York City, February 26, 1865. 

« ' MAY', JAMES H., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 18, 
February 22. 1862 for the war. Wounded at Sharpsburg. Md., September 17, 
1862. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, 
Va., Februarv 25-March 3, 1865. 



J, 



MAY, WILLIAM, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 25, 
May 1. 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va.. November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, \'a.. February 25— March 3. 1865. 



330 The Bloody Sixth 

McCARROL, JOHN AVESLEY, Corporal. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 18, May 1, 18G1 tor the war. Mustered in as Private and wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-13, 1862. Promoted to Corporal August 1. 
1863 and captured at Rappaliannock Station. \'a.. November 7. 1853. Confined 
at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah 
River, Ga., November 15, 1864. Captured at Farinville, Va., April 6, 1865 and 
confined at Newport News, Va., until released after taking Oath of Allegiance 
June 26, 1865. 

McCROWRY, EDWARD, Private. Resiiled and enlisted in Orange County at age 
40, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged at Richmond. \'a.. by reason of "insipient 
phthisis" July 19. 1862. 

McD.ANIEL, CHRISTOPHER, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County 
at age 25. September 22. 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 
1, 1863 in right foot, causing amputation, and captured in hospital at Gettys- 
burg. Confined at DeCamp General Hospital, David's Island, N. Y. Harbor, until 
paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va.. September 16. 1863. Furloughed 
.•Vugust 30. 1863 and carried as absent wounded in North Carolina on Rolls 
through December 1864. 

McDANIEL, JESSE, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a fanner 
and enlisted at age 27, September 22, 1862 for the war. Died in hospital at 
Richmond, Va., of tvphoid fever November 15, 1862. 

McDANIEL, JOHN, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 33, 
September 22. 1862 for the war. Died at Plymouth of wounds .April 18, 1864. 

McDANIEL, WILLIAM, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 
23j September 22, 1862 for the war. Wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July 5, 1863 and confined at DeCamp General Hospital. David's Island, N. Y. 
Harbor, where he died of wounds July 28, 1863. 

McGEE, JOHN, Private. Enlisted March 15, 1864, Wounded at Plymouth April 
23, 1864 and died in .Anderson County, S. C, of disease June 20, 1864. 

MONROE, HERNDON ALVIN, Private. Enlisted in Orange County May 1, 1861 
for the war. Died of typhoid fever .August 31, 1861. 

MORRIS, E. W., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes March 2, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., .April 9, 1865. 

MURKAY, JOHN C, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 19, 
February 22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., No- 
vember 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and ex- 
changed at Aiken's Landing, Va., Februai7 25— March 3, 1865. 

MURRAY, WILLIAM, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 30, September 22, 1862 for the war. Died at Camp 
near Fredericksburg, Va., of fever March 31, 1863. 

NICHOLS, ARCHIBALD, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 18, March 1, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg. Pa., July 1, 1863 
and captured in hospital at Gettysburg. Confined at West's Building Hospital 
Baltimore, Md., luitil paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., Novembe: 
17, 1863. Retired to Invalid Corps January 17, 1865 and assigned to light duty 
March 3, 1865. 



Roster 331 

NICHOLS, IRA "W., Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
tanner and enlisted at age 22, Februar\' 10, 1862 for the war as a substitute 
for John Cabe Shields. Died at Bunker Hill, Va., of pneumonia Septcinlier 25, 
18(i2. 

NOAH, AUSTIN, Private. Enlisted at C:amp Holmes November 1, 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

P.\GE, ANDERSON, Sergeant. Born in ^Vake County where he resided and en- 
listed at age 33. Mav 1. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Sergeant. Died at 
Camp Hill. \a.. of typhoid fever October 15, 1861. 

PAINTER, E. B., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20, 1864 for the war. 
Absent sick from .\pril 24. 1864 through December 1864. 

PAYNE, ANDERSON, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes Noveinber 1, 1864 for 
the war. Present or accoiuited for through December 1864. 

PEEK, J. M., Private. Enlisted at Staunton. \'a.. January 20, 1864 for the war. 
Captured at AVinchester, Va., September 19, 1864 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., March 18, 1865. 
Admitted to hospital at Richmond, Va., March 18, 1865. 

PENDERGRASS, ILA, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
32, May 1, 1861 for the war. Died at Louisa Court House, Va., of typhoid fever 
August' 8, 1861. 

PERKINS, ANDREW J. C, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 15, March 8. 1862 for the war. Wounded and 
captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-4, 1863. Confined at West's Building Hos- 
pital. Baltimore. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., No- 
xember 17, 1863. Discharged at Richmond. Va.. December 28. 1864 and assigned 
to light duty Januaiy 27, 1865 at Camp \Vinder Hospital, Richmond, where he 
was captured .\pril 3, 1865 and paroled April 19, 1865. 

PHILLIPS, J. A., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes November 1, 1864 for the 
war. Died in hospital at Petersburg, Va., February 25, 1865. 

PHIPPS, WILLIAM YOUNG, Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 23, May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Pri\ate and promoted to 
Corporal May— June 1862. Promoted to Sergeant January 1, 1863. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., September 22, 1804. 
Captured at Farmville, Va., April 8, 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va., 
until released after taking Oath of Allegiance June 26, 1865, 

PICKETT, ASA, Private. Born in Orange Count) where he resided as a fanner 
and enlisted July 1, 1862 for the war. W'oinided and captured near Frederick, 
Md., July 9-10, 1864 and corifined at ^Vest's Building hospital, Baltimore, Md., 
until paroled and exchanged October 1864. Retired at age 35, February 10, 1865 
by reason of "gunshot xvoinrd of right eye." 

PICKETT, E. WASHINGTON, Corporal. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 23. May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Sergeant and discharged on 
Surgeon's Certificate of Disability October 2, 1861. Re-enlisted as Private 
September 22, 1862 and proraotecl to Corporal January 1, 1863. Wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 1. 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, \'a., No- 
vember 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., where he died. 



332 Thf Bloody Sixth 

PICKETT, HARRISON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 26, May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged on Surgeon's Certificate of Dis- 
ability October 26, 1861. 

POE, JOHN WESLEY, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
37, May 1. 1861 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Paroled 
at Appomattox Court House. Va., April 9, 1865. • 

POOL, THADDEUS, Private. Resided in Wake County and enlisted in Orange 
County at age 21. May 1. 1861 for the war. Died in hospital at Fredericksburg, 
Va., March 26, 1862. 

POOL, WILLIAM DAVID, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 25, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Gaines' Mill, \'a.. June 27, 1862. 
Killed at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 1, 1863. 

POWELL, E. M., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 17, 1864 for the war. Captured 
at Strasburg. Va.. September 23, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., 
until paroled and exclianged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., March 19, 1865. 

PROCTOR, ANDERSON, Private. Enlisted February 27, 1864 for the war. 
Died at Kinston of disease April 6, 1864. 

PROCTOR, JOHN, Private. Resided in Orange County as a farmer and enlisted 
at age 21, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Sharpsburg. Md.. September 
17, 1862. Mortally wounded at Mt. Jackson, Va.. September 20, 1864. 

PROCTOR, STERLING YANCV, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
County at age 23, May 1, 1861 for the war. Missing in action at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 2, 1863. 

PUGH, WILLIAM M., Private. Died in hospital at Raleigh of typhoid fever 
July 21, 1864. 

REACE, J. C, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes November 1. 1864. Present or 
accounted for through December 1864. 

REDMON, JAMES KINCHEN, Pi-ivate. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 20, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Battle of First Manassas July 
21, 1861 and clischarged at Charlottesville. Va., Septenrber 30. 1861 by reason of 
wound. 

REDMON, THADDEUS, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 18, May I, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to Cor- 
poral October 1, 1862. Wounded at Gettysburg. Pa., July 1, 1863 and promoted 
to Sergeant August 1, 1863. .-Xppears as Private on No\ember— December 1864 
Muster Roll with the remark that he was "absent on application to be retired 
in N. C. since October 1. 1864." 

RHODES, CLAUDIUS JASPER, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 25. Mav 1. 1861 for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill. Va., July 1, 1862. 
Captured near Petersburg. \a., February 9, 1865 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md., where he died of "consumption" .April 12, 1865. 

RHODES, WILLIAM BURTON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
Countv at age 21, May 1. 1861 for the war. Killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 
1863. 

RICE, J. D., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes October 19, 1864 for the war. 
Captured at Farmville, Va., .A.pril 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, 
Va., where he died of "chronic diarrhea" June 11, 1865. 



Roster 333 

RICE, L. L., Private. Resided in Orange County and enlisted at Camp Holmes 
October 19, 18(i4 for the war. Captured at Fanii\ille. Va.. ."Vpril 6. 1865 and 
confined at Newport News. \'a.. until released after taking Oath of .\llegiance 
June 25. 1865. 

RIGSBEE, HENRY JACKSON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 26, May 1. 1861 for the war. Died at Camp Fisher, Va.. of typhoid fever 
December 22. 1861. 

RILEY, GEORGE H.\.MILTON, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 17. .Mav 1. 1861 for the war. Deserted at Fredericksburg. \'a.. .-Vpril 30, 
1863 and captured near Fredericksburg May 1, 1863. Paroled "to go north" 
after taking Oath of .\llegiance May 2, 1863. 

RILEY', WILLIAM DUDLEY, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 19, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded and captured near Frederick, Md., 
July 9, 1864 and confined at West's Building Hospital, Baltimore, Md.. until 
paroled and exchanged at ^'enus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 
1864. 

ROSSON, JAMES W., Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
18, February 22, 1862 for the war. \Vounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863 
and captured in hospital at Gettysburg. Confined at DeCamp General Hospital, 
David's Island, N. Y. Harbor, until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va , 
September 8, 1863. Retired to Invalid Corps on September 12, 1864. Paroled 
at Greensboro May 24, 1865. 

SADLER, ROBERT, Private. Resided in ^Vake County as a machinist and en- 
listed at Graham at age 37, May 8, 1861 for the war. Discharged at Culpeper 
Court House, \'a., by reason of "tertiary syphillis" .August 24, 1861. 

SANDERS, JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh, March 20, 1864 
for the war. .Absent sick from July 22 through December 1864. 

SELLERS, G. C, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 20. 1864 for 
tlie war. .Absent sick from Jidv 22 through December 1864. 

SETTIPP, G. W., Private. Resided in Caswell County. .Admitted to hospital at 
Wilmington December 29. 1864 and returned to duty January 5, 1865. Paroled 
at Headquarters, 2nd Division. 6th .Army Corps May 5, 1865. 

SHAMLY, 'WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Winchester, \'a.. September I, 1864 for 
the war. Captured at Strasburg. \'a„ September 22. 1864 and confined at Point 
Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River, 
Ga., November 15, 1864. 

SHEDWICK, N., Private. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3. 1863 and confined 
at Fort Delaware. Del. 

SHELTON, JOHN P., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. .March 20, 1864 
for the war. .Absent sick through December 1864. Died from relapse of measles 
in hospital in \'irginia in 1864. 

SHEPHERD, J.AMES MONROE, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 34, .May 1, 1861 for the war. AVounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 
17, 1862. Captured at Falling Waters, Va., July 14. 1863 and confined at Old 
Capital Prison. Washington, D. C where he took the Oath of .Amnestv March 
14, 1864. 



334 The Bloodv Sixth 

SHERMAN, J. J., Private. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 3, 1863 and con- 
fined at Fort Delaware, Del. 

SHIELDS, JOHN CABE, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
30. May 8. 1861 for the war. Discharged upon furnishing Ira W. Nichols as a 
substitiue February 10. 1862. 

SIKES, J. W., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 20. 1864 for the war. .\bsent 
sick .August 10 through December 1864. 

SMITH, GEORGE W., Private. Resided in Burke County as a farmer and en- 
listed at age IS. September 22. 1862 for the war. Captured near Petersburg, Va., 
March 25. 1865 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until released after 
taking Oath of Allegiance May 14, 1865. 

SMITH, J. W., Private. Resided in Burke County. Captured near Petersburg, Va., 
March 25. 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released after taking 
Oath of Allegiance May 14, 1865. 

TALLEY, JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. March 20, 1864 
for the war. .Absent wounded in hospital at Raleigh from April 18. 1864 through 
December 1864. 

TERRY, JAMES, Private. Resided as a farmer and enlisted in Burke County 
at age 30, September 22, 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through 
December 1864. 

TURNER, JOHN WILLIAM, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 23, May 1, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 
17. 1862. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \'a., November 7. 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, 
Va., Februai-y 25— March 3, 1865. Paroled after taking Oath of Allegiance at 
Point Lookout. Md., June 21. 1865. 

TURNER, LYCURGUS, Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
20. May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Corporal and wounded at Gaines' 
Mill, Va., June 27. 1862. Promoted to Sergeant July 15, 1862. Killed at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July I, 1863. 

VICKERS, HIRAM, Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at age 
24. May 1, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private. Woimded at Battle of First 
Manassas July 21, 1861 and at Seven Pines, Va., May 31. 1862. Promoted to 
Corporal May 12— .August 31, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., 
November 7, 1863. .Appears on Muster Roll of Paroled Prisonei-s admitted 
to hospital at Richmond. Va., prior to .August 31, 1864. Paroled as Sergeant at 
Appomattox Court House, Va., .April 9, 1865. 

VICKERS, THOMAS, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
fanner and enlisted at age 22, September 15, 1862 for the war. Died at Rich- 
mond. Va., of "chronic diarrhea" March 1, 1863. 

VICKERS, WILLIAM RILEY, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 

at age 28. May 1, 1861 for the war. Discharged by reason of "phthisis" .August 
17. 1861. 

WARD, H., Private. Resided in Jackson County. Enlisted at Strasburg, Va., July 
22, 1864 for the war. Captured at Strasburg Septeirrber 23, 1864 and confined 
at Point LookoiU, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's Wharf, 
James River, Va., January 2L 1865. Stationed at Camp Lee, near Richmond, 
\'a., JanuaiT 26, 1865. 



Roster 335 

WARREN, DAVID CROCKETT, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange 
Countv at age 24, May 1. 1861 for the war. ^Volnlded and captured at Sharps- 
burg. Md.. September 17. 18(32 and confined at Fort McHenry. Baltimore. Md., 
until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., October 19. 1862. 
\Vounded May 16. 1863. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

W.\RREN, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 20, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at -Appomattox Court House, \a., .\pril 9, 1865. 

WILKERSON, MADISON, Sergeant. Resided and enlisted in Orange County at 
age 35. May 1. 1861 for the war. Nfustered in as Private and promoted to Cor- 
poral September— October 1861. Promoted to 1st Sergeant January 1, 1863. 
Mortally wounded at Gettysburg. Pa.. July 2. 1863. 

WILLET, ORAN WALKER, Private. Resided and enlisted in Orange County 
at age 40, May 1, 1861 for the war. Died at .\shland, Va., of typhoid pneimronia 
May 15, 1862. 

WILLL-iMS, DANIEL, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. March 20, 
1864 for the war. .\ppcars as absent without leave after -\ugust 8, 1864. 

WOODS, JOHN HERBERT, Private. Born in Orange County where lie en- 
listed at age 21, May 1, 1861 for the war. Died at Camp Fisher, \'a.. of typhoid 
fever January 15, 1862. 

WOODS, ^VILLIAM, Private. Born in Orange County where he resided as a 
faraier and enlisted at age 25. May 1, 1861 for the war. 'Wounded and captured 
at Seven Pines, \'a., May 31, 1862 and admitted to hospital at Fort Monroe, 
Va., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., August 5, 1862. Dis- 
charged at Lynchburg, Va., July 18, 1863, because of wound received at Seven 
Pines. 

WRAY, A. C, Private. Born in Guilford County where he resided as a famrer. 
Enlisted at Camp Hohnes, Raleigh, November 1, 1864 for the war. Discharged 
at Camp near Petersburg. Va.. by reason of "chronic rheumatism of the 
muscles of his spinal coliuim" March 29, 1865. 



COMPANY D 

OFFICERS 
CAPTAINS 

TATE, SAMUEL McDOWELL. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 
30 and appointed Captain by Governor Ellis to rank from Mav 16. 1861. 
Promoted to Major June 11. 1862 and transferred to Field & Staff. 

PEARSON, DUNCAN C. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 21 and 
appointed 1st Lieutenant by Governor Ellis to rank from May 16, 1861. 
Promoted to Captain June 11, 1862. Resigned by reason of health January 21, 
1863 and upon his request was assigned as EnroUiirg Officer, 9th Congressional 
District. Paroled as Captain Invalid Corps at Morganton May 13, 1865. 

RAY, NEILL W. Resided and enlisted in Cumberland County at age 21 and 
appointed 2nd Lieutenant by Governor Ellis to rank from May 16, 1861. 
Promoted to 1st Lieutenant June 11, 1862 and to Captain January 21, 1863. 
\\'ounded at Bethesda Church, \'a.. May 30. 1864 and leg amputated. Retired 
to Inxalid Corps December 22, 1864. 



336 The Bloody Sixth 

LIEUTENANTS 

CARSON, JOHN, 1st Lieutenant. Resided in McDowell County and enlisted at 
age 32 and appointed Jr 2nd Lieutenant by Governor Ellis to rank from May 
16, 1861. Promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant June 11, 1862 and wounded at 
Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. Promoted to 1st Lieutenant January 
21, 1863. Resigned March 10, 1864 by reason of disability caused by wound. 
Became Captain of Company A, Major A. C. Avery's Battalion Local Defense. 

FLEMING, WOOD W., 2nd Lieutenant. Resided in McDowell County and ap- 
pointed 2nd Lieutenant in 1864. Wounded at Liberty, Va., June 19, 1861. 
Paroled at .'\ppomattox Court House. Va., .April 9, 1865. 

SNIPES, MARTIN L., 2nd Lieutenant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 22. May 28, 

1861 for the war and mustered in as Private. \Vounded at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July 1-2, 1863. .Appointed Sergeant January 1, 1864 and elected 2nd Lieutenant 
November 7, 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., .April 9, 1865. 

WARLICK, LEWIS, 1st Lieutenant. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at 
Charlotte at age 18, May 28. 1861 for the war and appointed Sergeant same 
day. Promoted to 1st Sergeant September 1. 1862 and appointed Jr 2nd Lieutenant 
December 2, 1862 and promoted to Sr 2nd Lieiuenant .August 26, 1863. Captured 
at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Johnson's 
Island, Ohio. Promoted to 1st Lieutenant while a prisoner of war January 21, 
1864. Released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 13. 1865. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES 

ACRETT, P., Private. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863 and confined at 
Fort Delaware, Del., until transferred to Point Lookout, Md., October 18, 1863. 

ADAMS, REUBEN, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a farmer 
and enlisted in .Alamance County at age 24, June 27, 1861 for the war. Dis- 
charged at Camp Fisher, Va., by reason of general debility February 17, 1862. 

ASHCRAFT, A. J., Private. Enlisted in Union County March 30, 1864 for the 
war. Captured at Fisher's Hill, Va., September 22, 1864 and confined at Point 
Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River, 
Ga., November 15, 1864. 

AUSTIN, E., Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes October 26, 1864 for the war. 
Appears as "paroled prisoner" on November— December 1864 Muster Roll. 

iUTRY, JASPER A., Private. Enlisted in McDowell County at age 18, March 12, 

1862 for the war. Deserted near Fredericksburg. \'a., .April 8, 1862 and arrested 
and delivered to Camp Holmes July 24, 1863. 

BAILEY, PORTLAND, Private. Born in Burke County and enlisted at Charlotte 
at age 19. May 28, 1861 for the war. Executed for desertion February 28, 1863. 

BAILEV, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Morganton at age 18, March 20, 1862 
for the war. Captured at Boonesboro, Md., September 16, 1862 and con- 
fined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, 
Va., November 10, 1862. Wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 4. 1863. 
Captured in Pennsylvania July 5, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., 
until transferred to Point Lookout, Md.. October 18, 1863. Paroled and ex- 
changed at City Point, Va., March 20. 1864. Wounded at Winchester, Va., 
September 19, 1864. Paroled at Burkeville, Va., April 14-17, 1865. 



Roster 337 

BAKER, JAMES M., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 19. Mav 28. 1861 for 
the war. Mortally wounded at Seven Pines. Va.. May 31. 1862. 

BAKER, J.ASPER, Private. Enlisted at Morganton November 17. 1864 for the 
war. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House. Va.. .April 9. 1865. 

B.4KER, MARTIN, Private. Enlisted at Morganton at age 25. March 7. 1862 
for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill. \'a.. July 1. 1862. Captured at Rap- 
pahannock Station, \'a., November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., 
until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's Wharf, James River, Va., March 

19, 1865. 

B.4NGLE, M.ARCUS, Private. Enlisted in McDowell County March 4. 1862 for 
the war. Missing in action at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 1863. 

BANGLE, PHILLIP, Private. Enlisted in McDowell Countv March 4. 1862 for 
the war. Died of tvphoid fever July 1862. 

BARKER, W., Private. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \a.. November 7. 

1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged Februarv 
18, 1865. 

BEAVER, S. A., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh .March 30. 1864 for the war. Captured 
at Strasburg. Va., September 23, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., 
until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., March 19. 1865. 

BERRV, ALEXANDER L., Private. Born in Burke County and enlisted at 
Charlotte at age 22, May 28. 1861 for the war. Wounded at Battle of Second 
Manassas .-Vugust 30, 1862 and died of wounds October 1. 1862. 

BERRV, ELISHA, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 44, February 18, 1862 
tor the war. Sent to hospital January 4, 1864 with "tumor" and detailed with 
Captain Samuel B. Waters' Company. Provost Guard, Raleigh, January 16, 

1864 through December 1864. 

BERRY, GEORGE W., Private. Transferred front Company E. this regiment, 
June 1861. \Vounded and captured at Rappahannock Station, \'z.. November 7, 

1863. Died in hospital at Washington, D. C, Noxeraber 10, 1863. 

BERRY, JAMES D., Sergeant. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 18, June 
15, 1861 for the war and mustered in as Private. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, \a., November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at \'enus Point. Savannah Ri\er, Ga., November 15, 

1864. Present or accounted for through December 1864 as Private. Paroled as 
Sergeant at Appomattox Court House, Va., .\pril 9. 1865. 

BERRV, SIDNEY E., Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County at age 18. 
March 20. 1862 for the war. Died at .Ashland, Va., of measles April 15, 1862. 

BERRY, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted in Pitt County .\pril 30, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., .April 9. 1865. 

BOLICK, .\BRAHAM, Private. Born in Burke County and enlisted at Charlotte 
at age 22, May 28, 1861 for the war. Killed at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 
1862. 

BOLICK, B. D., Private. Enlisted in Henrico County, \'a., .-April 29, 1864 for the 
war. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., .April 9, 1865. 



338 The Bloody Sixth 

BOST, LEANDER S., Priiate. Transferred from Company E, this regiment, 
June 1861. Woimded at Sharpsburg. Md.. September 17. 1862, and again at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863, where he was captured in a hospital. Confined 
at West's Building Hospital, Baltimore, Md., until paroled and exchanged 
at City Point, Va., November 17. 1863. Retired to Invalid Corps October 25, 
1864 and January 27, 1865. Originally assigned to post at Salisbury but trans- 
ferred to Army of Northern Virginia March 16, 1865. Captured in hospital 
at Richmond. Va.. April 3. 1865. Paroled April 22, 1865. 

BOWDEN, JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 15, 1864 for the war. 
Died at Staunton, Va.. of disease August 1. 1864. 

BOWM,4N, DAVID, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 33, June 20. 
1861 for the war. Discharged by reason of disability .April 1864. 

BRANCH, CHARLES A., Private. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 26. June 
27, 1861 for the war. Mortally wounded at Sharpsburg. Md.. Septeml^er 17, 
1862. 

BRANCH, HARRISON C, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 19, 
February 24. 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \'a., No- 
vember 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and ex- 
changed at Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. Admitted 
to hospital of 3rd Division, 9th Army Corps, U. S. Amiy, March 25, 1865. 

BRANCH, MARTIN J., Private. Born in Burke County and enlisted in Alamance 
County at age 22, June 27, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va., 
July 1. 1862. Killed at Sharpsburg. Md., September 17, 1862. 

BRANCH, NEWTON A., Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as 
a mechanic and enlisted at Charlotte at age 23. May 28, 1861 for the war. 
Appointed Corporal September 1, 1862. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 
1863 and captured in hospital at Gettysburg. Confined at DeCamp General 
Hospital, David's Island. N. V. Harbor, until paroled and exchanged at City 
Point, Va., September 27, 1863. Absent wounded through December 1864 and 
reduced to Private because of disability. Retired to Invalid Corps February 3, 
1865. Took Oath of Allegiance at Raleigh June 3, 1865. 

BRANCH, WALLACE A., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 22, March 

20, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. Wounded at 
New Bern and died of wound in hospital at Goldsboro June 1, 1864. 
BRANTLEY, B., Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 16, 1865. 

BRITTAIN, ALFRED, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 22, May 28. 1861 for 
the war. Killed near Fredericksburg. Va., May 4, 1863. 

BRITTAIN, JOHN Q., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 25, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Wounded near Fredericksburg, Va., May 4. 1863. Captured at Rap- 
pahannock Station. Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., March 16, 1865. 

BRITTAIN, JOSEPH L., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 17, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Land- 
ing. Va., March 16, 1865. 

BROOM, J. M., Private. Born in Union County. Resided as a farmer prior to 
enlistment at Raleigh March 15, 1864 for the war. Present or accounted for 
through December 1864. 



Roster 339 

BROWX, BURTON C, Corporal. Born in Catawba County and enlisted in 
Alamance County at age 21. June 20, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private 
and wounded at Battle of Second Manassas August 30. 1862. Promoted to 
Corporal October 1. 1862. Died of wound same dav. 

BROWN, E. B., Private. Died at Lynchburg. \'a., date unknown, and claim 
filed for effects January 2, 1864. 

BROWN, HENRY, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 15, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at .Appomattox Court House. \a., .April 9, 1865. 

BURGESS, JOHN M., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21, May 28, 1861 
for the war. \Vounded at Malvern Hill. \a., July 1, 1862 and sent home 
by Medical Examining Board. 

BURGESS, L. R., Private. Enlisted in Mecklenburg County May 28, 1861. 

BURGESS, WILLIAM J., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 26, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3-5, 1863 and confined at Fort 
Delaware, Del., until transferred to Point Lookout. Md., October 15, 1863. 
Paroled and e.xchanged at Coxes Wharf, James River, Va., February 20-21, 
1865. Paroled at Morganton May 25, 1865. 

BURGIN, JOHN M., Private. Enlisted in McDowell County February 24. 1862 
for the war. Furloughed for 60 days October 25. 1862 and absent without lea\e 
after February 1863. 

CARLTON, JOHN, Private. Born in Burke County where he enlisted at age 33 
February 24, 1862 for the war. Killed at Gettysburg. Pa.. July 1-2. 1863. 

CARSON, WILLIAM L., Private. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 20, June 
15, 1861 for the war. \\'ounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862 and 
died of wound October 17. 1862. 

CATLETT, S. T., Private. Paroled in hospital at Greensboro in 1865. 

CHESTER, J. B., Private. Resided in Burke County as a farmer where he en- 
listed September 15, 1862 for the war. Captured at Winchester. \'a., July 20, 
1864 and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, until paroled and exchanged at 
Coxes Wharf. James River, \a., March 10-12, 1865. 

CHESTER, SIDNEY J., Private. Enlisted in Burke County October 28. 1863 for 
the war. Paroled at Appomattox Court House. \'a.. .April 9. 1865. 

CHESTER, S. JONES, Private. Enlisted in Orange County, \'a.. December 4. 1863 
for the war. Present or accounted for through Deceinber 1864. 

CHESTER, WILLIAM F., Private. Enlisted in Catawba County at age 19, March 
20, 1862 for the war. \\'ounded at .Middletown, \'a., October 19, 1864 and sent 
to hospital. 

CLINE, D.4VID A., Private. Enlisted in Rowan County at age 19, Februai7 21, 
1862 for the war. Died at Richmond, \'a., of "hydrothorax" September 17, 1862. 

COLEMAN, ALFRED F., Private. Born in Burke County where he enlisted at 
age 18, February 24, 1862 for the war. Died at Williamsburg, Va., May 1, 1862. 

COLEMAN, THEODORE, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 19, May 28, 1861 
lor the war. Died at Camp Jones, Va.., of "entei-itis" September 5, 1861. 



340 The Bloody Sixth 

CONNOR, C. AUGUSTUS, Corporal. Resided in Catawba County and enlisted 
at Charlotte at age 21, May 28, 1861 for the war. .Mustered in as Private and 
appointed Corporal October 15. 1861. Wounded in engagements near Richmond, 
Va., June 27-July 1, 1862. Transferred as Private to Company I, 49th Regiment 
N. C. Troops October 1, 1862. Promoted to Sergeant October 15, 1862 and 
elected Jr 2nd Lieutenant March 16. 1863 and promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant 
February 26, 1864. Captured at Dinwiddle Court House, Va., .^pril 1, 1865 and 
confined at Johnson's Island, Ohio, until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance 
June 18, 1865. 

CONNOR, ROWELL P., 1st Sergeant. Resided in Catawba County and enlisted 
at Charlotte at age 24, May 28. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as 1st Sergeant. 
Killed at Battle of Second Manassas .August 30. 1862. 

COOK, CALVIN, 1st Sergeant. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 17. June 15. 
1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal May 1— October 
31, 1862. .Appointed 1st Sergeant December 15. 1862. Captured at Rappahan- 
nock Station. \'a., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., 
until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's Wharf, James River, Va., March 
16. 1865. 

COOK, DAVID, Private. Resided in Burke County as a fanner where he enlisted 
September 15. 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., No- 
vember 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., where he died of "chronic 
dysentery" May 29, 1865. 

COON, ROBERT A., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 18, November 30, 
1861 for the war. 'Wounded at Seven Pines. Va., May 31, 1862, Captured at 
Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. 
Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Wharf, James River, Va., February 
14-15, 1865. Paroled at Statesville May 21, 1865. 

COOPER, WILLI.AM, Private. Resided in Yancey County as a farmer. Captured 
at Winchester, A'a.. July 20. 1864 and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, until 
paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va.. March 10-12, 1865. 

COSBY, THOMAS E., Sergeant. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Char- 
lotte at age 26. May 28. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed 
Corporal .August 31. 1864. Wounded and admitted to hospital at Richmond. 
Va., March 27. 1865 where he was captured .April 3, 1865. Paroled after taking , 
Oath of .Allegiance at Newport News. Va., June 25, 1865. .Appears as Sergeant 
on 1865 records. 

CURTIS, ALEXANDER G., Private. Enlisted in McDowell County at age 18, 
Februai7 27. 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va.. No- 
vember 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and ex- 
changed at Venus Point. Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. 

CURTIS, JACOB S., Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal October 15. 1861. 
Promoted to Sergeant May 1-October 31. 1862. Wounded at Malvern Hill. Va., 
July 1. 1862. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's 
AVharf. James River, Va., March 16, 1865. Paroled at Morganton May 15. 1865. 

CURTIS, J. .AUGUSTUS, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 24. May 28, 186! 
for the war. Died at Camp Jones, \'a.. of fever September 5. 1861. 



Illf 



(01 

.'9, 



Roster 341 

DAVIS, J. B., Private. Enlisted in McDowell County at age 21, February 20, 

1862 for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862 and again near 
Fredericksburg, Va., May 4, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and ex- 
changed at Aiken's Landing. Va., May 8, 1864. 

DE.4L, SIDNEY, Private. Born in Burke County. Resided as a fanner and en- 
listed at Charlotte at age 21, May 28, 1861 for the war. Transferred to C. S. 
Navy September 3. 1863 and ordered to report to Charleston, S. C. 

DENNIS, JOHN F., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 28. No\ember 30, 
1861 for the war. 'Wounded at Se\en Pines. \a.. Mav 31. 1862. Present or 
accounted for through Februan' 1864. 

DILLON, WILLIAM F., Private. Enlisted in Union Cotmty March 15, 1864 for 
the war. Wounded at Middletown, \'a., October 19. 1864 and furloughed from 
hospital at Charlotte November 9, 1864. 

DOBBINS, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted in McDowell County at age 43. February 
21, 1862 for the war. ^\"ounded at Mahern Hill. \'a.. July 1. 1862 and absent 
wounded through December 1864. 

DOUGLAS, ELAM, Private. Born in Cataivba Coiintv where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 18. March 19, 1862 for three year's in Company I, 
49th Regiment N. C. Troops. Transferred to this company and regiment 
October 1, 1862. Captured at Winchester, Va., July 20, 1864 and confined at 
Camp Chase, Ohio, until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Wharf. James River, 
Va., March 10-12. 1865. 

DUCKWORTH, GEORGE, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 30. March 
7, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va.. November 7. 

1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at 
Coxes Wharf, James River, Va., February 14-15, 1865. Paroled at Salisbury 
May 25, 1865. 

DUCKWORTH, LUCIUS, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 21. March 
7, 1862 for the war. \Vounded at Malvern Hill. \'a.. July 1, 1862 and absent 
wounded until discharged at Raleigh bv reason of "non compos mentis" January 
19, 1864. Paroled at Salisbury May 25', 1865. 

DUCKWORTH, ^VILLIAM, Private. Resided in Burke County where he enlisted 
September 22. 1862 for the war. Captured at Petersburg, Va., April 3, 1865 and 
confined at Hart's Island. N. V. Harbor, tmtil released after taking Oath of 
Allegiance June 18. 1865. 

ELLISON, H. C, Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 16. 1865. 

ENGLAND, JAMES, Private. Born in Burke County where he enlisted at age 
18, March 28, 1862 for the war. Died at ^\'illiamsburg, Va.. May 1. 1862. 

FERRELL, J. H., Private. Captured at Mechanics\ille. \a.. May 27, 1864 and 
confined at Elmira, N. Y., until released after taking Oath of .-Mlegiance May 
29, 1865. 

FERRELL, JOHN HENRY, Private. Born in .Montgomery County. Resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 18, July 15, 1861 for 
the war. Discharged at Camp Jones, ^'a.. by reason of disabilitv .-August 19, 1861. 

FERRILL, EDWARD, Private. Enlisted in .-Vlamance County at age 20. June 15, 
1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md.. where he died September 8, 1864. 



342 The Bloody Sixth 

FERRILL, JOHN H., Private. Resided in McDowell County and enlisted in 
Burke County at age 18, February 24, 1862 for the war. Captured on Chicha- 
horainy River, Va., May 30. 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 
1864. Captured at Farmville, Va., .April 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, 
Va., until released on taking Oath of .\llegiance June 15, 1865. 

FRITTS, DANIEL H., Sergeant. Resided in Da\idson County and enlisted in 
Alamance County at age 21. June 19, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private. 
Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Appointed Sergeant October 18, 

1862. Wounded at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863. .Appointed 
Sergeant-Major December 22. 1864 and transferred to the Field and Staff. 

GIBSON, RAYMAN, Private. Captured at Charlestown, Va., .-August 22, 1864 
and confined at Fort Delaware, Del. 

H.4CKETT, PATRICK, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 33, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 4, 1863 and confined at Fort 
Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va.. October 
5, 1864. 

HARBIN, MILTON G., Private. Enlisted in McDowell County at age 18, February 
21, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va.. July 1, 1862. Appears 
as "absent without leave since .August 1, 1862, with 58th Regiment N. C. 
Troops" on Muster Rolls through October 1863. Does not appear on rolls of 
58th Regiment N. C. Troops. 

HEWrr, HENRY, Private. Resided in Catawba County and enlisted at Raleigh 
March 10, 1864 for the war. Captured near Petersburg, \'a., March 25, 1865 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., luitil released on taking Oath of Allegiance 
June 27, 1865. 

HILDEBRANT), D. ALBURTO, Corporal. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 19, May 

28, 1861 for the war and mustered in as Private. Appointed Corporal May 1- 
October 31, 1862. Wounded at Somerville Ford, Va.. September 16. 1863 and 
at Waynesboro, Va., September 7, 1864. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, 
Va., April 9, 1865. 

HILDEBRAND, JULIUS, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 
for the war. Captured at Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout, Md.. mitil paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., May 23, 

1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \'a., November 7, 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout tuitil paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., 
February 23-March 3, 1865. 

HOBSON, I., Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 16, 1865. 

HOLDER, JESSE, Private. Transferred from Company E, this regiment, June 

1861. 'Wounded near Fredericksburg, Va., May 4, 1863. Captured at Petersburg, 

Va., March 25, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled after 

taking Oath of Allegiance May 13, 1865. 

HORN, ^V. J., Private. Enlisted in Union County March 22, 1864 for the war. 
Captured at Strasburg. \'a., October 19, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Wharf, James River, Va.. February 
14-15, 1865. 



Roster 343 

HOUK, ABRAHAM W., Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Mustered in as Corporal and promoted to Sergeant .\pril 1, 1862. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah 
River, Ga., November 15. 1864. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., 
.April 9, 1865. 

HOUK, GEORGE, Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Camp 
Stokes October 26, 1864 for the war. \VouncIed and captured near Petersburg, 
Va.. March 25, 1865 and sent to hospital at Washington, D. C. Released after 
taking Oath of -\llegiance June 12, 1865. 

HOUK, GEORGE WILLIAM, Private. Resided in Burke Countv where he en- 
listed September 22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Mci.. until paroled and ex- 
changed at .-Viken's Landing, \'a.. May 8, 1864. Captured at Farmville, Va., 
.\pril 6. 1865 and confined at Newport News, ^'a., until released on taking 
Oath of .-Allegiance June 25, 1865. 

HOLTK, LAWSON L., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 19, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Killed at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. 

HOUK, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 25, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Captured .\ugust 21, 1864 and confined at Elmira, N. Y., until transferred 
for exchange October 11, 1864. Paroled at .\ppomattox Court House, Va., 
April 9, 1865. 

HUFMAN, CYRUS, Private. Enlisted in Pitt County .\pril 28. 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at -\ppomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

JACKSON, J., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 15, 1864 for the war. Sent home 
on furlough June 17, 1864. 

JARRETT, .\BS.\LOM, Private. Born in Burke Coimty where he resided as a 
fai-mer and enlisted July 1, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Battle of Second 
Manassas .\ugust 30. 1862 and died of wound about October 1. 1862. 

JENKLNS, DANIEL R., Private. Resided in Gaston County and conscripted 
March 1864. Captured at Mechanicsville, \'a., May 30, 1864 and confined at 
Elmira, N. Y., until released on taking Oath of .Allegiance May 13, 1865. 

KALE, COATSWORTH, Private. Enlisted in -Alamance County at age 18, June 
20, 1861 for the war. .Accidentally wounded June 28, 1862. Captured at Rap- 
pahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 aucl confined at Point Lookout, Md., 
where he died of "chronic dysentery" February 15, 1865. 

KALE, LOGAN L., Private. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 31, June 20, 
1861 for the war. Captured at Strasburg, A'a., September 23, 1864 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Md., until released on taking Oath of .Allegiance June 
3, 1865, 

KELLER, REUBEN, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 25, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. \\'ounded at Seven Pines, \'a., .May 31, 1862. Captured at Rappahan- 
nock Station, \'a.. November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at Coxes ^\^larf, James River, Va., Februai7 14-15, 1865. 
Paroled at Salisbury .May 25, 1865. 

KIRK, DAVID, Private. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md. 



344 The Bloody Sixth 

KYLE, HENRY, Private. Enlisted at Maiion at age 38. March 30, 1862 for the 
war. Wounded in leg. causing amputation, at Gettysburg, Pa„ July 1, 1863 and 
captured in hospital at Gettysljuig. Paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va„ 
November 17, 1863. Retired to Invalid Corps October 10, 1864, 

LAWSON, G. W., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March I'l. 1864 for the war. Cap- 
tured at Fisher's Hill, Va., .Septeinber 22. 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's Wharf, James River, Va., 
March 19. 1865. 

LEWIS, GEORGE, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 35, June 17, 1861 
for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Land- 
ing, Va., February 25— March 3, 1865. Furloughed from hospital at Richmond, 
Va., March 8, 1865. 

LIMBERRY', E., Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 12, 1865. 

LOWMAN, MARTIN L., Private. Resided in Burke County as a farmer and en- 
listed in Rowan County at age 16, February 22, 1862 for the war. Captured 
at Winchester, Va., July 20, 1864 and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, until 
paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va.. March 10-12, 1865. 

LUCKSO, S., Private. Resided in Wake County and enlisted March 15, 1864. 

MARTIN, L. ALLEN, Private. Enlisted in .Alainance County at age 44. June 15, 

1861 lor the war. Wounded at Se\'en Pines, Va.. May 31, 1862 and died of 
wound June 10, 1862. 

MARTIN, SAMUEL, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 47, June 15. 
1861 for the war. Died at Williamsburg, Va., of pneumonia May 1, 1862. 

MAYTIELD, HENRY, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a farmer 
and enlisted at age 44, February 18, 1862 for the war. Discharged by reason of 
disability July 12, 1862. 

MAYFIELD, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Camp \'ance March 2, 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

McCARTER, JERRY', Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 35, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va„ November 7, 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Md,, until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing, 
James River, Va,, February 14-15, 1865. 

McGALLIAD, S. W., Private. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va„ November 
7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at » 
Boulware's Wharf, James Rixer, Va,, March 18, 1865. 

McGALLIARD, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 
for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, \'a.. November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md,. until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Land- 
ing, \'a„ February 25-March 3, 1865. 

McGALLIARD, M. J., Private. Enlisted in Pitt County April 30, 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

McGALLIARD, THOMAS M., Corporal. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23, May 28, 

1861 for the war and mustered in as Corporal, Died at Camp Jones, Va„ of fever 
September 4, 1861. 

McMASTER, EMSLEY, Private. Paroled at Greenville May 8. 1865. 



Roster 345 

McNEELY, HARVEY T., Private. Resided in Burke County where he enUsted 
at age 20, March 7. 1862 for the war. ^Vounded in light leg at Gaines' Mill, 
Va., June 27, 1862 causing amputation. .Absent wounded through December 1864. 

McNEELY, J,\SON, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 30, May 28. 1861 for the 
war. Captured at Rappaliannock .Station. Va.. November 7. 186.3 and confined 
at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at \'enus Point, Savannah 
River, Ga.. November l,'). 1864. Died in hospital December 16. 1864. 

McNEELY, SAMUEL, Private. Enlisted in Pitt County May 30. 1864 for the war. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

McNEELY, THOMAS, Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance March 2, 1864 for the 
war. Paroled at Appomattox Court House. \'a.. .April 9, 1865. 

MITCHELL, JOHN A., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 27. May 28. 1861 
for the war. Wounded at Battle of Second Manassas .August 29-30, 1862, Cap- 
tured at Strasburg, \a.. September 23. 1864 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., 
until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 
15, 1864. 

MORGAN, PINCKNEY A., Private. Born in Greenville. S. C. Resided as a farmer 
in Burke Comity and enlisted at Charlotte at age 18. May 28. 1861 for the 
war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Point LookoiU, Md., until released on joining the U. S. -Army February 19, 

1864. Mustered into Company E, 1st Regiment U. S. Volunteers at Norfolk, 
Va., May 1, 1864 for three years. .Appointed Corporal February 19, 1864 and 
promoted to Sergeant .April 24. 1865. Mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas. November 27, 1365. 

MOSES, MOULTON, Private. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 19. June 15, 

1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 1863 
and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's 
^Vharf. James River. \'a., March 16, 1865. 

MULL, D.AVID, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 27. May 28, 1861 for the 
war. \\'ounded at Gettyslmrg, Pa., July 2, 1863 and died in hospital at Gettys- 
burg Julv 6, 1863. 

MULL, PETER, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 35. May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Wotmded and captined at Sharpsburg. Md., September 17, 1862, Released 
after taking Oath of Amnesty October 9, 1862. 

MURPHY, ANDREW, Private. Knlisted at Charlotte at age 23, May 28, 1861 foi 
the war. \\'ounded at Malvern Hill. \'a., July 1, 1862. Captured at Rappahan- 
nock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing, James River, Va., February 14-15, 

1865. Paroled at Salisbury May 25, 1865. 

MURPHY, MARTIN, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a 
carpenter and enlisted at age 29, February 24, 1862 for the war. Died at .Ash- 
land. Xa., of measles .April 16, 1862. 

MURRAY, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 29, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Deserted near Hagerstown, Md., September 14, 1862. 

NASH, JOSEPH, Private. Enlisted in McDowell County March 18, 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

NASH, SOLOMON, Private. Enlisted in McDowell County March 18. 1864 for 
the war. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 



346 The Bloody Sixth 

NOBLET, JOHN J., Private. Born in McDowell County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 25. February 23, 1862 for the war. Died at Camp 
near Richmond. \'a.. of typhoid fever June 8. 1862. 

O'NEAL, JAMES McK., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 62, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Died at Camp Fisher, \'a., of fever and parahsis November 26. 
1861. 

O'NEIL, LOFTON, Private. Captured at Rappaliannock Station. Va., November 

7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until exchanged February 13, 1865. 

PANGLE, MARCUS, Private. Enlisted at age 22. March 24, 1862. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., luitil paroled and exchanged at Boulware's Wharf, James River, Va„ March 

16, 1865. 

PANGLE, PHILIP, Private. Born in Lincoln County, resided in Burke County, 
and enlisted in McDowell County at age 19, March 4, 1862 for the war. Died 
at Richmond. \'a., of disease July 26, 1862. 

PASCHALL, A. P., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 10. 1864 for the war. 
.Absent sick from June 17 through December 1864. 

POTEET, ALBURTO L., Coi-poral. Born in Binke Coiuitv vvhere he resided prior 
to enlistment at Charlotte at age 41, May 28, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as 
Private and appointed Corporal Feljruary 25, 1862. Mortally wounded at Sharps- 
burg, Md,, September 17, 1862, 

POTEET, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Port Royal, Va., at age 17, February 
12, 1863 for the war. W'ounded at Gettysburg. Pa., July 2, 1863. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station, Va,, November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., luuil paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., No- 
vember 15, 1864. Paroled at .'\ppomattox Court House, Va., .\pril 9, 1865. 

POWELL, A. S., Private. Born in Chatham County and resided as a farmer prior 
to enlistment at Raleigh March 15, 1864 for the war. Wounded at Plymouth ' 
April 18, 1864. Discharged at age 30. December 30. 1864 by reason of woimd. 

POWELL, EDWARD, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 18, February 
20, 1862 for the war. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa.. Jidy 3. 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout, Md., until exchanged prior to March 10, 1864. ^Vounded and 
admitted to hospital June 4, 1864, Killed at \Vinchester, Va., September 15, 1864. 

PO'XVELL, J. C., Private. Resided in Burke County where he enlisted March I 
15, 1864 for the war. Paroled at Salisbui7 May 2, 1865. 

POWELL, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 6. 1863 for the 
war. Wounded at Middletown, Va., October 19, 1864 and sent home. 

POWELL, JOHN H., Sergeant. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 17. June 15, 
1861 for the war and mustered in as Sergeant. Detailed in Commissary and 
Subsistence Department. Hickory Tavern October 23, 1862. .\ppears as absent 
detailed until October 1863, when he appears as a deserter. 

POWELL, LEANDER, Private. Born in Binke Comity -(vhere he resided as a 

farmer and enlisted at age 40. February 18, 1862 for the war. \\'Ounded at 

Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. Present or accounted for through 
December 1864. 



HO 



Roster 347 

POWELL, ROBERT, Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Plymouth 
April 18, 1864 for the war. Captured at Petersburg, \'a.. April 3, 1865 and con- 
fined at Hart's Island, N. Y. Harbor, until released on taking Oath of Alle- 
giance June 18, 1865. 

POWELL, S. E., Private. Enlisted at Plymouth April 18. 1864 for the war. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

POWELL, THOMAS, Sergeant. Enlisted in Burke County September 22. 1862 for 
the war and mustered in as Private, ^\'ounded at Chancelloi-sville. Va.. May 4, 
1863. Captured at Rappaliannock Station, Va., No\ember 7. 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout. Md., until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, 
Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. Paroled as Sergeant at Appomattox 
Court House. Va., April 9. 1865. 

POWELL, WILLI.\M, Private, Enlisted in Burke County at age 24, February 18, 
1802 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 
and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's 
^Vharf. James River, \'a., March 19, 1865. Paroled at .Morganton May 16. 1865. 

PRATT, JOHN, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 26, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Wounded at Malvern Hill. \'a.. July 1, 1862. Captured at Gettysburg. Pa.. 
July 2-4, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged 
at Aiken's Landing. Va., September 18, 1864. Furloughed for 30 davs October 
1, 1864. 

PRESSLY, M. R., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 15. 1864 for the war. Died 
at Richmond. \'a., of acute diarrhea and dvsenterv Julv 18. 1864 and buried 
in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, \'a. 

QUIGLEY, PATRICK, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 20, May 28, 1861 
for the war. \Vounded at Seven Pines, Va.. May 31, 1862. Captured at Waterloo, 
Pa., July 5, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware. Del., until released after tak- 
ing Oath of Allegiance May 3. 1865. 

RICKETTS, BENJAMIN, Private. Born in McDowell County where he resided as 
a famier and enlisted at age 38. March 17. 1862 for the war. Died at Raleigh 
of chronic diarrhea October 28, 1862, 

ROBERTS, W. S., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 30, 1864 for the war. Absent 
without leave after September 25, 1864. 

ROBINSON, JOHN A., Private. Transferred from Company E. this regiment, 
June 1861. .Appointed Musician January 1, 1862. Captured at "Winchester, Va., 
July 20. 1864 and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, until paroled and exchanged 
at Citv Point. \'a.. March 10-12, 1865. 

ROBINSON, SIDNEY, Private. Resided in Burke County as a farmer. Captured 
at Winchester. \'a., at age 17. July 20, 1864 and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, 
until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., March 10-12, 1865. 

ROSEMAN, HENRY, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 25, June 15, 
1861 for the war. Killed at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. 

ROWELL, WILLIAM, Private. Resided in \Vashington County and enlisted 
November 17, 1864. 

RYAN, CORNELIUS, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 20. May 28. 1861 for 
the war. Deserted September 14, 1862, near Hagerstown, Md. 



348 The BLooin- Sixth 

SANDERS, H. H., Private. Resided in Montgomery County. Captured at Fanii- 
ville. Va.. April 6, 18(35 and confined at Newport News, Va.. until released after 
taking Oath of Allegiance June 25. 1865. 

SEABOLT, TRAVIS S., Corporal. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 22, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal December 15, 
1862. Wounded at Getty.sburg, Pa.. July 2. 1863. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 
1864. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va.. .April 9. 1865. 

SHEHAN, DANIEL, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 30, May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Deserted at Richmond. \'a.. June II, 1862. 

SHEHAN, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted in McDowell County at age 21. March 

17. 1862 for the war. Captured at Seven Pines. Va., May 31, 1862 and confined 
at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing. Va., 
August 5, 1862. Captured at South Mountain, Md., September 14, 1862 and 
confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Land- 
ing November 10, 1862. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

SIGMON, M., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 12. 1864 for the war. Paroled at 
Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865, 

SINGLETON, SILAS S., Private. Born in Burke Coiuity and resided as a fanner 
prior to enlistment in Alamance County at age 22, June 27, 1861 for the war. 
Discharged at Camp Jones, Va., by reason of disability .August 19, 1861. 

SIZEMORE, HENRY, Private. Enlisted in .Alamance County June 15, 1861 for 
the war. Deserted June 26, 1861. 

SIZEMORE, THOMAS, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 21, Jun'i 
15, 1861 for the war. Deserted June 26, 1861. 

SKAHAN, RICHARD, Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 38, May 28, 1861 
for the war. .Appointed Sergeant June 20— .August 31, 1861. Deserted at Rich- 
mond. Va.. June 10, 1862. 

SMITH, JAMES, Private. Resided in Union County as a farmer. Captured at 
Winchester. Va.. at age 36, July 20, 1864 and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, 
until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, \'a., March 10-12, 1865. 

SMITH, JOHN, Private. Transferred from Company E. this regiment. June 1861. 

Detailed as teamster .August 1861— June 1863. Captured at Petersburg, \'a., April 
■ 3, 1865 and confined at Hart's Island, N. Y. Harbor, until paroled after taking 

Oath of .Allegiance June 18. 1865. 

SMITH, MORGAN, Private. Resided in Columbus County as a farmer. Enlisted 
March 1862. Captured at Winchester, Va., at age 31, July 20, 1864 and con- 
fined at Camp Chase, Ohio, where he died of variola January 20, 1865. 

SNIPES, H. C, Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Camp Stokes 
October 26, 1864 for the war, .Admitted to hospital at Richmond, Va,, March 
26, 1865. wotmded. and captured at Richmond .April 3, 1865. Took Oath 
of Allegiance at Newport News, Va,, June 15, 1865, 

SNOWDEN, WILLIAM J., Private. Born in Polk County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 25. June 27, 1861 for the war. 
Discharged near Richmond. \'a.. by reason of phthisis pulmonalis July 16. 18!)2. 



Roster 349 

SPEAGLE, HUGH, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 26. February 2i. 
1862 lor the war. Wounded at Getty.sburg. I'a.. July 1-2. 1863. Captured al 
Rappahannock .Station. Va.. November 7. 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. 
Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing. \'a.. Februarv' 14, 186j. 
Paroled at Morganton Mav 15. 1865. 

SPE.\GLE, JOHN C, Private. Born in Catawba Comity where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at Charlotte at age 22. May 28, 1861 for the war. Died 
at Camp Fisher. \'a.. of acute meningitis Februarv 22, 1862. 

STANFORD, JOHN J., Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a 
fanner and enlisted in .\lamance County at age 33. June 27, 1861 for the 
war. Killed at .Sharpsburg. Md.. September 17. 1862. 

STEELE, I., Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 12. 1865. 

STIGALL, G., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 12. 1864 for the war. Detailed 
at Charlotte by Medical Examining Board September 1864. 

TAYLOR, JAMES R., Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Charlotte 
at age 18, .May 28, 1861 for the war. \Vounded at Malvern Hill. \a.. July 1, 1862. 
Captured at Farm\ille. \'a.. .■\pril 6. 1865 and confined at Newport News. Va., 
until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 26. 1865. 

TAYLOR, MOULTON A., Private. Born in Burke County where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 16. March 7, 1862 for the war. Discharged near 
Richmond, Va.. by reason of "mental imbecility" July 16. 1862. Conscripted at 
Kinston March 25. 1864 for the war. Captured at Fisher's Hill. Va.. September 
22, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at 
Boulware's 'Wharf. James River, Va., January 21, 1865. Stationed at Camp 
Lee. near Richmond. \'a.. January 26, 1865. 

TAYLOR, WILLLAM R., Corporal. Born in Caldwell County and enlisted at 
Charlotte at age 20. May 28, 1861 for the war and mustered in as Corporal. 
Died at Camp Fisher, Va., of phthisis pulmonalis February 18. 1862. 

TEAM, AVILUAM A., Private. Enlisted al Charlotte at age 22. May 28. 1861 
for the war. AVounded at Battle of Second Manassas .August 29-30. 1862. Cap- 
tured at Rappahannock Station. \'a.. No\ ember 7. 1863 and confined at Point 
Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing. Va.. March 
16. 1865. 

THOMPSON, JOHN M., Private. Enlisted at Morganton at age 22, November 

30. 1861 for the war. AVounded at Gaines' Mill, Va,, June 27, 1862. Deserted 

and served with 58th Regiment N. C. Troops November 1862 until returned 

on .April 3, 1863. Deserted near ^\'inchester, Va., July 24, 1863. 

TWIGGS, AVILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes October 26. 1864 for the 
war. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va.. .April 9, 1865. 

WARLICK, .A. J., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 18, May 31. 1863 
for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7. 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's 
AVharf. James River. \a.. March 16, 1865. 

■WEAVER, DAVID, Corjjoral. Born in Catawba Comity and resided as a fanner 
prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 31. May 28, 1861 for the war. Mustered 
in as Private and appointed Corporal February I, 1863. Wounded at Gettys- 



350 The Bloody Sixth 

burg, Pa.. July 1, 1863. Wounded at Smithfield, Va., August 29, 1864 and 
captured at Winchester, Va., September 20, 1864. Confined at West's Building 
Hospital. Baltimore, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Venus Point. Savan- 
nah River, Ga., November 15. 1864. Certificate of Disability for Retiring of 
Invalid Soldier dated February 24, 1865 carries him as pennanently disabled. 

WEAVER, JOHN, Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Charlotte 
at age 18, May 28, 1861 for the war. Deserted near Hedgeville, Va., July 21, 
1863 and captured July 24, 1863 and took the Oath of Allegiance. 

WEAVER, N., Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance September 29, 1863 for the war. 
Missing in action at Winchester, Va., September 19, 1864. 

WILLIAMS, A., Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Camp Vance 

November 4, 1863 for the war. Captured at Petersburg. Va.. .April 3, 1865 and 

confined at Hart's Island, N. Y. Harbor, until released on taking Oath of 
Allegiance Jinie 19, 1865. 

WILLIAMS, HENDERSON, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 18. May 28, 
1861 for the war. Killed at Somerville Ford. Va., September 16. 1863. 

WILLIAMS, T., Private. Enlisted in Union County March 18, 1864 for the war. 
Killed at Winchester, Va., September 19, 1864. 

WINKLER, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Newton at age 26, March 20, 1862 for 
the war. Captured at South Mountain. Md.. September 14, 1862 and confined 
at Fort Delaware. Del., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing, Va., 
November 10. 1862. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va.. .April 9, 1865. 

WOOD, ELI, Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 18. 1865. 

YAUNTZ, COLUMBUS, Corporal. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21, May 28. 1861 
' for the war and appointed Corporal same day. Died at Camp Jones, Va., of 
congestive fever September 8, 1861. 



COMPANY E 

OFFICERS 
CAPTAINS 

AVERY, ISAAC E. Resided in Burke County and appointed Captain by Governor 
Ellis to rank from May 16, 1861. Wounded at Battle of First Manassas July 21, 
1861. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel June 1. 1862 and transferred to Field 
& Staff. 

AVERY, ALPHONSO C. Resided in Burke County as a student of law and ap- 
pointed 1st Lieutenant to rank from May 16, 1861. Promoted to Captain June 
1, 1862. Appointed Maj(n-. Assistant Inspector General, on Major General D. H. 
Hill's staffs, December 20, 1862 to rank from December 5, 1862. Resigned 
Captaincy December 24. 1862. .Assigned to staff of Major General Thomas C. 
Hindman November 18, 1863 and transferred to Lieutenant General John B. 
Hood's staff March 1864. serving as Assistant Inspector General on both staffs. 
Assigned to the District of Western North Carolina July 25, 1864 where he 
first sen'ed as .Adjutant General under Brigadier General James G. Martin. 
Commanded a battalion of non-conscripts with authority to raise it to a regiment 
when he was captured at Salisbury April 12. 1865. Confined at Camp Chase. 
Ohio, until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance July 25, 1855. 



I 



Roster 351 

BURNS, JAMES H. Enlisted May 16, 1861 and appointed 2nd Lieutenant June 
1, 1861 to take rank fiom May 20, 1861. Promoted to 1st Lieutenant June 1, 
1862 and to Captain December 24, 1862. Killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. 

Mcpherson, JOHN Alexander. Resided in Cumberland County as a stu- 
dent when he enlisted May 1, 1861. Appointed Jr 2nd Lieutenant June 1, 
1861 to rank from May 16, 1861. Promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant June 1. 1862 
and to 1st Lieutenant December 24, 1862. Promoted to Captain July 1, 1863. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, \'a., June 7, 1864. Wounded at Petersburg. Va., March 
25, 1863 and appears on a report of sick and wounded in hospital at Goldsboro 
for the week ending April 7, 1865. 

LIEUTENANTS 

BROWN, SAMUEL P., Sr 2nd Lieutenant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 24, May 

28, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Corporal. Appointed Jr 2nd Lieutenant 
February 4, 1863 and promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant July 1, 1863. ^Vounded 
at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Present or accounted for through December 
1864. Appears on leport of sick and wounded in hospital at Greensboro for 
the week ending .-^pril 7, 1865. 

TURNER, WARREN G., 1st Lieutenant. Resided in Burke County and enlisted 
in Alamance County at age 24. June 20, 1861. .Appointed Corporal June 30, 
1861 and elected Jr 2nd Lieutenant June 17, 1862- Promoted to Sr 2nd 
Lieutenant December 24, 1862 and to 1st Lieutenant July 1, 1863. Captured 
at Rappahannock Station, Va.. No\ember 7, 1863 and confined at Camp Chase, 
Ohio, until transferred to Point Lookout, Md., March 14, 1865. Paroled and 
exchanged at Coxes \Vharf, James River, Va., March 22, 1865. 

VANCE, SAMUEL C, Jr 2nd Lieutenant. Enlisted in Burke County at age 26, 
August 16, 1861 for the war. .Mustered in as Private. Wounded at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 2, 1863 and captured at Hagerstown, Md., July 6, 1863. Confined in 
hospital at Chester, Pa., until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., 
August 20, 1863. Promoted to Corporal September 19, 1864 and to Sergeant 
in October 1864. Elected Jr 2nd Lieutenant December 2, 1864. Appears on 
report of sick and wounded in hospital at Greensboro for the week ending 
.April 7, 1865 . 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES 

ALLMAND, N., Private. Paroled at Morganton May 16. 1865. 

ALMAN, JOSEPH LEONARD, Private. Resided and enlisted in Burke County 
at age 18. February 14. 1862 for the war. Wounded at Chancelloi-sville, Va., 
May 4, 1863. Left as nurse in hospital at Gettvsburg, Pa., and captured in 
hospital. Confined at DeCamp General Hospital, David's Island, \. Y. Harbor, 
until paroled and exchanged at City Point, \3.., October 28, 1863. Paroled at 
Morganton May 16. 1865. 

ANDERSON, CREED M., Private. Born in .Mitchell County where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 20, March 10, 1862 for the war. Wounded in left 
arm at Mahern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862, causing amputation. Retired to In- 
valid Corps March 14, 1865. 

BACHELOR, EDMOND, Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, March 
10, 1864 for the war. Discharged November 1, 1864. 



352 The Bloods Sixth 

BATES, GEORGE W., Corporal. Enlisted in Burke County March 17, 1862 for 
the war. Mustered in as Pri\ate and promoted to Corporal February 1. 1863. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at .\iken's Landing. \'a., 
February 25-March 3, 1865. 

BEAVER, JOHN W,, Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
when he enlisted in Mitchell County at age 32, March 7, 1862 for the war. 
Died at .\shland. Va.. May 1862 of measles. 

BERRY, GEORGE W., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 19. May 28, 1861 tor 
the war. Transferred to Company D, this regiment, June 1861. 

BLAIR, J. M., Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes December 21, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at Appomattox Court House. Va., April 9, 1865. 

BOONE, JAMES M., Private. Born in Yancey County where he resided as a 
farmer. Enlisted at Camp Jones, Va., at age 35, September 4, 1861 for the war. 
Died at Yorktown, Va., May 1, 1862 of fever. 

BOONE, JOHN P., Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 18. March 8, 

1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through February 1864 at which time 
he was furloughed. 

BOONE, JOSEPH, Private. Enlisted in .'Vlamance County at age 28. June 27, 
1861 for the war. Present or accounted for through February- 1864. 

BOONE, J. ROBERT, Private. Resided in Mitchell County and enlisted in .Ma- 
mance County at age 36, June 17, 1861 for the war. Captured near Petersburg, 
Va., March 25. 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released after 
taking Oath of Allegiance June 22, 1865. 

BOST, LEANDER S., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 33. May 28, 1861 for 
for the war. Transferred to Company D, this regiment. June 1861. 

BRACKET, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance October 1. 1864 for the 
war. Captured at Strasburg. Va.. October 19, 1864 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Boulware's ^\'harf. James River, Va., 
January 25, 1865. Captured at Burkeville. Va., April 10. 1865 and confined 
at Point Lookout, Md„ until released after taking Oath of .\llegiance June 3, 
1865. 

BRANCH, ANDERSON, Private. Born in Burke County and enlisted at Camp 
Vance August 20, 1863 for the war. Died at Staunton, \'a., July 15, 1864 of 
disease. 

BRANCH, WILLIAM S., 1st Sergeant. Born in Burke County and enlisted in 
Alamance County at age 31. June 17, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private. 
Wounded at Gaines' Mill. Va.. June 27. 1862. Promoted to Corporal January 

1863 and to Sergeant February 1. 1863. Promoted to 1st Sergeant July 1, 1863. 
Killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 

BRIGHTON, WILLIAM M., Private. Captured at Burkeville. Va., .-Vpril 10, 1865 
and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until released after taking Oath of Alle- 
giance June 3, 1865. 

BROWN, JOHN W., Private. Enlisted at Camp Fisher, Va., at age 18, October 
30, 1861 for the war. AVounded at Bachelor's Creek February 1, 1864. Retired 
to Invalid Corps and assigned to temporary duty November 30, 1864. 



Roster 353 

BROWN, JOSEPH C, Sergeant. Resided in McDowell County and enlisted at 
Charlotte at age 26. May 28, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as 1st Sergeant. 
^\'ounded at Se\en Pines, Va., May 31, 1862 and reduced to ranks June 17. 

1862 from prolonged absence caused by wound and sickness. Detached to 
Brigade Quartennaster February 6. 1863 through October 1864. Promoted to 
Sergeant December 29. 1864 and captured near Petersburg. Va.. March 25. 1865. 
Confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until released after taking Oath of Allegiance 
June 23, 1865. 

BUCHANAN, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 35. June 
24, 1861 for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

BYRD, LACE, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 24. June 27. 1861 for 
the war. .'Absent without leave after .\ugust 30, 1862. 

CARPE.NTER, JOSEPH L., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a 
fanner prior to enlistmeirt in Burke County at age 17, October 11, 1861 for the 
war. Died at Ashland. Va.. April 24, 1862 of measles. 

CARPENTER, LEVI TURNER, Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as 
a farmer prior to enlistment in .\lamance County at age 21, June 24, 1861 
for the war. Discharged at Camp Fisher, \'a., November 9, 1861 by reason of 
"phthisis pulmonalis," 

CHAPMAN, HOSEA H., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 43, February 

19, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va.. November 7, 

1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., luitil paroled and exchanged at 
Venus Point, Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. Captured near 
Petersburg. Va., March 25, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until re- 
leased on taking Oath of .\llegiance June 3, 1865. 

CHAPMAN, J., Private. Died of wound at Richmond. \'a., February 14. 1865. 

CHAPM.\N, JAMES H., Private. Captured at Farmville. \a., April 6, 1865 and 
confined at Military Prison, Newport News, Va.. where he died June 8, 1865. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN L., Private. Enlisted at Kinston Februai7 1, 1864 for the 
war. 'Wounded at Charlestown. \'a., .■\ugust 25, 1864 and furloughed. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN L., Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 16, 1862 for 
the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \'a.. November 7, 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing. 
James River. \a.. February 14-15, 1865. Paroled at .Morganton after taking Oath 
of Allegiance May 27. 1865. 

COFFEY, C. LEVI, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 24, June 20, 
1861 for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill. \'a.. July 1, 1862. Missing after 
June 30. 1863 and carried as deserter. 

COFFEY, JOSEPH W., Private. Enlisted in .\lamance County at age 18, June 

20, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Seven Pines, \'a.. May 31, 1862. Detailed as 
nurse March 24, 1863 and returned to duty December 2, 1863. Deserted January- 
February 1864. 

COLLINS, JOSEPH L., Private. Born in Burke County and resided as a fanner 
prior to enlistment in .\lamance County at age 16. June 20, 1861 for the war. 
.•\ppointed .Musician the same day. Reduced to ranks .April 30, 1862 while on 
sick leave. Killed at Battle of Second Manassas .August 29, 1862. 



354 The Bloody Sixth 

COLLINS, PHILIP B., Sergeant. Bom in Burke County and enlisted at Char- 
lotte at age 30, May 28, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and captured 
at Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until 
paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., May 23, 1863. Promoted to Sergeant 
between May 11 and July 2, 1863, the day he was killed at Gettysburg, Pa. 

CONLEY, JOSEPH E., Private. Resided in Macon County and enlisted at Camp 
Vance March 9, 1864 for the war. Captured near Petersburg, Va., March 25, 
1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released on taking Oath of 
Allegiance June 24, 1855. 

COX, THOMAS N., Private. Boin in McDowell County and enlisted in Virginia 
November 1. 1863 for the war. Died of wound at Plymouth April 30. 1864. 

COX, WILLIAM A., Corporal. Born in Mitchell or Yancey County and resided 
as a farmer prior to his enlistment in .41amance County at age 21, June 15, 
1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal Februai7 1, 
1862. Wounded at Gaines' Mill. Va.. June 27, 1862 and died of wound July 

12. 1862. 

DAVIS, ALEXANDER, Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 1, 1864 for the war. 
Absent wounded after June 1. 1864. 

DAVIS, ANDREW J., Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 41. June 15, 

1861 for the war. Deserted in April 1862. 

DAVIS, JOHN P., Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 20. June 15, 1861 
for the war. Deserted December 21, 1863. 

DAVIS, WILLIAM A., Private. Wounded and captured near Petersburg, Va., 
March 25, 1865 and died of wounds March 26, 1865. 

DUNAVANT, SAMUEL D., Sergeant. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21. May 28, 

1861 for the war and mustered in as Sergeant. \Vounded at Fredericksburg, Va., 
December 12-13, 1862. Transferred to Company K, 4th Regiment Virginia 
Cavalry January 27, 1863. Present or accounted for through .August 1864. 

DUNAWAY, JOHN J., Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 40. June 
15, 1861 for the war. Captured at Fisher's Hill, Va., September 22. 1864 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released on taking Oath of .Allegiance May 

13, 1865. 

EARNHEART, HARVEY B. G., Private. Born in Burke County where he resided 
as a farmer prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 18, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Discharged at Camp Fisher, Va., November 28, 1861 by reason of deafness. 
Final discharge given January 20. 1862. Conscripted in Burke County September 
22, 1862 for the war and assigned to Company G this regiment. 

ENGLISH, CHARLES H., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a 
fanner prior to enlistment in Alamance County at age 23, June 15, 1861 for 
the war. Killed at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27. 1862. 

ENGLISH, J. HARVEY, Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in Mitchell County at age 21, March 10, 1862 for the war. 
Died at Ashland, Va., May 4, 1862 of measles. 

ENGLISH, JOHN J., Sergeant. Enlisted in Burke County at age 20. March 18, 

1862 for the war. Mustered in as Private and wounded at Battle of Second 
Manassas .August 29, 1862. Promoted to Corporal after February 1864 and to 
Sergeant September 19, 1864. Wounded near Cedar Creek, \'a., October 19, 
1804 and sent home on furlough. 



Roster 355 

ENGLISH, JOHN SAMUEL, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 20 
June 15, 1861 for the war. \Vounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13. 1862 
Transferred to Company B, 5th Battalion N. C. Cavalry March 31. 1863. Com 
pany B, became Company K, 05th Regiment N. C. Troops (6th Regiment N. C 
Cavalry) when the 5th and 7th Battalions were consolidated to form the regi 
ment. Appears on rolls of Company K as absent without leave since July 
10, 1864. 

ERVVIN, ADOLPHUS, Private. Resided in Burke County where he enlisted 
September 22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Gettysburg. Pa., July 3, 1863 and con- 
fined at Fort Delaware, Del., until sent to Point Lookout. Md., October 18, 
1863. Paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., March 17, 1864. Captured near 
Petersburg, Va.. March 25, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md.. until 
released on taking Oath of .Allegiance June 11, 1865. 

ERA\T1N, ISAAC A., Sergeant. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 30, May 28, 1861 for the war. Mustered 
in as Sergeant. Mortally wounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. 

FITE, J. W., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh, March 10, 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

FLEMING, JOHN G. B., Private. Born in Burke Comity and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 21, May 28. 1861 for the war. Dis- 
charged at Camp near Richmond. Va., June 6, 1862 by reason of "general 
debility and erysipelas." 

FORD, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Fairfax Court House, \a.. September 2, 
1862 for the war. \Vounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. .Absent 
without leave after February 2, 1863 after failing to report back from hospital. 

FORTNER, JOHN, 1st Sergeant. Enlisted in .Mitchell County at age 26, March 
10, 1862 for the war. Mustered in as Private and wounded at Battle of Second 
Manassas .August 30. 1862. Promoted to Corporal February 1, 1863 and to 
Sergeant July 1, 1863. Promoted to 1st Sergeant September 1, 1863. Deserted 
at ^Vaynesboro, Va., December 10, 1864. 

FREEMAN, JOHN C, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 21, June 15, 
1861 for the war. \\'ounded at Malvern Hill. \'a.. July 1, 1862 and at Sharps- 
burg, Md., September 17, 1862. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3, 1863 
and captured in hospital where he died of wound .August 21, 1863. 

GOOD, ^VILLIAM C, Private. Born in Burke County and resided as a barkeeper 
and enlisted at age 26, May 10, 1861 for one year. Discharged at Manassas Junc- 
tion, \'a., .August 31. 1861 by reason of "secondary syphillis." 

GRAGG, M.AJOR, Private. Born in Btirke County and resided as a farmer prior 
to enlistment in Alamance County at age 25, June 17, 1861 for the war. Died 
at Camp Jones. Va.. September 23, 1861 of measles and typhoid fever. 

GREEN, ROBERT P., Private. Born in Mitchell County where he resided as a 
fanner and enlisted at age 22. March 11. 1862 for the war. Discharged at Camp 
near Richmond, \a., July 23, 1862 by reason of "anemia resulting from chronic 
diarrhea." 

GREENLEE, A. S., Corporal. Transferred from Company G, this regiment, 
November-December 1864 and promoted to Corporal December 29. 1864. 
Captured at Fanuville. \'a.. .April 6. 1865 and confined at Newport News, \'a., 
until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 25, 1865. 



356 The Bloody Sixth 

HARRIS, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Virginia November 1. 1863 for the war. 
Present or accounted for through Februar)' 1864. Union Prisoner of War records 
indicate that he was sent from Chambersburg, Pa.. ."Vugust 8. 1864 to Harrison- 
burg, Pa., and from there to Fort MilHin, Pa., .August 17. 1864. Released from 
Fort Mifflin September 2. 1864 after taking Oath of .Allegiance. 

HIGHFILL, J. F., Private. Resided in Guilford County and enlisted at Camp 
Stokes November 1, 1864 for the war. Captured at Farmville. Va., .April 6, 186,5 
and confined at Newport News, Va., until released after taking Oath of .Alle- 
giance June 26, 1865. 

HIPPS, JAMES A., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 22. May 28, 1861 for 
the war. Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862, Present or ac- 
counted for through July 1864. 

HOLDER, JESSE, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 36, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Transferred to Companv D. this regiment, Jiuie 1861. 

HOLDER, SIMEON, Private, Enlisted at Camp Holmes. Raleigh. March 20. 1864 

for the war. .Absent sick through December 1864. 
HOLLIS, W. H., Private. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 

1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 

Aiken's Landing. Va., March 15, 1865. 

HONEYCUTT, WILLIAM B., Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 29, 
March 9, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Mahern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862 and 
sent home on furlough. 

HOUSTON, JOHN M., Private. Enlisted in Virginia December 1, 1863 for the 
war. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, \a.. .April 9. 1865. 

HOUSTON, WILLI.AM HENRY, Private. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 20, 
June 15. 1861 for the war. AVounded and admitted to hospital January 12. 1864. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. .Admitted to hospital at 
Farmville, Va., March 1, 1865, wounded. Paroled at Farmville, Va., .April 11-21, 
1865, 

HOWELL, JAMES G., 1st Sergeant. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 29, June 
15, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Sergeant and appointed 1st Sergeant June 
17, 1862. Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md.. September 17. 1862 and sent home. 
Reduced to ranks February 1. 1863 because of prolonged absence. .Absent 
wounded through Deceinber 1864. 

HOWELL, JOHN D., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in Burke County at age 31. August 16. 1861. Wounded at 
Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862 and died of wounds at Richmond, Va., July 
19, 1862, 

HOWELL, ROBERT P., Private. Born in Yancey County and enlisted in .Alamance 
County at age 17. June 27. 1861 for the war. Captured at Fredericksburg, Va., 
May 3, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged 
at City Point, Va., May 23 1863. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2. 1863 and 
confined at Fort Delaware. Del., until transferred to Point Lookout, Md., where 
he died November 5, 1863. 

HOWELL, SWINFIELD, Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 19, March 

10. 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 1, 1863 and captured 
at South .Mountain, .Md., July 4, 1863. Confined at West's Building Hospital, 
Baltimore, Md., until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., .August 24, 1863. 



Roster 357 

HO\VELL, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted in >ritcliell County at age 25. March 

8, 1862 for the war. AVotinded at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862 and at the 
Battle of Second Manassas .August 29. 1862. Sent back at Gettysburg. Pa.. July 
2. 1863 because of sickness. Captured at Frederick, Md.. July 6. 1863 and sent 
to ^Vest's Building Hospital. Baltimore, Md. Took Oath of .Allegiance July 
7, 1863. 

HUNSINGER, JAMES, Private. Resided in McDowell Coiuity and enlisted at 
Plymouth .April 21. 1864 for the war. Wounded and captured near Petersburg, 
Va.. March 25. 1865. Released from hospital at ^Vashington. D. C, after tak- 
ing Oath of Allegiance Jime 12. 1865. 

HUNSINGER, JOHN, Private. Resided in McDowell County and enlisted at 
Charlotte at age 23. May 28. 1861 for the war. .Admitted to hospital at Richmond, 
Va.. March 27, 1865. wounded, where he was captured April 3. 1865. Transferred 
to Military Prison, Newport News, Va., and released after taking Oath of 
.Allegiance June 30, 1865. 

HUNSINGER, JOSEPH, Private, linlisted in Burke County at age 17, February 
22, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gaines' Mill. \a., June 27, 1862. Present or 
accounted for through December 1864. 

HUTCHINS, JAMES A., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 23, February 
22, 1862 for the war. Died at Huguenot Springs, \a.. October 18, 1862. 

HUTCHINS, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 22. FebruaiT 22, 
1862 for the war. Absent without leave after battle at Gaines' Mill. \'a.. Jiuie 

27. 1862. 

JARROLD, JOSEPH, 1st Sergeant. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at 
Charlotte at age 24. May 28. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and ap- 
pointed Corporal October 1. 1862 and promoted to Sergeant February 1, 1863. 
Wounded at Gettysburg. Pa., July 1, 1863 and again at Mt. Jackson. \"a., Septem- 
ber 24, 1864. Promoted to 1st Sergeant December 10. 1864. Admitted to hos- 
pital at Richmond. \'a., March 27, 1865, wounded, where he was captured 
April 3. 1865. Transferred to hospital at Point Lookout, Md., May 9, 1865 and 
released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 26. 1865. 

JOHNSON, CALHOUN, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 39. March 17, 
1862 for the war. Wounded at Chancelloi-sville, Va.. May 4. 1863. Captured at 
Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and conhned at Point Look- 
out, Md.. until paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing. Va., February 25- 
March 3, 1865. Furloughed for 60 days March 29. 1865. 

JOHNSON, D. PERKINS, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 32. May 28, 1861 
for the war. Discharged .August 10. 1861 by reason of disability. 

JOHNSON, F. ALPHONSO, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 31, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal June 20. 1861 and 
reduced to ranks June 30, 1861. Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 
1862. Present or accounted for through August 1864. 

JOHNSON, I., Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 16, 1865. 

JOHNSON, MARTIN V. B., Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 21. May 28. 
1861 for the war. .Absent without lea\e after December 21, 1863. 

JOHNSON, WILLIAM DePRUNE, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 29. May 

28, 1861 for the war. Present or accounted for through February 1864. Deserted 
and shot by Home Guard on March 22. 1865. 



358 The Bloody Sixth 

JOHNSON, W. RED^VINE, Private. Born in Rutherford County and resided in 
Burke County as a farmer prior to enlistment in Alamance County at age 21, 
June 24, 1861 for the war. Died at Camp Fisher, Va., November 28, 1861 of 
pneumonia. 

JONES, JOHN D., Private. Born in Rutherford County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at Charlotte at age 23, May 28. 1861 for the war. Died 
at Camp Fisher, Va., December 1, 1861 of pneumonia. 

KNIGHT, NEVINS, Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes October 31, 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

LANE, JACOB, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a farmer 
and enlisted in .\lamance County at age 22, June 24, 1861 for the war. "Deserted" 
and "captured" at Mine Run, Va., November 27-30, 1863. Confined at Point 
Lookout, Md.. until released after taking Oath of .\llegiance and joining the 
U. S. Anny February 19. 1864. Mustered into Company E, 1st Regiment U. S. 
Volunteers, at Norfolk, ^'a., May 1, 1864 for three years. Discharged at St. 
Louis, Mo., June 22, 1865. 

LAWNER, H. Buried in Hollywood Cemeter)', Richmond, Va., January 26, 1865. 

LEXERS, P. v.. Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes November 1, 1864 for the war. 
Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

LEWIS, HENDERSON, Private. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23, May 28, 1861 
for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va.. November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Land- 
ing, Va., February 24, 1865. In hospital at Richmond, Va., March 2, 1865. 

LEWIS, JAMES W., Private. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 25, June 27, 

1861 for the war. 'Wounded at Gaines' Mill, Va.. June 27, 1862 and at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va., May 4, 1863. Missing and presumed killed at Cedar Creek, Va., 
October 19, 1864.' 

LEWIS, JOHN NELSON, Private. Enlisted in ,\lamance County at age 18. June 

27, 1861 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \'a., November 7. 

1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Coxes Wharf, James River, Va., October 15, 1864. Died in hospital at Richmond, 
Va., October 24, 1864 of chronic diarrhea. 

LEWIS, P. v., Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted November 1, 1864. 
Paroled at Richmond, Va., April 30, 1865. 

LONGWORTH, WILLIAM F., Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance October 1, 

1864 for the war. Captured at Strasburg, Va., October 19, 1864 and confined 
at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at .\iken's Landing, Va., 
March 28, 1865. 

LOVEING, WILLIAM JEFFERSON, Coiporal. Born in Burke County and resided 
as farmer prior to enlistment in .\lamance County at age 21. June 15. 1861 for 
the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to Corporal September 1, 1863. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout. Md., until paroled and exchanged at \arina, \a.. September 
22, 1864. Furloughed September 23. 1854. 

LOWRIE, J. MONROE, Private. Born in Mitchell or McDowell County and 
resided as a farmer prior to enlistment in Mitchell County at age 22. March 6, 

1862 for the war. Died at Camp near Richmond, \'a.. July 30. 1862 of fever. 



Roster 359 

LOWRIE, JOHN A., Sergeant. Enlisted in Burke County October U, 1861 for 
the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to Corporal February 1, 1863 
and to Sergeant July 1. 1863. \Vounded at Gettysburg. Pa., July 1, 1863 and 
captured at South Mountain. Md., July 4, 1863. Confined at Fort Delaware, Del., 
until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., August 1, 1863. Died at Kins- 
ton FebruaiT 28, 1864. 

MACE, JAMES E., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 20. August 16, 
1861 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Present or accounted 
for through December 1864. 

MASON, J. R., Private. Captured at Strasburg. Va., October 19, 1864 and sent 
to Harpers Ferry, \'a. 

MATHIS, WILLIAM, Private. Born in ^\'ashington County, Tenn., and resided 
as a fanner prior to enlistment in .\lamance County at age 19, June 15, 1861 
for the war. Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17. 1862 and at Gettys- 
burg, Pa.. July 2, 1863. Captured at South .Mountain, .Md., July 3, 1863 and 
confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at City Point, 
Va., August 1, 1863. Died in McDowell County February 12, 1864. 

McDonald, J. R., Private. Enlisted in Virginia at age 20, January 1, 1863 for 
the war. .Absent without leave after October 10, 1864. 

McDonald, R., Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted June 3, 1863. 

McGEE, ABRAM, Private. Enlisted in \'irginia November 1, 1863 for the war. 
Paroled at .\ppomattox Court House. Va., April 9, 1865. 

McGEE, BRICE, Private. Born in Yancey County and resided in ifcDowell County 
as a farmer prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 22, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va.. July 1, 1862 and at Battle of Second 
Manassas .\ugust 29. 1862. Captured at Farraville, Va.. .April 6, 1865 and 
confined at Newport News, \'a.. until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance 
June 26, 1865. 

McGEE, ISAAC AVERY, Sergeant. Born in McDovvell Comity where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at Charlotte at age 19, May 28, 1861 for the war. 
Mustered in as Private and wounded at Seven Pines. Va,, May 31, 1862. .Ap- 
pointed Corporal October 1, 1862 and promoted to Sergeant February 1, 1863. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Paroled at Appomattox Court 
House, \'a., April 9, 1865. 

McGEE, ISAAC W., Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted November 
25. 1863. 

McGEE, JOHN S., Private. Born in Yancey Comity and resided as a fanner prior 
to enlistment in Mitchell County at age 21, July 8, 1862 for the war. Originally 
enlisted in Company K, 58th Regiment N. C. Troops but transferred to this 
company March 31, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at 
.Aiken's Landing, \'a.. February 25— .March 3, 1865. 

McGEE, JOHN W., Private. Enlisted in \'irginia November 1, 1863 for the war. 
Paroled at -Appomattox Court House. \'a., .April 9, 1865. 



360 The Bloodi Sixih 

McGEE, ROBERT S., Private. Born in McDoivell County and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment in Mitcliell County at age 18, July 8. 1862 for the 
war. Originally enlisted in Company K, 58th Regiment N. C. Troops but 
transferred to this company March 31. 1863. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., where he 
died February 25, 1865 of pneumonia. 

McGEE, ^VILLL\M HENRY, Corporal. Born in Yancey County and resided as 
a farmer prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 21, May 28, 1861 for the war. 
Mustered in as Corporal and died at Camp Fisher, Va., December 4, 1861 of 
pneumonia. 

McKINNEY, J.\MES M., Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 17, March 

10, 1862 for the war. \Vounded at Seven Pines. \'a.. May 31, 1862 and at Get- 
tysburg. Pa., July 1, 1863, Captured at South Mountain, Md., July 4, 1863 
and confined at Fort Delaware, Del,, until paroled and exchanged in February 
1865, Stationed at Camp Lee, near Richmond, \'a., after exchanged. 

McKINNEY', M. A., Private. Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863 and con- 
fined at Fort Delaware, Del., until transferred to Point Lookout, Md., October 
18, 1863. Paroled and exchanged at Coxes \\'harf, James River, Va., February 
21-22, 1865, 

McKINNEY, MOSES J., 1st Sergeant. Born in Mitchell or Yancey Coimty and re- 
sided as a farmer prior to enlistment in Alamance County at age 24, June 15, 
1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal June 17, 1862. 
Wounded at Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. Promoted to Sergeant 
February 1, 1863 and to 1st Sergeant before he was wounded at Gettysburg, 
Pa„ July 1, 1863, Died at Gettysburg July 3-6, 1863 of wound. 

McNeill, Alexander, private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 19, March 

8, 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through February 1864. 

McNeill, Archibald H., Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 23, 
March 8, 1862 for the war, ^\■ounded at Battle of Second Manassas, Va... .\ugust 
29, 1862. .Ybsent without leave after March 27, 1863, 

McNeill, DANIEL, Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in Mitchell County at age 24-26, March 8, 1862 for the 
war. Died at .-Ashland, Va., May 9, 1862 of measles. 

McNeill, J.4MES, Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance November 12, 1863 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through February 1864, 

McNeill, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 21, March 8, 1862 
for the war, .-Absent without leave after March 27, 1863. 

McPHERSON, ^VTLLI.4M H., Private. Resided in Cumberland County and en- 
listed at Camp Holmes, Raleigh, October 13, 1864 for the war, .\dmitted to 
hospital at Richmond, Va., wounded, .'Vpril 3-4. 1865 and captured in hos- 
pital. Transferred to hospital at Point Lookout, Md., May 12, 1865 and re- 
leased after taking Oath of .Allegiance July 7, 1865. 

MILLER, ANDERSON M,, Private. Enlisted in .-Vlamance Countv at age 25. June 

15, 1861 for the war, and mustered in as Sergeant, Reduced to ranks February 
1, 1863 by reason of sickness. Died in Caldwell County .March 15, 1863 of 
dvsenteiT, 

MOSES, THOMAS, Private. Enlisted in Burke County September 22, 1862 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through February 1864. 



Roster 361 

MURDACH, ROBERT H., Private. Bom in Orange County and resided in 
Yancey Couiuy as a fanner prior to enlistment in Alamance County at age 31, 
June 27, 1861 for the war. ^Vounded in action June 7, 1864. Present or accounted 
for through December 1864. Captured at Farmville, \'a.. April 6, 1865 and 
confined at Newport News. Va., until released after taking Oath of Allegiance 
June 25, 1865. 

OAKS, SAMUEL C, Private. Born in .Mitchell County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in .'Alamance County at age 24. June 24. 1861 for the war. 
Discharged at Camp Fisher. Va., October 30, 1861 by reason of phthisis pul- 
monalis and rheimiatism. 

OLIVER, JOHN, Private. Enlisted in Burke County November 18, 1864 for the 
war. Paroled at Salisbury May 25. 1865. 

OLLIS, ALEX.\NDER, Private. Captured near Harpers Ferry. Va., July 11. 1864 
and confined at Elmira. N. Y., luitil paroled and exchanged February 20- 
March 3. 1865. Furloughed for 30 days March 8, 1865. 

OLLIS, ALEX.4NDER S., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a 
fanner prior to enlistment in .\lamance County at age 18. June 17. 1861 for the 
war. Discharged at Camp Fisher. \a.. December 10. 1861 by reason of "suffer- 
ing regid flexion of the right leg from myotitis (inverted probably by an injury 
in early life)." 

OLLIS, JAMES N., Private. Resided in Yancey County and enlisted at Kinstou 
April 1, 1864 for the war. Captured at Farmville, ^'a., .^pril 6, 1865 and confined 
at Newport News, Va., until released after taking Oath of -Allegiance June 25, 
1865. 

OLLIS, JOHN LEONARD. Enlisted in Burke County .\ugust 16, 1861 for the 
war. Wounded at Sharpsburg. Md.. September 17. 1862. "Deserted" July 23, 
1863 and "captured" at Chambersburg, Pa.. August 8. 1864 and confined at 
Fort Mifflin. Pa., until released on taking Oath of .-\llegiance September 2. 1864. 

OLLIS, JOSEPH M., Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 1, 1864 for the war. 
Absent without lea\e after November 10, 1864. 

OLLIS, NELSON, Private. Enlisted in Lenoir County February 27, 1864 for the 
war. 

OLLIS, THOM-iS L., Private. Born in Y'ancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in .-Vlaraance County at age 18. June 17, 1861 for the war. 
Wounded at Battle of Second Manassas August 29. 1862. Retired to Invalid 
Corps October 12, 1864. 

OLLIS, 'WILLIAM H., Private. Born in Y'ancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in .\lamance County at age 20. June 15, 1861 for the war. 
\Vounded at Malveni Hill, \a.. July 1. 1862. Missing in action at Rappahannock 
Station, \'a., November 7, 1863. 

PAENTER, LEWIS S., Private. Enlisted at Camp \ance October 1. 1864 for the 
war. Captured at Strasburg. Va., October 19. 1864 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md., until released after taking Oath of .\llegiance June 3, 1865. 

PARKER, DANIEL W., Private. Enlisted in Burke County .August 16. 1861 for 
the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, \'a., November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., where he died January 5, 1865 of acute dianhea. 



362 The Bloody Sixth 

PASTER, L. S., Private. Captured at Strasburg, Va., October 19. 1864 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Md. Record of parole and exchange cancelled on 
register. 

PEELER, RICHARD PETER, Private. Born in Rutherford County and resided 
as a farmer prior to enlistment in Alamance County at age 18, June 15, 1861 
for the war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1. 1862 and at Plymouth 
April 20, 1864. Retired to Invalid Corps Noveiuber 14, 1864 as totally disabled. 

PENDLEY, MERRIT B., 1st Sergeant. Born in Burke County and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment at age 31, June 15, 1861 for the war. Mustered in 
as Private and appointed Corporal September 30, 1861. Promoted to Sergeant 
June 17, 1862 and to 1st Sergeant February 1, 1863. Wounded at Gettysburg, 
Pa,, July 1, 1863 and captured in hospital at Gettysburg where he died 
September 18, 1863. 

PHILLIPS, J. TARPLEY, Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment in Mitchell County at age 20, March 18, 1862 for 
the war. Died at Ashland, Va., May 2, 1862 of measles. 

PITMAN, R. G., Private. Enlisted at Camp Holmes March 15, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

POOL, FELIX, Private. Resided in Randolph County and enlisted at Camp 
Stokes December 1, 1864 for the war. Captured near Petersburg. Va., March 25, 
1865 and confined at Point Lookout. Md., until released after taking Oath 
of Allegiance June 17, 1865. 

POWELL, JOHN B., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 19, February 15, 
1862 for the war. Captured near Sharpsburg. Md., June 27-28, 1863 and con- 
fined at Fort Delaware, Del., where he died .April 1, 1864 of chronic diarrhea. 

RAMSEY, LABAN F., Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 19, March 14, 1862 for the war. Died at .\shland, Va., 
May 1862 of measles. 

RAMSEY, NOTAIN, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided as a farmer 
and enlisted at age 22, March 14, 1862 for the war. Died at ."Vshland, Va.. April 
20, 1862 of measles. 

RATHBONE, THOMAS, Private. Born in McDowell County and resided as a 
famier prior to enUstment in Mitchell County at age 28, March 11, 1862 for 
the war. Died at .Ashland, Va., .April 17, 1862 of measles. 

RAY, JACOB, Private. Born in Newberry, S. C, and resided as a farmer prior 
to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 44, June 27, 1861 for the war. .Absent 
without leave after May 20, 1863. 

ROBERSON, J.4MES A., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 30, September 

22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, \'a., November 7, 1863 
and confined at Point Lookout, Md., where he died February 16, 1865 of 
chronic diarrhea. 

ROBERSON, JOHN W., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enUstment in Mitchell County at age 27, March 8. 1862 for the war. 
Died at .Ashland, \'a., .April 28, 1862 of measles. 

ROBERSON, MARTIN V. B., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 25, 
March 8, 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through March 1865. 



Roster 363 

ROBERSOX, N. M., Private. Paroled at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 
9, 1865. 

ROBERSON, WILBURN A., Corporal. Resided in Yancey County and enlisted 
in Burke County at age 17, March 10, 1862 for the war. Mustered in as Private 
and wounded at Malvern Hill, \'a., July 1, 1862. Promoted to Coiporal February 
1, 1863 and wounded at Gettysburg. Pa., July 2, 1863. Captured at South 
Mountain, Md., July 4, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until released 
on taking Oath of .Allegiance June 19, 1865. 

ROBERTS, JOHN R., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 20, June 15. 1861 for the war. 
Wounded at Battle of First Manassas, Julv 21, 1861. Discharged at Camp near 
Richmond, \'a., July 20, 1862 by reason of phthisis pulmonalis. Died at Lynch- 
burg, \'a., .August 29, 1862 of peritonitis. 

ROBINSON, JOHN A., Private. Resided in Burke County as a blacksmith prior 
to enlistment at Charlotte at age 22, May 28, 1861 for the war. Transferred 
to Company D, this regiment, June 1861. 

ROHM, ISAAC, Private. Enlisted March 1, 1863. Captured or surrendered in 
.August 1864. Sent from Chambersburg, Pa., .August 8, 1864 and confined at 
Fort Mifflin, Pa., .August 17, 1864. Released after taking Oath of .Allegiance 
September 2, 1864. 

ROSE, LEVI, Private. Born in Mitchell County and resided as a farmer prior 
to enlistment in .Alamance Comity at age 20, June 27, 1861 for the war. Died 
in hospital at Petersburg, Va., December 1864. 

SATTERLEE, E., Private. Enlisted .April 1861 for tlie war. Captured in hospital 
at Richmond. \'a.. .April 3, 1865. 

SCARBOROUGH, JOHN R., Private. Resided in .Montgomery County and en- 
listed at Camp Holmes March 26, 1864 for the war. Captured at Farmville, Va., 
.April 6, 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va., until released on taking 
Oath of .Allegiance June 25, 1865. 

SELF, WILLLAM R., Corporal. Captured at Winchester, Va., July 20, 1864 and 
confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, until paroled and exchanged at City Point, Va., 
.March 10-12, 1865. 

SELLERS, ^VILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Brandy Station, Va., November 1, 1863 
for the war. Wounded at Winchester, Va., September 19, 1864. .Absent wounded 
through December 1864. 

SHEETS, ENOCH, Private. Enlisted at Camp A'ance September 15. 1864 for the 
war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

SHEETS, , Private. Enlisted at Camp \ance October 1. 1864 for the 

war. .Missing in action October 19, 1864. 

SHEETS, WILEY, Private. Captured at Strasburg, \'a., October 19. 1864 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout. Md., until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing, 
James River, Va., February 1415, 1865. 

SILVER, DAVID R., Private. Born in Aancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in .Alamance Coinitv at age 29. June 15, 1861 for the war. 



364 The Bloody Sixth 

Wounded at Malvern Hill. Va,, July 1, 1862. Discharged from the 6th Regiment 
N. C. State Troops .'\ugust I.t. 1863 and commissioned Sr 2nd Lieutenant in Com- 
pany K, 58th Regiment N. C. Troops. Promoted to 1st Lieutenant Januai^- 
Februars' 1864. Present or accounted for through .August 1864. .Admitted to 
hospital at Charlotte April 9. 1865. with rank of Captain. 

SINGLETON, KENNETH R., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as 
a farmer prior to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 23. June 15. 1861 for 
the war. 'Wounded at Battle of .Second Manassas. Va.. August 30, 1862. Killed 
in action at Somen ille Ford, Xa.. September 17. 1863. 

SINGLETON, W.ALTER H., Private. Born in Mitchell County where he resided 
as a famrer prior to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 18. June 24. 1861 
for the war. ^Vounded at Battle of Second Manassas .August 29. 1862. Wounded 
at Gettysburg. Pa.. July 2. 1863 and captured on return and admitted to hos- 
pital at Frederick. Md.. Julv 6. 1863. Confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until re- 
leased after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 19, 1865. 

SISK, J. OLIVER, Private. Resided in Rutherford County and enlisted in Burke 
County at age 21, March 17. 1862 for the war. ^Vounded at Malvern Hill. Va., 
July 1. 1862 and at Gettysburg. Pa., July 1, 1863. Captured in hospital at 
Gettysburg and confined at DeCamp General Hospital. David's Island. N. Y. 
Harbor, until paroled and exchanged at City Point. Va.. August 28, 1863. 
Captured at Burkeville, Va.. April 6. 1865 and confined at Newport News, Va., 
until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 30, 1865. 

SLAGLE, McCURRY, Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a faiTirer 
prior to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 18, June 15, 1861 for the war. 
Captured at Rappahannock Station. \'a.. November 7, 1863 and confined at 
Point Lookout. Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Landing. Va., 
February 25-March 3. 1865. 

SMALLWOOD, JACOB H., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 26. March 
5, 1862 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 and captured in 
hospital at Gettysburg where he died Jidy 29, 1863. 

SMITH, JOHN, Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Charlotte at 
age 21. May 28, 1861 for the war. Transferred to Company D. this regiment, 
June 1861. ' 

SORRELS, JOSHUA M., Private. Born in Burke County and resided as a fanner 
prior to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 19. June 15, 1861. Wounded at 
Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861 and discharged .August 26, 1861 by reason 
of wound. 

SPARKS, JAMES T., Private. Born in Surry County and resided in Yadkin County 
as a stone mason prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 26. May 28. 1861 for 
the war. 'Wounded and admitted to hospital November 8. 1862. Captured near 
Petersburg. \'a., March 25. 1865 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until 
released after taking Oath of Allegiance June 20, 1865. 

SPARKS, SAMUEL B., Private. Born in Burke County and enlisted at Camp 
Martin at age 40. June 28, 1862 for the war. Originally enlisted in Company 
B, 5th Battalion N. C. Cavalry which became Company K, 65th Regiment N. C. 
Troops (6th Regiment N. C. Cavalry). Transferred to Company E. 6th Regiment 
N. C. State Troops March 20. 1864. Captured at AVinchester. \'a., September 19. 
1864 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at \enus 
Point. Savannah River, Ga., November 15, 1864. 



Roster 365 

STARLING, J. W. A., Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes November 3, 1864 for 
the war. Paroled at ^Vashington, D. C. about March 30. 1865. having been 
received from the Pro\ost Marshal. 9th .-Vrni)' Corp.s as a "deserter from the 
enemy." Transportation furnished to Hamilton County. Ind. 

STEPHENSON, JAMES C, Private. Born in Iredell County and resided in Burke 
County as a fanner prior to enlistment in .\lamance County at age 29, June 15, 

1861 for the war. Wounded at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862 and died of 
wound July 2, 1862. 

STEWART, CHARLES D., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 32, August 
16, 1861 for the war. Detailed in Quartermaster Department as a teamster 
February 8, 1862 through October 1864. Discharged FebruaiT 23. 1865 by reason 
of being "elected a commissioned officer." 

STONE, E. J., Private. Enlisted at Camp \'ance .\ugusl 15, 1864 for the war. 
Paroled at .\ppomattox Court House. Ya., .April 9, 1865. 

SUTTLES, ISAAC, Private. Wounded at Plymouth April 20. 1864. ,\bsent wounded 
through December 1864. 

TALLEY, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Camp Stokes November 1, 1864 for 
the war. Present or accoiuited for through December 1864. 

TAYLOR, S. D., Private. Paroled at Morganton .May 29. 1865. 

THOMAS, JACOB, Private. Born in Mitchell County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in -\lamance County at age 18. June 27, 1861 for the war. 
Wounded at Battle of First .Manassas Julv 21. 1861 and at Gettysburg, Pa., July 
2, 1863. Absent wounded through December 1864. 

TOLLEY, DAVID, Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 23. March 7, 1862 
for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. \a.. November 7, 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released after taking Oath of .Vllegiance 
March 14, 1864. 

VANCE, GASTON, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 18. August 16, 1861 
for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

VANCE, TILLMAN, Private. Born at Johnston, Tenn., and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 26. May 28, 1861 for the war. Captured 
at Rappahannock Station, Xa., November 7, 1863 and confined at Poiirt Look- 
out, Md.. until paroled and e.Kchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., February 25- 
March 3. 1865. 

WARLICK, KENNETH H., Private. Born in Burke County and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistnrent in .Alamance County at age 19, June 15, 1861 for 
the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

WATTS, WILLIAM D., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 32, .March 17, 

1862 for the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled 
at .Appomattox Court House, \'a., .April 9. 1865. 

WHETSTINE, LAWSON A., Private. Born in Lincoln County and resided in 
Burke County as a farmer prior to enlistment at age 40, March 16, 1862 for the 
war. Discharged at Camp near Fredericksburg. Va., March 24, 1863. 



366 The Bloody Sixth 

WHISENHUNT, JOHN, Private. Born in Burke Count)- where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 27, March 5. 1862 for the war. Discharged at Camp 
near Richmond. Va., July 23. 1862 by reason of "anemia resulting from chronic 
disease." Company Muster Rolls carry him as absent sick through February 
1863 and as present or accounted for from that date through December 1864. 
Captured in hospital at Farmville, \a.. and paroled April 11-21. 1865. 

WHISENHUNT, NOAH, Private. Born in Randolph County and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment in .\lamance County at age 40, June 15, 1861 for 
the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. 

WHISENHUNT, THOMAS, Private. Born in Burke County where he resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 33, September 22. 1862 for the war. Killed near 
Fredericksburg, \'a.. May 4, 1863. 

WHISENHUNT, ^VILLIAM M., Private. Enlisted in ^'irginia at age 37, February 
8, 1863 for the war. Captured at Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863 and confined 
at Fort Delaware, Del., until paroled and exchanged at City Point. Va., May 
23, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout. Md., where he died December 9, 1863 of typhoid fever. 

WHISSENHUNT, ALEXANDER BRANSON. Enlisted in early 1862. Mortally 
wounded near Culpeper Court House, Va., in 1863. 

WHISTENHUNT, EPHRAIM, Private. Born in Burke Comity where lie resided 
as a farmer and enlisted at age 20. February 14, 1862 for the war. Died at 
Camp near Richmond, \'a., September 6, 1862 of fever. 

WELES, , Private. Enlisted at Camp Vance October 1. 1864 for the 

war. Missing in action October 19, 1864. 

■WILLIAMS, 'VVILLIAM, Private. Resided in Burke County and enlisted at Camp 
Vance March 1, 1864 for the war. Captured at Farmville, Va.. .April 6, 1863 
and confined at Newport News, Va., until released after taking Oath of .Alle- 
giance June 25, 1865. 

WILLIS, BENJAMIN, Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 28, March 10 

1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, \'a., Xovemljer 7. 1863 and 
confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Aiken's Land- 
ing, Va., February 25— March 3, 1865. 

WILLIS, ELI, Private. Enlisted in Mitchell County at age 36, March 7, 1862 for 
the war. Captured and paroled at Leesburg, Va., October 2. 1862. .Absent with- 
out leave after March 18, 1863. 

WILLIS, HENRY L., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in Mitchell County at age 26, March 7, 1862 for the war. 
Killed at Seven Pines, \'a.. May 31, 1862. 

%VILLIS, JAMES, Private. Born in .Mitchell or Yancey County and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment at age 31, March 8, 1862 for the war. Died at Ash- 
land, \'a.. .April 20, 1862 of measles. 

AVISE, J. N., Private. Enlisted at Kinston March 16, 1864 for the war. Paroled at 
.Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. 

WISE, THOM.AS JASPER, Private. Born in Mitchell County and resided as a 
fanner prior to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 18. June 24. 1861 for 
the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at Farm- 
ville, Va., .April 11-21, 1865. 



Roster 367 

WISEMAN, A.4RON A., Corporal. Born in Vancey County and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment in Alamance County at age 20. June 15. 1861 for 
the war. Mustered in as Corporal. Died at Camp Jones. \a.. September 25. 1861 
of measles and congesti\e fever. 

WISEM.\N, ENZOR C, Private. Bsun in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 21. May 28. 1861 for the war. ^V'ounded 
at Sharpsburg. Md., September 17. 1862. Transferred to Company K. 58th 
Regiment X. C. Troops March 31. 1863 and appears as present with the rank 
of Sergeant through ..\pril 1863. 

■\\TSEM.\N, JOHN, Private. Resided in Mitchell County and enlisted at Camp 
\'ance October 4, 1863 for the war. "Deserted November 25. 1863." "Captured" 
on Rapidan River. Va.. November 19, 1863 and confined at Old Capitol 
Prison. \\'ashington. D. C until released after taking Oath of Allegiance 
March 1, 1864. ' 

AVISEM.\N, JOHN A. M., Private. Resided in Yancey County as a farmer prior 
to enlistment in .Alamance County at age 26, June 15. 1861 for the war. AVounded 
at Battle of Second Manassas August 29. 1862 and detailed as nurse because of 
wound .April 25. 1863 through February 1864. Retired to Invalid Corps and 
stationed at Salisbury. 

WISEM-4N, THOM.\S, Sergeant. Born in Y'ancey County and resided as a fanner 
prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 21. May 28. 1861 for the war. Captured 
at Cumberland Gap. Md.. September 14. 1862 and confined at Fort Delaware, 
Del., imtil paroled and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing. \'a., November 10, 

1862. Promoted Corporal Julv 1. 1863 and appears as Sergeant on September 
15— October 31, 1864 Muster Roll. \Vounded and captured at "Winchester. Va., 
September 19, 1864. Died of wounds September 21. 1864. 

\VISE:MAN, WILLIAM HENRY, Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as 
a farmer in Mitchell County prior to enlistment in .Alamance Countv at age 20, 
June 15, 1861 for the war. Discharged when elected 2nd Lieutenant in Company 
A. 58th Regiment N. C. Troops. Elected 2nd Lieutenant June 10. 1862 of Com- 
panv A. 58th Regiment N. C. Troops and promoted to 1st Lieutenant June 17, 

1863. Muster Rolls of 58th Regiment carry him as present from January 1863 
through .August 1864. .Admitted to Ocmulgee Hospital, Macon, Ga., March 
25, 1865 and transferred .April 15. 1865. 

WOOD, JOHN A., Private. Born in Johnston. Tenn., and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 20, Mav 28, 1861 for the war. Died at 
Fredericksburg, \'a., March 1, 1862 of typhoid fever. 

WOOD, J. OLIVER, Private. Born in Rutherford County and originallv enlisted 
at Dahlonega, Ga., March 18, 1861 for twelve months in Company H, Isl 
(Ramsey's) Georgia Infantry. Regiment disbanded March 15. 1862 and he en- 
listed in Company E. 6th Regiment N. C. State Troops at \\'inchester, \a.. at age 
20. Februarv' 16, 1862 for the war. Died at Fredericksburg, \'a., .April 10, 1862 of 
pneuinonia. 

WOODY, JEMMERSON M., Private. Resided in Yancey County and enlisted in 
Mitchell County at age 30. March 8, 1862. ^Vounded and captured at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 4. 1863 and confined at DeCarap General Hospital, David's Island, 
N, Y', Harbor, until paroled and exchanged at City Point, \'a., September 16, 
1863. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, \a.. .April 9. 1865. 



368 The Bloodi' Sixth 

AVOODV, WILLIAM M., Private. Born in Yancey County and resided as a farmer 
prior to enlistment in Mitchell County at age 25, March 8. 1862 for the war. 
Died at Ashland. Va.. May 10, 1862 of measles. 

WRIGHT, THOMPSON, Sergeant. Born in Yancey County and resided as a 
fanner prior to enlistment in .Mamance County at age 20. June 15, 1861 for 
the war. Mustered in as Private and promoted to Corporal July 1, 1863. 
\Vounded at Gettysburg. Pa.. July 1-2. 1863. Promoted to Sergeant September 
1. 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Landing. 
James River, Va., February 14-15, 1865. 

YOUNG, SAMUEL, Private. Born in McDowell County where he enlisted at age 
18, April 23, 1863 for the war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. Died 
at Washington. N. C, May 22, 1864 of disease. 

YOUNT, ANDREW, Private. Enlisted at Petersburg, Va.. May 18. 1864 for the 
war. Paroled at .Appomattox Court House. Va., April 9, 1865. 



COMPANY F 

OFFICERS 

CAPTAINS 

WILSON, JAMES W. Resided in .Alamance County and appointed Captain by 
Governor Ellis at age 28. May 16. 1861. Resigned November 27, 1861. .Appointed 
Captain. Assistant Quartermaster, 49th Regiment N. C. Troops April 12. 1862. 
Promoted to Captain. Quartermaster, 49th Regiment N. C. Troops May 18. 

1862. Promoted to Major. Quartermaster, Brigadier General S. D. Ramseur's 
Brigade April 13. 1863. Resigned to accept position as Chief Engineer and 
Superintendent Western North Carolina Railroad October 3. 1863. 

CARTER, ROBERT N. Enlisted at Charlotte at age 23 and appointed 1st 
Lieutenant to rank from May 16, 1861. Promoted to Captain November 27, 

1863. Wounded at Malvern Hill. Va., July 1, 1862 and died of wound July 2, 
1862. 

WHITE, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. Resided in .Alamance County and enlisted at 
Charlotte at age 31. May 24. 1861. .Appointed Sr 2nd Lieutenant to rank from 
May 16. 1861. Promoted to 1st Lieutenant November 27. 1861. Promoted to 
Captain July 15, 1862. Wounded at Battle of Second Manassas August 29, 1862 
and at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., 
November 7, 1863 and confined at Johnson's Island. Oliio, until released after 
taking Oath of .Allegiance June 13, 1865. 

LIEUTENANTS 

ALBRIGHT, GEORGE NICHOLAS, Sr 2nd Lieutenant. Born in Alairiance 
County where he resided as a student and enlisted at Charlotte at age 21, 
May 28, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Sergeant and appointed Jr 2ird 
Lieutenant November 22, 1861 and promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant July 15, 1862. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 14, 1862. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station. Va., November 7, 1863 and confined until released at Fort Delaware, 
Del., after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 12, 1865. 



II 



Roster 369 

DIXON, HENRY C, 1st Lieutenant. Resided in Alamance County and enlisted 
at Charlotte at age 19. May 16. 1861 for the war. .'Appointed Jr 2nd Lieutenant 
to rank from May 16. 1861. Promoted to Sr 2nd Lieutenant November 27, 1861 
and to 1st Lieutenant Jidy 15, 1862. Wounded at Sharpsburg. Md.. September 
17, 1862 and at Gettysburg. Pa., July 1, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined at Johnson's Island, Ohio, until 
released after taking Oath of Allegiance June 13. 1865. 

MEBANE, BARTLETT YANCEY, Jr 2nd Lieutenant. Born in Orange County 
and resided in .Maraance Coimtv as a merchant prior to enlistment at Charlotte 
at age 28. May 28. 1861 for the war. Mustered in as 1st Sergeant. ^Vounded at 
Sharpsburg. Md.. September 17. 1862. Elected Jr 2nd Lieutenant July 15, 1862 
and killed at Cold Harbor. Va., Jiuie 7, 1864. 

MEB.4NE, WILLIAM A., Jr 2nd Lieutenant. Enlisted in .Alamance County at 
age 24. June 2, 1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appears as present 
or accoimted for througii December 1864 as a Private. Elected Jr 2nd Lieutenant 
JanuaiT 27, 1865, Paroled at .Appomattox Court House, Va., .April 9. 1865. 

NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES 

.4LBERT, ROBERT J., Sergeant. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 24. June 

15. 1861 lor the war. Mustered in as Private and appears as present or accounted 
for through December 1864 with same rank. Paroled at .Appomattox Court 
House. \"a., April 9. 1865 with the rank of Sergeant. 

ALBERT, W. H., Private, Enlisted December 15, 1861 for the war. ^ 

ALBERT, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted in Alamance County at age 19. July 21, 
1863 lor the war. Present or accounted for through December 1864. Paroled at 
-Appomattox Court House. \"a., .April 9, 1865. 

ALBRIGHT, JOHN D,, Private. Enlisted February 27, 1862 for the war. 

ALBRIGHT, JOHN S., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh at age 25, September 8, 1862 
tor tlic war. Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 2. 1863 and carried as "missing" 
and "killed." .Appears on hospital register at Lynchburg. \'a., .August 21, 1863. 

ALBRIGHT, W. M., Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 7. 1864 for the war. 
Captured at Cedar Creek, \a., October 19, 1864 and confined at Point Look- 
out, Md., until paroled at -Aiken's Landing, Va., March 30, 1865. Paroled ai 
Greensboro May 16, 1865. 

AMSDEN, J. B., Private. .Appears on a roll of prisoners of war paroled at Fort 
Monroe. \'a., -August 3. 1862 and released for exchange .August 31. 1862. Entry 
on roll cancelled by line which would indicate either that he was not paroled, 
a clerical error, or a false name. 

ANDREWS, W. G., Private. Born in -Alamance County where he enlisted at age 
20. February 20, 1862 for the war. Died at Riclnnond. \'a.. July 26, 1862 of 
pneumonia. 

ANTHONY, GEORGE AV., Private. Enlisted in -Alamance County at age 19. 
February 15. 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station, \'a., No- 
vember 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout. Md.. until paroled and exchanged 
at -Aiken's Landing, \a., February 25-March 3, 1865. Paroled at Greensboro 

May 16, 1865. 

ASLEY, W, C, Private. Captured at Strasburg. \'a.. October 19. 1864 and con- 
fined at Point Lookout, Md. 



370 The Bloody Sixth 

BARTON, ELI, Private. Resided in Alamance County and enlisted at Camp 
Stokes November 8. 1864 for the war. Captured near Petersburg, Va., March 
25, 1865 and confined at Point Lookout, Md. Released after taking Oath of 
Allegiance June 24, 1865. 

BASON, GEORGE F., Sergeant. Enlisted at Raleigh at age 21, August 8, 1861 
for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Sergeant April 1, 1862. 
Promoted to Sergeant-Major October 1, 1862 and transferred to the Field and 
Staff. 

BASON, JOHN W., Corporal. Enlisted in .Alamance County at age 23, June 15, 
1861 for the war. Mustered in as Private and appointed Corporal October 1, 
1863. Captured at Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7. 1863 and confined 
at Point Lookoiu, Md., until paroled and exchanged at Coxes Wharf, James 
River, Va., February 20-21, 1865. 

BASON, JOSEPH H., Sergeant. Born in Alamance County where he resided as a 
teacher prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 21. May 28, 1861 for the war. 
Mustered in as Sergeant and died in Alamance County August 17. 1861 of 
typhoid fever. 

BECK, PETER, Private. Paroled at Greensboro May 8, 1865. 

BEESON, JAMES, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 18. 1864 for the war. 
Captured at Strasljurg, \'a., September 23. 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., until released after taking Oath of .Allegiance June 4, 1865. 

BIVENS, JOSEPH, Private. Born in .Alamance County where he resided as a 
farmer and enlisted at age 22, Februai^ 19, 1862 for the war. W^'ounded at 
Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862 and discharged at Huguenot Springs Hospital, 
Va., November 20, 1862 by reason of wound. 

BIVENS, MICHAEL, Private. Resided in .Alamance County ivhere he enlisted 
at age 21, February 19, 1862 for the war. \Vounded at Gaines' Mill, Va., 
June 27, 1862. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 1863 
and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until released after taking Oath of .Alle- 
giance June 23, 1865. 

BRADSHAW, GRAHAM G., Private. Born in .Alamance County and resided 
as a school teacher prior to enlistment in Alamance County at age 22, July 
4, 1861 for the war. Died at Camp Fisher, \a.. December 5, 1861 o£ 
typhoid pneumonia. 

BRADSHAAV, JAMES N., Private. Born in Orange Coiurty and resided as a 
farmer prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age IS, May 28, 1861 for the 
war. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Captured at Hagerstown, 
Md., September 16, 1862 and exchanged at .Aiken's Landing, Va., November 
10, 1862. Wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 4, 1863 and died of wound 
at Richmond, Va., May 27, 1863. 

BRADSHAW, JAMES T., Private. Resided in Alamance County where he en- 
listed at age 22, June 17, 1861 for the war. Wounded at Seven Pines, Va., 
May 31, 1862 and at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Captured at Rappahannock 
Station, Va., November 7, 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until 
paroled and exchanged at Boulware's Wharf, James River, Va., March 18, 
1865. Took Oath of Allegiance at Elmira, N. Y., June 23, 1865. 

BROWN, HENRY, Private. Enlisted February 2, 1864. Died at Staunton, Va., 
July 18, 1864 of disease. 



Roster 371 

BURNS, RANSOM, Private. Born in Randolpli County and resided in Ala- 
mance County as a fanner prior to enlistment at Charlotte at age 29. May 
28, 1861 for the war. Detailed as ambulance driver from time of enlistment. 
Captured at Strasburg. Va.. October 19, 1864 and confined at Point Lookout, 
Md., until released after taking Oath of Allegiance June 23, 1865. 

CANNON, GEORGE F., Private. Enlisted in Berkeley County, Va., September 
1. 1864 for the war. Absent without leave after October 8, 1864. 

CAPPS, WILLIAM, Private. Enlisted at Raleigh March 4. 1864 for the war. 
Admitted to hospital at Richmond, Va., March 28, 1865. wounded, and 
captured in hospital April 3, 1865. Paroled May 5, 1865. 

GARFIELD, HENRY L., Private. Resided in Alamance County. Captured at 
Harpers Ferry, Va,, Julv 10-12. 1864 and confined at Elmira, X. Y.. until 
released after taking Oath of .-Mlegiance June 12. 1865. 

CARROLL, JEREMIAH M., Private. Born in Ireland and conscripted. Cap- 
tured at Suffolk, \'a., June 14, 1863. Confined at Fort Delaware. Del., where 
Phe joined the United States service September 4. 1863 and was mustered into 
Company D, 3rd Maryland Cavalry for three years as a Private, .'\ppointed 
Bugler December 15, 1863. Deserted at Baltimore. Md.. January 2, 1864. 

CARSWELL, A. D., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 31, September 
22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 
1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, \'a.. February 25— March 3, 1865. Paroled at Morganton 
May 16. 1865. 

CARSWELL, JASPER, Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 20. September 
22. 1862 tor the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., November 7, 

11863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., until paroled and exchanged at 
Aiken's Landing, Va., February 25— March 3, 1865. Paroled at Morganton 
; May 16. 1865. 

I CARSWELL, JOSEPH, Private. Enlisted in Burke Comity at age 25, Septeinber 
I 22, 1862 for the war. Captured at Rappahannock Station. Va., No\ ember 7, 

j 1863 and confined at Point Lookout, Md., mitil paroled and exchanged at 

Aiken's Landing, Va.. February 25— March 3. 1865. Paroled at Morganton May 

16, 1865. 

CARSWELL, M. H., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 26. September 22. 
1862 for the war. Wounded and captured in hospital at Chambersburg, Pa., 
July 5. 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Del., until transferred to Point 
Lookout, Md., where he died October 6, 1864. 

CARSWELL, W. D., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 34. September 22, 
1862 for the war. Died in Burke County .August 7, 1863 of consinnption. 

CARSWELL, WILLIAM R., Private. Enlisted in Burke County at age 34, Septem- 
ber 22, 1862 f